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MEANING OF MOTIVATION

Motivation

is the driving force by which humans achieve their goals. Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic .[This article refers to human motivation. According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in a basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, goal , state of being. It may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as , selfishness, morality, or avoiding. Conceptually, motivation should not be confused with either volition

MOTIVATION CONCEPTS

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Motivational poster Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure. Students who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in the task willingly as well as work to improve their skills, which will increase their capabilities.

EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION

Extrinsic motivation :- refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain an outcome, which then contradicts intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards like money and grades

Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to over justification
A subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation. In one study demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be (and were) rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials in subsequent observations than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition. For those children who received no extrinsic reward

COGNITIVE THEORIES

Goal-setting theory Goal-setting theory is based on the notion that individuals sometimes have a drive to reach a clearly defined end state. Often, this end state is a reward in itself. A goal's efficiency is affected by three features: proximity, difficulty and specificity. An ideal goal should present a situation where the time between the initiation of behavior and the end state is close A goal should be moderate, not too hard or too easy to complete At the same time people want to feel that there is a substantial probability that they will succeed. Specificity concerns the description of the goal in their class. The goal should be objectively defined and intelligible for

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BY:-PREETI BBA:-1ST YEAR