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A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea.

A proper noun, which names a specific person, place, or thing - is almost always capitalized (Carlos, Queen Marguerite, Middle East, Jerusalem, Malaysia). Common nouns name everything else, things that usually are not capitalized

Articles, determiners, and quantifiers are those little words that precede and modify nouns:

the teacher, a college, a bit of honey, that person, those people, whatever purpose, either way, your choice

Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence. the tall professor the lugubrious lieutenant a solid commitment a month's pay a six-year-old child the unhappiest, richest man

Verbs carry the idea of being or action in the sentence. I am a student. The students passed all their courses Some verbs require an object to complete their meaning: "She gave _____ ?" Gave what? She gave money to the church

Adverbs are words that modify 1) a verb (He drove slowly. How did he drive?) 2) an adjective (He drove a very fast car. How fast was his car?) 3) another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. How slowly did she move?)

Adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions something happens or happened. Adverbs frequently (though not all the time) end in -ly; That lovely woman lives in a friendly neighborhood

A conjunction is a joiner, a word that connects (conjoins) parts of a sentence. and but or yet for nor so

Ulysses wants to play for the school team, but he has had trouble meeting the academic requirements.

A preposition describes a relationship between other words in a sentence You can sit before the desk (or in front of the desk). The professor can sit on the desk (when he's being informal) or behind the desk, and then his feet are under the desk or beneath the desk.

Used with another verb to express ideas such as possibility, permission, or intention
I might go to the mall today. You may enter the room now.

Common Modal Verbs Can ,Could, May, Might Must Ought to, Shall, Should,Will , Would

To sneeze, to smash, to cry, to shriek, to jump, to dunk, to read, to eat, to slurpall of these are infinitives. to + verb = infinitive

Wherever Melissa goes, she always brings a book to read

Important Note: Because an infinitive is not a verb, you cannot add s, es, ed, or ing to the end. Ever!

Comparison

unlike things often introduced with the word "like" or "as". Examples: He fights like a lion. She is as hungry as a wolf.

between two seemingly

type of imagery. NOT a comparison. A way to talk about one thing by describing something else.
Rain puddles are my mirrors, I see myself again. A tree is a green umbrella.

A hyperbole is an extreme exaggeration used to make a point. Hyperboles are comparisons, like similes and metaphors, but are extravagant and even ridiculous.It is from a Greek word meaning excess.

I am so hungry I could eat a horse. I have a million things to do. I had to walk 15 miles to school in the snow, uphill. I had a ton of homework.

Three little words you often see Are ARTICLES: a, an, and the. A NOUN's the name of anything, As: school or garden, toy, or swing. ADJECTIVES tell the kind of noun, As: great, small, pretty, white, or brown. VERBS tell of something being done: To read, write, count, sing, jump, or run.

CONJUNCTIONS join the words together, As: men and women, wind or weather. The PREPOSITION stands before A noun as: in or through a door. The INTERJECTION shows surprise As: Oh, how pretty! Ah! how wise!

How things are done the ADVERBS tell, As: slowly, quickly, badly, well.

The whole are called the PARTS of SPEECH, Which reading, writing, speaking teach.
by David B. Tower & Benjamin F. Tweed