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Aircraft Performance

Module 9
Where are we?
1 : Introduction to aircraft performance, atmosphere
2 : Aerodynamics, air data measurements
3 : Weights / CG, engine performance, level flight
4 : Turning flight, flight envelope
5 : Climb and descent performance
6 : Cruise and endurance
7 : Payload-range, cost index
8 : Take-off performance
9 : Take-off performance
10 : Enroute and landing performance
11 : Wet and contaminated runways
12 : Impact of performance requirements on aircraft design

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
Take-off Performance (Part 2)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
Forces acting on the aircraft

T
D
θ Ff = μ(W-L)
horizontal

W

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
Forces acting on the aircraft (cont’d)
Friction force = Ff = µ (W-L)

Two cases : brakes off and brakes on

Brakes off (acceleration segment)

FR = µ R (W-L)

µ R = aircraft rolling friction coefficient


Typically, µ = 0.02 on a hard runway surface
- R

Brakes on (braking segment)

FB = µ B (W-L)

µ B = aircraft braking friction coefficient


Typically, µ = 0.4 - 0.5 on a hard runway surface
- B

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
Forces acting on the aircraft (cont’d)
Lift and Drag

CD and CL are defined for the aircraft in taxi attitude (α = 0 )

Ground effect must considered

increase in CL and reduction in CD relative to free-air data

Effect of Ground Lift Dumpers (GLD) deployment must be considered during a rejected take-off

CL is reduced and CD is increased when GLD are deployed


These effects improve stopping performance
-
-

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
Forces acting on the aircraft (cont’d)
 Wθ

Weight component along the runway longitudinal axis



Θ is typically varying from -2 % (downhill) to + 2 % (uphill)

Special certification requirements apply when |θ| > 2 %

 Thrust

Take-off thrust rating



Reduced take-off thrust or a derate may be used to preserve engine life if the take-off is not performance limited

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
Calculation of distances (α = 0)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
Calculation of distances (α = 0) (Cont’d)
Take-off speeds (V1, VR, VLOF , V2, …) must first be converted from airspeeds to ground speeds

VG = V - Vwind

headwinds are positive for field performance analysis (!)


FAR / JAR 25 require that take-off and landing performance be based on factored wind speeds

50 % of the reported headwind and on 150 % of the reported tailwind


Example: for a reported headwind of 10 kts, calculations are based on a headwind 5 kts)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
Calculation of distances (α = 0) (Cont’d)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
Calculation of distances (α = 0) (Cont’d)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
Calculation of distances (α = 0) (cont’d)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
Calculation of distances (α = 0) (cont’d)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
Calculation of distances (VR to 35 ft)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
Calculation of distances (VR to 35 ft) (Cont’d)

OEI AEO

r d i stance
fo
n o t used )
(
a lc ulation
c

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Take-off performance (2 of
- θ2)
Calculation of distances (VR to 35 ft) (Cont’d)

OEI AEO

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Take-off performance (2 of 2) - θ
T.O. – Take-off parameter

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Take-off parameter (cont’d)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Performance-limited take-off weight

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Brake energy considerations
A very large amount of energy may be absorbed by the brakes during a rejected take-off

The energy absorbed by each braked wheel during a stop (BRKE) is calculated by integration of the braking force FB over distance increments ∆ s

BRKE = FB ∆ s / nbrakes

Where : BRKE = brake energy absorbed per braked wheel (ft-lb)


nbrakes = number of braked wheels

If a simplified methodology is used (calculation of average acceleration at VRMS ), BRKE is evaluated with the same equation but FB is evaluated at VRMS

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Brake energy considerations (Cont’d)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Brake energy considerations (cont’d)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Tire speed limits

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Take-off WAT limits

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Take-off WAT limits (cont’d)

Requirement Name Flap/Slat Ldg gear Thrust Speed Min. grad. Req'd

25.121 ( a ) First segment climb Take-off down TO, OEI VLOFOEI 0%


25.121 ( b ) Second segment climbTake-off up TO, OEI V2 2.40%
25.121 ( c ) Final segment climb Retracted up MCT, OEI VFTO 1.20%

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Take-off WAT limits (cont’d)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Take-off WAT limits (cont’d)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Obstacle clearance

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Obstacle clearance (cont’d)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Obstacle clearance (cont’d)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Obstacle clearance (cont’d)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Improved climb

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Improved climb (cont’d)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Runway weight chart

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)
T.O. – Runway weight chart (Cont’d)

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Take-off performance (2 of 2)