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History

Wool fiber Animal origin Grows on sheeps back Sheep's breed Surrounding Climatic & grazing condition Neck Back Belly Legs Tail

Quality of the fiber

Fineness of fiber

Wool structure

Morphological Components of fine wool fibre

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
The structure of the protein in wool fibers differs between various regions of the fiber. Some of the proteins in the microfibrils are helical, like a spring, resulting in elasticity, and resilency

EPICUTICLE & LIPID LAYER


Hydrophobic layer Comprises long chain of fatty acids Impairs wetting Low surface energy Soft handle Stain repellent

EXO AND ENDO CUTICLE


High and low sulphur contents Highly cross-linked and durable Easiliy oxdised [not epicuticle] Oxidised creates gel-like substance

CUTICLE/SCALES
Overlapping cells,as roof tiles Directinal frictional effect Component of milling/felting

ORTHO & PARA CORTEX


Differential growth rates Crimp Resilence;crease recovery, stretch, dimensional stability Bulk and soft handle.

CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF WOOL


The protein in wool are composed of amino acid. Are called so because they contain basic amino[NH2] and acidic[COOH] group. Contains disulphide bonding,responsible for permanent setting. Contains hydrogen bonding,responsible for temporary setting.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Acid is absorbed by wool Alkali damages severely Disulphide bond can easily be reduced to thiol groups, can be oxidised to cysteic acid

SCOURING OF WOOL - removes natural oil/


grease & dirt Machine: Swing rakes Harrow type

minimum 4 bowl to maximum 7 bowls

Technology: Squeezing and dilution Chemicals: sodium carbonate,sodium chloride. Zywet-P100 Kleenox-WSA Rosalene-WLS / TWS / AOS

SCOURING OF WOOLLEN YARN


Remove residual grease, added lubricant, protein surface debris from folicle cells, pulverised brittle fiber and soil. [scoured yarn is finished yarn]

o Machine: Tape yarn Scouring


o Chemicals : sodium carbonate Rosalene WLS/TWS/AOS Kleenox WSA Zywet P100 Aquashine WL

minimum 4 bowl to maximum 6 bowls

FELTING
The wool fiber has unique property of felting some time called as fulling or milling Felting is resultant of fiber migration / or their entanglement depends upon differential frictional effect caused by the surface scale Felting is promoted by moisture, temp and the lubricant [felting agent] commonly soap, or Anionic surfactant [Rosalene-WLS/AOS/TWS] or sodium salt of alkyl arylbenzene sulphonic acid Best felting for heavy fabric or yarn takes place at Acidic zone

SHRINKAGE CONTROL
Cause of shrinkage is SCALES So------------MASK OR DESTROY SCALES By Oxidationchlorination using: 1.Hypochlorites 2.Permagnates 3.Hydrogen peroxide 4.Dicholoro cynuric acid (DCCA) 5.Enzymes [GREASENZ PWE NEW LIQ]

ENZYME APPLICATION ON WOOL


Biosoftening of wool : GREASENZ-PWE NEW Liq Carboniastion of wool : Cellulases, Liganases and Pectninases Reduces amount of sulphuric acid

Untreated

Treated

MOTH PROOFING
Adults and Larvae of common carpet beetle species, viz Anthrenus flovipes, and Anthrenus verbasic, eats the wool fiber and damages the product SULPHONATED TRIPHENYL METHANE derivatives with insectidal properties Synthetic PYRETHROID insecticides PERMETHRIN based products holds the largest market share

BLEACHING METHODS
Oxidative process Reductive process

Hydrogen Peroxide Bleaching


Hydrogen peroxide must be activated to produce a bleaching action normally achieved by increasing the pH It must be stablised to prevent decomposition to gaseous oxygen and water which has no bleaching effect Wool is damaged by excessive oxidation, as disulphide cross links are broken to generate cysteic acid leading to reduced physical properties Temperature 60oC and maximum time 80 minutes After bleaching rinse and acid scour ROSSARI OFFERS ZYSTAB C Liquid (stabliser) GREEN ACID NEW Liquid (acid scour)

REDUCTIVE BLEACHING
Further improves the whiteness of peroxide bleached wool Compatible with the application of fluorescent whitening agents

HYDROSULPHITE BLEACHING
Good for open machines Set the bath with; Stablised hydrosulphite 2-5gpl wetting agent 0.2-1gpl Raise the temperature up 60oC run for 60 minutes. Rinse and to final rinse add Acetic acid 1-2ml/l

GENERAL MECHANISM OF WOOL DYEING


Diffusion of dye through the dye liquor to the fiber surface Transfer of the dye across the fiber surface Diffusion of the dye through the cell membrane complex then in to the cortical cells

DYES USED FOR WOOL


Acid dyes Milling dyes 1:1 Metal complex dyes 1:2 Metal complex dyes Chrome dyes Reactive dyes

Dye Usage on world wide market

Migration and fastness properties of different dye classes

DYES USED FOR WOOL


Acid dyes - So called as they are applied from dyebaths in acidic or neutral medium 7.5 ( contains solubilising grps - Sulphonic or Carboxilic acid grps)

DYEING AUXILIARIES
Wetting and penetrating agent: Important to ensure uniformity and good dye penetration

Leveling agent: compete with the dye/slowly release the dye resulting in level but in low concentration , As the higher dose functions as stripping agent [KrisilSMK, Krisil-SE]
Acid donor: will slowly release acid into dyebath and reduces the pH in controlled manner. This allows the dyeing to start at relatively high pH[7.0-7.5] which gives better level dyeing and seam penetration When satisfactory seam penetration is achieved and the temperature is increased the dye bath pH falls, leading to good dye exhaustion and shade

PARAMETERS DURING WOOL DYEING


Starting temperature Rate of temperature rise Time of dyeing at maximum temperature Dye bath auxiliaries pH control as during dyeing there is damage in wool fiber the ideal pH for minimum damage is pH 4.5 [iso-electric point]

Iso-electric point- The isoelectric point (pI) is the pH at which a molecule or surface carries no net electrical charge. In order to have a sharp isoelectric point, a molecule (or surface) must be amphoteric, meaning it must have both acidic and basic functional groups. Proteins and amino acids are common molecules that meet this requirement.

CARPET FINISHING
Wetting in plain water Treatment with bleaching powder having active chlorine 2 to 4 gpl depending upon the quality of carpet, followed by caustic treatment and then washed with plain water. Treatment with Acid to neutral the alkalinity, and washed .[GREEN ACID NEW Liq] Final treat with MAGMACI PASTE and TERYSILWK-80 Liq Amphoteric and Reactive softener are also used.

Wool Finishing
Ultima XT Liquid Zylon PLI Liquid Zylon PW Liquid Terysil BRK Liquid

FLAME RETARDANT FINISH


WHY FR FOR WOOL---? Although LOI is ~ 25 The Boeing 757 and 767 were the first to include design guidelines stipulating the incorporation of materials with limited smoke and toxic gas emission where ever possible Prior technology used of PVC fiber in the warp and the phosphorous-based flameretardant (FR) finish on the wool filling yarns

Rosil Flame Retarder


Rosil Flameretarder WF2 is a ready to use solution for making wool flame retardant. The end article is permanent flame retardant after a mild laundering at 40 C with Woolite and also after dry cleaning. Rosil Flameretarder WF2 does not affect the hand and light fastness of the end article

Rosil Flame Retarder


APPLICATION (AFTER DYEING) Liquor ratio : 1/12. The percentages mentioned are on weight of fabric. Begin at 50C with 17 % to 22 % of Rosil Flameretarder WF2. Run 10 minutes at this temperature, then add slowly 8 % of hydrochloric acid (37%) Run for 5 minutes, check pH (must be 2), warm up to 70 75C and run for 30 minutes at this temperature, cool the bath and rinse with cold water for 10 minutes.

Rosil Flame Retarder


It is possible to combine dyeing and FR treatment in the same bath, but the pH must be adjusted to 4. Some results with Rosil Flameretarder WF2 (Test FAR 25853): 17 % Rosil Flameretarder WF2 gives an ABT of 14 seconds and a BL of 130 mm 22 % Rosil Flameretarder WF2 gives an ABT of 4 seconds and a BL of 85 mm. ABT: After burning time. BL: Burning length.

KEY ISUES TO MONITOR


Fiber Micron [mean and cv] Length [mean and cv] %short fiber and Blend Spinner Yarn irregularity Twist factor/Twist regularity and Hairiness Sett Structure Stitch type Loop length Knots Pile height

Yarn

Fabric Knitwear Carpet