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Sergio Asenjo, Head of Solar Center of Competence, June 10th 2010

Advanced solutions for solar plants

ABB PP&PS FES Italia July 14, 2013 | Slide 1

Photovoltaic plant automation Architecture


The system will manage, among traditional automation functions/features:

Solar tracking system, when available, for production maximization

Performance calculation of the different stages


ABB patented Switching System for optimizing inverter efficiency Troubleshooting management of strings

Integration of plant security and surveillance system


Production automatic reporting system

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 2

Solar standard solution Technology highlights


High precision shadowing control algorithm for solar tracking Extensible and scalable solution for any plant size Switching system for optimizing inverter efficiency

Performance/efficiency oriented supervision system

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 3

Solar standard solution Technology highlights


High precision shadowing control algorithm for solar tracking

Shadowing prevention according to tracker dimensions and plant layout Other systems use backtracking correction, thus preventing unnecessary movements and efficiency losses

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 4

Solar standard solution Technology highlights

High precision shadowing control algorithm for solar tracking

ABB algorithm calculates the optimal position modeling panels and tracker structure geometry

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 5

Photovoltaic plant automation Architecture


LAN 2 Local Automation LAN 1 Solar Tracker OPERATOR WORKPLACE DCS Inverters

MV an LV Swicthgears

Internet
eMail

Remote Access Transformers

Remote Office
ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 6

Photovoltaic plant automation Function allocation

At the DCS level is controlled


Solar plant power electronics device controls Optimization - switching Neural networks - intelligent forecast and approximation Alarms and events handling Trackers

At local automation is performed

Accurate solar tracking algorithm One and two axis movement control implementation Power connection box management Current per line current control to detect strings failures

Power connection box


ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 7

Photovoltaic plant automation Local automation architecture


Supervision & control systems
6PLC5 6PLC2 4PLC4

8PLC3

7PLC4

6PLC4

6PLC1

4PLC3

4PLC2

3PLC3

2PLC5

1PLC4

9PLC5

9PLC3

9PLC1

8PLC2

7PLC3

6PLC3

5PLC4

5PLC2

4PLC1

3PLC2

2PLC4

2PLC2

1PLC3

Cable Cat5+

9PLC4

9PLC2

9PLC4

8PLC1

7PLC2

7PLC1

5PLC3

5PLC1

3PLC4

3PLC1

2PLC3

2PLC1

1PLC2

1PLC1

Cable interior armari o RS20-0400 Spider 5Tx

Fibra ptica Multimodo


Master 2

RS20-0800

RS20-0800

Master 1

ADSL SAI ON-LINE

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 8

Photovoltaic plant automation Operator mimics

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 9

Photovoltaic plant automation Operator mimics

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 10

Solar standard solution Technology highlights


Switching System for optimizing inverter efficiency

Input power distribution for optimizing inverter efficiency Switching principles:


Inverter low performance at low loads


Inverter high performance at medium-high loads One inverter working at medium load, better than two inverters working at low load Load balancing among inverters

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 11

Solar standard solution Technology highlights

Switching System for optimizing inverter efficiency

Low performance

High performance

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 12

Photovoltaic plant automation Advanced optimization

DCS advanced control functions


Operation of the switch over cabinet Optimization based theoretical calculations Neural networks analysis

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 13

Photovoltaic plant automation Advanced optimization

Over the Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm (MPPT) to increase performance in operational points like low sun conditions it has been developed a set of algorithms based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and designed to adapt themselves to the particular conditions of every PV plant

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 14

Solar standard solution Technology highlights


Switching system for optimizing inverter efficiency

Neuronal Network is an adaptive approximation method to achieve a more accurate calculation of output power in case of switching Working Principle:

Two inverters: PI1=I1*V1 ; PI2=I2*V2


Switching all strings to Inverter 1 One inverter; PI=PI1+PI2 (Ideal) One inverter; PI=PI1+PI2 (real)

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 15

Solar standard solution Technology highlights


Switching System for optimizing inverter efficiency
PI nv1
PI nv 2

PI nv1

PI nv 3

PI nv 3

The difference is in the PV turbine equivalent I-V curve (affected by panel degradation, dirtiness, etc..) Neuronal network learns from real values to get progressively a better PI

PI nv1
PI nv 2

PI nv1

PI nv 3

PI nv 3

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 16

Solar standard solution Technology highlights


Performance/efficiency oriented supervision system

Real time plant performance ratio calculation based on:


Irradiation

Panels strings
Inverters Transformers

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 17

New advanced features Oriented to performance

Efficiency calculation:

For individual elements (strings, trackers, inverters) For stages For the whole plant

To allocate malfunctions in the shortest time

Alarms for deviation in real time (alarms)


Reports

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 18

Stages for performance Calculations


Modules Characteristics Tracking Perfect Optimal distribution DC cable Design charactericits Strings Inverter characteristics Swicthing scheme Trafo Inverters
V

Transformers characteristics

Inverters output
V

Irradiation Temperature Real Position


V

Counter
V

String

Tracker

DC field

Inverters

Transformer

Modules Efficiency

Tracking Efficiency

Cabling efficiency

Inverters and Swicthing Efficiency

Trasnformers efficiency

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 19

Real performance Devices for measuring

Measurements devices:

Weather station

Pyranometers Reference cells

Inclinometers

Strings measurements
Inverters measurement

Input DC Output ac

Transformers Electrical metering

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 20

Theoretical performance Calculation methods

Equipment characteristics

Modules behavior Tracking models


Perfect Optimal

Cabling design
Switching, inverter curves Transformers performance curves

Control system strategy and features

PLCs, SCADA, Databases

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 21

Energy balance reports


18/12/2009 Plant P1 Modules Lne P1-L1 String P1-L1-S1 P1-L1-S2 P1-L1-S3 P1-L1 Radiation 8 KWh 8 KWh 8 KWh 24 KWh

Output Measured
1,2 KWh 1,2 KWh 1,2 KWh 3,6 KWh

Output Calculated
1,22 KWh 1,22 KWh 1,22 KWh 3,66 Kwh

Eff. Measured Eff. Calculated 14% 14% 14% 14% 14,5% 14,5% 14,5% 14,5%

Ratio 96,6% 96,6 % 96,6 % 96,6 %

P1-L2

P1-L2-S1 P1-L2-S2 P1-L2-S3 P1-L2

8 KWh 8 KWh 8 KWh 24 KWh

1,2 KWh 0,9 KWh 1,2 KWh 3,3 KWh

1,22 KWh 1,22 KWh 1,22 KWh 3,66 Kwh

14% 11,25% 14% 12,5%

14,5% 14,5% 14,5% 14,5%

96,6 % 77,58% 96,6% 90,26%

P1

--

48 KWh

6,9 KWh

7,32 Kwh

13,78%

14,5%

93,52%

P2

P2-L1

P2-L1-S1

8 KWh

1,2 KWh

1,22 KWh

14%

14,5%

96,6 %

P2-L1-S2
P2-L1-S3 P2-L1

8 KWh
8 KWh 24 KWh

1,2 KWh
1,1 KWh 3,5 KWh

1,22 KWh
1,22 KWh 3,66 Kwh

14%
13% 13,64%

14,5%
14,5% 14,5%

96,6 %
90,11 % 94,35%

P2

--

24 KWh

3,5 KWh

3,66 Kwh

13,64%

14,5%

94,35%

Summary
ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 22

--

--

72 KWh

10,4 KWh

10,98 Kwh

13,71%

14,5%

93,80%

ABB system optimization


Automatic Switching system during hail and high wind
Production increase.
Disminucin de irradiancia debido a la posicin horizontal

Wind position.
Production in normal conditions Production during high wind

1200,00
Irradiancia (W/m2)

1000,00 800,00 600,00 400,00 200,00 0,00 7:59 10:23 12:47


Hora

Nubosidad

15:11

Irradiancia da 14 de septiem bre que llega a los seguidores

1200

1000 800

Irradian cia

600

Sin granizo Con granizo

400

200 0 4:48 -200 Hora

7:12

9:36

12:00

14:24

16:48

19:12

Hail Position
Production in normal conditions
ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 23

Production during hail situation.

ABB system optimization


Automatic Switching system in dawn, nightfall and clouds

Red color area production increase

Cloudiness

Dawn - nightfallr

Dawn

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 24

Solar standard solution Technology improvements


PV Plant 1 PV Plant 3

PV Plant 2

100 Kwh 90 Kwh 80 Kwh 70 Kwh 60 Kwh 50 Kwh 40 Kwh 30 Kwh 20 Kwh 10 Kwh 0 Kwh

Performance/efficiency increased by 0,8% to 2,5% Production increased during the whole day, starting earlier and shutting off later.

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 25

Photovoltaical power plant (PV) Reference plant

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 26

ABB Solar COC Spain July 14, 2013 | Slide 27