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Testing grid-connected PV-inverters for compliance in different countries

By Grady Ye Intertek Testing Services Guangzhou 2011-05

PV-inverter Regulation/Standard List


Country
USA Canada Germany Spain UK

Safety
UL 1741 CSA C22.2 No. 107.1 EN 62109-1, EN 62109-2 EN 62109-1, EN 62109-2 EN 62109-1, EN 62109-2

Grid-tied
IEEE 1547 CSA C22.2 No. 107.1 VDE 0126-1-1 RD 1663 ER G83/1 (16A )

ER G59/1 (16A )
EU Australia EN 62109-1, EN 62109-2 AS/NZS 3100 EN 50438 AS 4777.2, AS 4777.3

Typical Testing for PV Inverter

PVI Enclosure Design (1/2)


Outdoor use: Water, Dust, Temperature, UV, Corrosion
: US requirement: NEMA xx, tested to UL 50E : NEMA xx, UL50E PV-inverter commonly rated NEMA 3R 3R

NEMA 3R: Rain test

PVI Enclosure Design (2/2)

Gasket may be required and tested

European market: Follow the IPxx IPxx IEC/EN 60529 to be followed IEC/EN 60529 PV inverter is commonly rated IP65 or IP54 IP65 or IP54

Spacings/Clearances/Creepages

UL 1741: Basic requirement 12.7 mm (between live parts and enclosure)

UL 174112.7 mm ( )

Decided by working voltage & mains voltage which is influenced by DC input voltage and inverter topology. AC & DC

GFDI (Ground Fault Detection/Interruption)

UL 1741 requires a GFDI for PV-inverter to protect against fire hazard UL 1741GFDI

Four functions of GFDI GFDI


detecting a ground fault, providing an indication of the fault, interrupting the flow of fault current, and

either isolating the faulted array section or disabling the inverter to cease the export of power.

Output overload test

UL 1741 requires the output of the inverter be protected against overload. UL1741

If protection is achieved by a software, firmware & DSP The software shall be evaluated to UL1998 (additional cost and additional testing time), and sensing circuit shall be special evaluated. , UL1998

Surge Test

UL 1741 requires GFDI subjected to surge testing UL 1741GFDI

Ring wave surge: 0.5 s (10-90%), oscillatory wave 10 s, 3 kV / 6 kV


After surge Calibration test to GFDI GFDI

IEC 62109 Special Requirement

A new standard which harmonizes American standards UL1741 & IEEE 1547, IEC standards IEC 60950 & IEC 62103, and German standard VDE 0126-1-1 Concept from UL 1741: Input and output power characteristic, Abnormal tests, Markings UL1741

IEEE 1547 Voltage trip



Overvoltage:
110% - 120% UN < 1.00 s

120% UN < 0.16 s

Undervoltage:
50% - 88% UN < 2.00 s < 50% UN < 0.16 s

IEEE 1547 Frequency trip



Overfrequency:
> 60.5 Hz < 0.16 s

Underfrequency:
< 59.3 Hz < 0.16 s

IEEE 1547 Power Quality

DC injection Test
Shall not inject 0.5% of DC current of the full rated output current to the AC mains DCAC0.5%

Harmonics Test

IEEE 1547 Anti-islanding



Using an R-L-C oscillation circuit RLC Q = 1.0 (Quality factor) 1.0 It shall detect & trip < 2.0 s & 2.0 Test shall be conducted in 100%, 66%, 33% output power

VDE 0126-1-1

Applicable to the German market Applicable for the gridinteraction protocol Other EU countries have similar requirements to VDE 0126-1-1

VDE 0126-1-1 - Output Switch

Single-fault free for the trip relay

Voltage, Frequency and Current sensing shall be single-fault free , &


Provide two separate relays (double poles) Dual CPU CPU

VDE 0126-1-1 - Voltage Tripping



Overvoltage, 1.15 Un, < 0.2 s Undervoltage, 0.8 Un, < 0.2 s Overvoltage monitoring, 1.1 Un, 10 min

VDE 0126-1-1 - Frequency Tripping



Overfrequency: 50.2 Hz, < 0.2 s Underfrequency: 47.5 Hz, < 0.2 s

VDE 0126-1-1 - DC current monitoring

DC 1 A < 0.2 s

VDE 0126-1-1 - Anti-islanding



Method 2: By resonant circuit RLC parallel resonant circuit Q 2 Tripping time: < 5 s RLC

100%, 50%, 25% load tested

VDE 0126-1-1 - RCMU (Leakage Current)



In the VDE standard, this is for electric shock protection & fire hazard --- 300 mA is continuous current for fire hazard 300 mA 30/60/150 mA is for sudden change current for electric shock protection 30/60/150 mA 30 mA, < 0.3 s 60 mA, < 0.15 s 150 mA, < 0.04 s > 300 mA, < 0.3 s

AS 4777.3

AS 4777.3 Grid connection of energy systems via


Inverters --- Part 3 Grid protection requirements Passive anti-islanding --- Voltage & Frequency limit (< 2 s) 200V270V, 45Hz55Hz

Active Anti-islanding (< 2s)


light electronic load; load match; and 100% (RLC) load match plus 10%. 110% (RLC)