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Linking skills training and job opportunities

ILOs Approaches to Gender Responsive TVET


Akiko Sakamoto, ILO
The views expressed in this paper are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADBs part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADBs terminology.

Gender equality in ILO


ILO is committed since its establishment in 1919 It is promoted through: international labour standards (i.e. conventions and recommendations); bilateral assistance to member states; gender mainstreaming in ILO policies, advice, research and projects. R195 (2004): Human Resource Development: Education, Training and Lifelong Learning E&T as a right for all, both women and men Equal opportunity for E&T is being stressed

Access to education and training


Global trend is positive, especially for universal primary education Increased enrollment of female in tertiary education Yet, still wide discrimination across and within countries
Access by women in rural areas still poor Literacy gaps (e.g. South Asia and rural areas)

Not only the level of education & training but also their relevance and quality is an issue
Under-representation of female in science, technology, engineering and math subjects

Challenging school-to-work transition


Large gender gaps in labour market participation remain in some regions and under-utilization of skills Despite higher level of education, women are more likely to be NEET in low income countries High unemployment rates among female tertiary graduates in the Arab and North Africa regions Being entrepreneurs and starting a business more difficult for women High numbers of women find jobs in the informal economy

Beyond education and training

Barriers for accessing E & T


Low remuneration for womens work
Limited access to information/ gender biased vocational guidance Family reservation for women working outside of home

Low literacy and education

Expectation on girls to contribute to household chores


Difficulty in balancing with household and family duties

Training programme is not gender sensitive

Safe transport separate toilets Child care

Financial constraints

Promoting gender equality at the policy level (Bangladesh)


The National Strategy for Promotion of Gender Equality in TVET aims to: Increase female participation in formal TVET institutions from a current 24% to 40% by 2020. Increase quotas for female teachers from 13% to 30% Establish quotas for women in TVET management at 10% minimum Ensure gender friendly environments both in training centres and workplaces Create linkages between industry demands and skills availability Establish extensive gender responsive support systems and counselling services Include skills training for workers in the informal economy Establish an adequate data management system to capture sex disaggregated data on TVET

Promoting gender equality at the operational level (TREE projects)


Training for Rural Economic Empowerment (TREE):

Promotes income generation and employment for disadvantaged rural women and men The strategy involves: careful identification of economic opportunities and training needs assessment in the community; designing and delivering relevant training; post-training support Sensitization session for families and communities Female resource persons training at the village and at home, or provide safe transportation Training with a renowned designer (high-end embroidery) Pakistan Trained in non-traditional skills repair of appliances and computers, solar home system installers (Bangladesh) Combined with training on reproductive health, management and negotiation skills The activities increased the status of women in the community, contributing womens self esteem

A holistic approach to Gender Responsive TVET


1. Assessment of diverse barriers 2. Labour market information for women 3. Advocacy for reducing stereotyping and promoting E&T for women (Use of counseling and role models) 4. Gender focus in skills/TVET policies 5. Create gender-sensitive training environments (facilities, transport, training materials, flexible modalities) 6. More than vocational skills 7. Gender training for teachers and managers 8. Gender sensitization in career and vocational guidance as well as for employers and parents in general