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CENTRIFUGAL

PUMPS
ROTATING COMPONENT & STATIONARY COMPONENT
General components
of a Centrifugal Pump
Suction and Discharge Nozzle
Cut-away of a pump showing volute casing
Solid Casing
Seal Chamber and Stuffing Box
Seal Chamber and Stuffing Box
o Gland:
is is a very important part of the seal chamber that gives the mechanical seal
the desired fit on the shaft sleeve. The gland comprises of the seal flush,
quench, cooling, drain, and vent connection ports as per the standard codes like
API 682.
o Throat Bushing:
h a stationary device that forms a restrictive close clearance around the sleeve
(or shaft) between the seal and the impeller.
o Throttle bushing
refers to a device that forms a restrictive close clearance around the sleeve (or
shaft) at the outboard end of a mechanical seal gland.
o Internal circulating device
rerefers to device located in the seal chamber to circulate seal chamber fluid
through a cooler or barrier/buffer fluid reservoir. Usually it is referred to as a
pumping ring.
o Mechanical Seal: The features of a mechanical seal will be discussed in
Part-II of the article.

Rotating Components
Rotating Components
POMPA SENTRIFUGAL
End suction pump
In-line pump
Double suction pump
Vertical multistage pump
Horizontal multistage pump
Submersible pumps
Self-priming pumps
Axial-flow pumps
Regenerative pumps

Produce a head and a flow by increasing the velocity of the
liquid through the machine with the help of a impeller.
Working Mechanism of a Centrifugal Pump
The impeller converts
driver energy into the
kinetic energy.

The volute or diffuser is
converts the kinetic
energy into pressure
energy
A pump does not create pressure, it only provides flow. Pressure is a
just an indication of the amount of resistance to flow.
CAVITATION
running at less than 10% of its
best efficiency point

pump installed above liquid level
pump drawing from vacuum tank
high vapor pressure liquid
unusually long suction line
plant is at high altitude

PENYEBAB CAVITATION
Suction Cavitation occurs when --- NPSHA < NPSHR
Symptoms
1. The pump sounds like it is pumping rocks!
2. High Vacuum reading on suction line
3. Low discharge pressure/High flow
Suction Cavitation
Remedies
1. Remove debris from suction line
2. Move pump closer to source tank/sump
3. Increase suction line diameter
4. Decrease suction lift requirement
5. Install larger pump running slower which will decrease the NPSHR pump
6. Increase discharge pressure
7. Fully open Suction line valve
Causes
1. Clogged suction pipe
2. Suction line too long
3. Suction line diameter too small
4. Suction lift too high
5. Valve on Suction Line only partially open
occurs when the pump discharge head is too high

Symptoms
1. The pump sounds like it is pumping rocks!
2. High Discharge Gauge reading
3. Low flow
Remedies
1. Remove debris from discharge line
2. Decrease discharge line length
3. Increase discharge line diameter
4. Decrease discharge static head requirement
5. Install larger pump which will maintain the required flow without discharge cavitating
6. Fully open discharge line valve
Causes
1. Clogged discharge pipe
2. Discharge line too long
3. Discharge line diameter too small
4. Discharge static head too high
5. Discharge line valve only partially open
Discharge Cavitation
1 2
3
1
1 2 Impeler
menaikan energi Kinetik
2 3 Difuser
E kin menjadi Tekanan
2
2
2
V
dm
dW
ao
=

2
) (
2
2 2 3
V P P
=

e r V =
(rpm) speed -
impeler ukuran - tergantung
increases liquid pressure by
increasing fluid velocity by action
of a rotating impeller
PRINSIP KERJA CENTIFUGAL PUMP
(Aplikasi Bernouli)
( )
( )
2
2
2
3 2
2 ( )
( ) ( )
2

2 2 2
D
N rpm
D N
P P r
g g g g
t
t
e

= = =
Pump will pump all fluids to the same height if the shaft is turning at
the same rpm.
Centrifugal Pumps
tetap
g
P
Head =
A
=

( )
( )
2
2
2
3 2
2 ( )
( ) ( )
2

2 2 2
D
N rpm
D N
P P r
g g g g
t
t
e

= = =
The higher , the more power is required
to get the shaft to the same rpm
"constant head machines and not a constant
pressure machine, since pressure is a function of
head and density.
2
2
pompa
dW
P V F
Head z
gdm g g g

A A
= = = A = =
DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS
Head,
Capacity,
BHP (Brake horse power), Pump
curves
BEP (Best efficiency point) and
Specific speed.
The key performance parameters of centrifugal pumps are
Capacity
The capacity depends on a number of factors like:
Impeller size
Process liquid characteristics i.e. density, viscosity
Size of the pump and its inlet and outlet sections
Pump suction and discharge temperature and pressure conditions
Size and shape of cavities between the vanes
Impeller rotational speed RPM


KAPASITAS, HEAD DAN FLUID HORSE
POWER (FHP)
( ) ( )
2 3
2 2
pump
dW D N D N
FHP m gHm g AD N
dm g
t t
t = = = =
N AD N
D
A Ar AV Q Kapasitas t t e = = = = = 2
2
( )
g
N D
g
N
D
g
) r (
Head
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
t
t
e
=
|
.
|

\
|
== =
Capacity
proportional to impeller speed and/or impeller diameter.
Head
proportional to the square of speed and diameter
Power
proportional to the cube of speed and diameter (as does NPSH)


AFFINITY LAWS FOR ROTATING EQUIPMENT
Energi/massa

Brake Horse Power Fluid Horse Power
2
( )
2
pompa
ao
dW
dW P V
gz F
dm dm

= = A + + +
FHP
pompa
dW
m
dm
=
P
q
FHP
BHP =
M
q
BHP
HP Motor =
: laju alir massa
q
P
:Efisiensi Pompa

q
M
:Efisiensi Motor


m
Energi diterima fluida Energi dari poros pompa
Energi dari motor penggerak
BHP & FHP
Pump Performance Curve
The pump performance curve also shows its efficiency (BEP),
required input power (in BHP), NPSHr, and other information
such as pump size and type, impeller size, rpm etc.

This curve is plotted for a constant speed (rpm) and a given
impeller diameter (or series of diameters). Pump curves are
based on a specific gravity of 1.0. Other specific gravities must
be considered by the user.

Correlation of pump capasity to its HEAD

(D impeler dan rpm tetap)
hanya pada flow rendah
tetap
g
P
=
A

KURVA KARAKTERISTIK POMPA


Flow
Pump Design
ImpellerDiameter
Pump Speed
BHP = QHgq
PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVE
NPSH required is
a function of the pump design
BHP
Required ?
NPSH
Required
Efficiency Total
Dynamic
Head
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
Vapor
P
Vapor
required
P-P
NPSH =
g
h
P
Best Efficiency Point (BEP)
The H, NPSHr, efficiency, and BHP all vary with
flow rate, Q. Best Efficiency Point (BEP) is the
capacity at maximum impeller diameter at which the
efficiency is highest. All points to the right or left of
BEP have a lower efficiency
Pump Characteristic Curves

Suction
specific speed
SPECIFIC SPEED
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
N AD Q t =
( )
2
N D
H
t
=
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
1
3
2
1
1
|
.
|

\
|
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
s
m
s
m
s s
m
NN AD N Q t
( )
2
3
4
3
2
4
3
2
|
.
|

\
|
= =
s
m N D
H
X
t
Q= Kapasitas pada BEP
SPECIFIC SPEED
Pompa yang ukurannya berbeda namun
memiliki Ns sama , dianggap secara sama
GEOMETRI nya.
Adalah indeks disain pompa, yang menunjukkan
kesamaan GEOMETRI POMPA, digunakan untuk
klasifikasi IMPELER pompa sesuai jenis dan
bentuknya (proportions).

Specific Speed, N
s
Radial impellers are generally low flow high head designs
whereas axial flow impellers are high flow low head designs.
Specific Speed and Pump Type
SPECIFIC SPEED
Specific speed identifies the approximate acceptable ratio
of the impeller eye diameter (D1) to the impeller
maximum diameter (D2) in designing a good impeller.

Ns: 500 to 5000; D1/D2 > 1.5 - radial flow pump
Ns: 5000 to 10000; D1/D2 < 1.5 - mixed flow pump
Ns: 10000 to 15000; D1/D2 = 1 - axial flow pump


CENTRIFUGAL FLOW PUMP

Mixed Flow Pump

Axial Flow Pump
REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSISTENT
OPERATION
No cavitation of the pump occurs throughout the broad
operating range
a certain minimum continuous flow is always
maintained during operation.
MINIMUM FLOW IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
Small pumps
30% of the flow at BEP (best efficiency point).
Larger and multistage pumps
50% of BEP flow.
Reduced flow causes :
Cases of heavy leakages from the casing, seal, and stuffing boX
Deflection and shearing of shafts
Seizure of pump internalsClose tolerances erosion
Separation cavitation
Product quality degradation
Excessive hydraulic thrust
Premature bearing failures
VERSI SATUAN
BRITISH
Selecting Centrifugal or Positive Displacement Pumps
Centrifugal Positive
Displacement
Flow Rate and
Pressure Head

flow depending on
the system pressure
or head
constant flow
regardless of the
system pressure
Capacity and
Viscosity

the flow is reduced
when the viscosity is
increased
the flow is increased
when viscosity is
increased
Mechanical Efficiency has a dramatic effect
on the flow rate
Changing head has
little or no effect on
the flow rate
Net Positive Suction
Head - NPSH
NPSH varies as a
function of flow
determined by
pressure
NPSH varies as a
function of flow
determined by
speed.
Head
SOAL SOAL POMPA
9.1. Berapa galon per menit yang dapat ditransfer oleh
pompa piston yang memiliki luas area 10in2 dan panjang
stroke 5 in dengan speed 1 Hz.
5in
Speed=1Hz
A=1in2
1Hz- 1detik dalam 1 siklus
1menit= 60 siklus
Q=A.L.N
Q=1X5X60 in2 per menit
SOAL SOAL POMPA
g
P
gdm
dW
Head
ao
A
=

=
PQ Q
P
m
P
m
dm
dW
Power
s
A =
A
=
A
= = q

q q
2
2 32
1
s . lbf
ft . lbm .
=
9.2 Hitung hydraulic horse power untuk memompa 500 galon
per menit dari inlet 5 psig ke outlet 30 psig
Q=500 galon/min
P1=5 psi
P2=30 psi
P1
P2
s
ft . lbf
s
ft
ft
lbf
PQ P
o
= = A =
3
2
q
min
s
X
ft . lbf
min . hp
X
s
ft . lbf
P
o
60
3300
=
SOAL SOAL POMPA
PQ Q
P
m
P
m
dm
dW
Power
s
A =
A
=
A
= = q

q q
T C Power ) ( Q
p lost
A = = q 1
9.4. Suatu pompa mentransfer 50galon per menit fluida dari tekanan
30psi ke 100 psi. Power yang disuplai ke motor adalah 2.8 hp Jika
perubahan elevasi dan kecepatan diabaikan hitung efiensi motor.
Hitung kenaikan suhu air jika proses dianggap adiabatik
Q=50 galon/min
P1=5 psi
P2=30 psi
Po=2,8hp
P1
P
2
p
C
Power ) (
T
q
= A
1
Soal soal Pompa
g
F
g
V
g
P P
z z h

= = )
2
) (
2
2 1 2
1 2

g
P
h
atmosfir

=
max
0 V
0 F
0 P
jika Max
2
2
~
~
~
9.5. Fluida mercury ingin dipompakan dengan menggunakan PD
pump.Diasumsikan tidak ada friksi dan tekanan uap mercury
diabaikan. Hitung suction lift.
ft
, ft
in
lbf. s
lbm .ft .
ft/s . lbm/ft ,
lbf/in ,
g .
P
g
P
air merkuri
6 13
34 144 2 32
2 32 3 62
7 14
6 13
2
2
2 2 3
2
= =
A
=
A

Soal soal Pompa
( )
g
N D
P
t
2
2
=
( )
2
2
2 3
N D
g
) P P ( t

9.6 Suatu pompa sentrifugal dioperasikan pada 1800 rpm. Jika


fluidanya air, hitung perbedaan tekanan yang dapat dibangkitkan
oleh pompa untuk impeler 1,3, 10 in.Hitung jika rpm 3600
4
1800
3600
2
2
2
1
1800
3600
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
N
N
P
P

Soal soal Pompa
gHQ m gH FHP P
o
= = =

gHQ FHP=
9.6 Dari data flow rate dan dan head suatu kurva performa
pompa hitung efiensi. Misalkan untuk Flow=5ft3/s headnya
330ft. Power=225hp.
BHP
gHQ
BHP
FHP
q = =
Soal soal Pompa
( )
g
N D
P P P
s d

t
2
2
= =
( )
s d
P g
N D
P + =
t
2
2

9.5. Suatu pompa sentrifugal digunakan untuk memompa
mercury. Tekanan inlet 200psi. Diameter impeler 2in. Pompa
diputar dengan kecepatan 20.000 rpm. Estimasikan tekanan
outlet
( )
g
N D
P
t
2
2
=
Soal soal Pompa
( )
g
N D
P
t
2
2
=
9.9 Suatu pompa diuji untuk fluida air pada rpm 1800 kapasitasnya
200gal per min kenaikan tekanan 50 psi. Efiensi 75 %. Kita ingin
menggunakan pompa ini untuk memompa merkusri pada rpm dan
flowrate yang sama. Perkirakan kenaikan tekanan, hp dan jika efisiensi
sama.
rpm=1800
Q= 200gal per min
AP= 50 psi.
q= 75 %.
rpm=1800
Q= 200gal per min
AP =? psi.
q= 75 %.
( ) ( )

t
t
t
2 2
3 2
N D
N AD
g
N D
g m gH m
dm
dW
FHP Po Power
ao
= = = = = =