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November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

Multi-band Modulation, Coding, and Medium Access Control


Date: 2007-11-12
Authors
Robert C. Daniels Robert W. Heath, Jr.

Affiliations
The University of Texas at Austin The University of Texas at Austin

Addre ss Phone email


rdaniels@ece.utexas.edu rheath@ece.utexas.edu

Submission

Slide 1

R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

Abstract
Past IEEE 802.11 WLAN networks have used improvements in digital baseband algorithms (modulation, coding, etc.) and spatial multiplexing with multiple transmit and receive antennas to increase physical layer throughput. In this talk, we suggest that next generation WLAN systems must exploit large quantities of spectrum available at higher frequencies to achieve satisfactory throughput. In order to minimize MAC overhead and maximize PHY performance, we suggest some ideas for multi-band PHY and MAC implementation.
Submission Slide 2 R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

VHT - Very High Throughput


Next Generation Wireless LANs
Stated Requirements (from previous VHT SG meetings):
Gigabit Throughput (5x Scaling) * Extended Communication Range Improve MAC efficiency * = critical requirement = important requirement

Conflicting Requirements:
Backwards Compatibility with IEEE 802.11n Interoperability and Coexistence

Submission

Slide 3

R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

Enhancing PHY Throughput


Exploitable dimensions in wireless (E-Mag) technology
Space Higher Degree of Spatial Multiplexing Polarization Cross Polarized Multiplexing Time Broaden Bandwidth

Digital baseband improvements


Larger constellation sizes (256-QAM) Advanced channel coding strategies (LDPC/Turbo) Effective use of channel feedback (Digital Precoding)

Submission

Slide 4

R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

Enhancing PHY Throughput


Exploiting the Spatial Dimension

We can always add more antennas, but will spatial multiplexing throughput gain scale?
Spatial multiplexing is limited by condition of the wireless channel Throughput compromised by extra training in data and sounding*

Other drawbacks with large numbers of antennas


Cost Size constraints on mobile devices

Submission

Slide 5

R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

Enhancing PHY Throughput


Exploiting the Spatial Dimension

There exist information theoretic results that suggest maximum number of antennas [Hassibi 03]

Submission

Slide 6

R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

Enhancing PHY Throughput


Exploiting the Time (Frequency) Dimension

Increasing the symbol time is the simplest way to increase throughput Unfortunately, the necessary bandwidth (5x20 MHz = 100 MHz) allows for at most 1 channel at traditional frequencies (2.45 or 5 GHz) Internationally available bandwidth to spare at higher frequencies [Daniels 07]

Submission

Slide 7

R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

Enhancing PHY Throughput


Digital Baseband Improvements

Higher constellation order (256-QAM)


Places more demands on the phase tracking and SNR
20 dB 30 dB 40 dB

Advanced channel coding (LDPC/Turbo)


Already optionally present in IEEE 802.11n

More effective use of feedback


Present in IEEE 802.11n, doesnt take advantage of recent limited feedback research [Choi 05], [Mondal 05], [Choi 06]

Submission

Slide 8

R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

Enhancing PHY Throughput


Summary

Adding more antennas has limitations


Practical maximum spatial multiplexing gain (< 8) More antennas is not the solution Digital baseband additions only partially solve problem Solution: Significantly more bandwidth needed
Submission Slide 9 R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

The Multi-band Solution


Simple Idea
Lower frequencies for lower throughput Higher frequencies for higher throughput

VHT focus
Range extension with lower frequencies Throughput extension with higher frequencies

Both RF chains funnel data through digital baseband


Joint PHY and MAC for all carrier frequencies Improves on IEEE 802.11n multi-RF approach

Submission

Slide 10

R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

Multi-band Modulation and Coding

This is an equivalent strategy used in past IEEE 802.11 standards Now require a higher carrier frequency instead of higher SNR for enhanced throughput modulation and coding schemes Can maintain backwards compatibility with IEEE 802.11n and just use higher frequencies for higher level MCSs
Slide 11 R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

Submission

November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

Multi-band versus Multi-mode


Many have proposed 2.45/5/60 GHz multi-mode devices, or an IEEE 802.11n/802.15.3c combination

Submission

Slide 12

R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

Multi-band versus Multi-mode


Multi-band devices can be based off a single reference local oscillator Concurrent multi-band operation [Hashemi 03]

frequency, phase offsets and ADC or DAC consistent among all RF units Submission Slide 13 R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

The Multi-band Physical (M-PHY) Layer


Design Examples: A Preview
Training sent on one band, data on another

Increase performance of higher frequency system, by performing synchronization, frequency offset at lower, more reliable symbol rate.
Submission Slide 14 R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

Multi-band Synchronization Example


Multi-band frame synchronization and frequency offset estimation simulated on Hydra - an IEEE 802.11n prototype (http://hydra.ece.utexas.edu)
MCS 0/1/2 (BPSK/QPSK) Dotted lines show improvement Training at 20 dB Data SNR shown on graph Simulated multipath channel Frequency offset added

Submission

Slide 15

R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

The Multi-band Medium Access Control (M-MAC) Layer


Design Examples: A Preview
Divide MAC functionality over each band to reduce contention Short, low-latency packets (VoIP) use lower frequency channels Throughput-demanding packets use higher frequency channels

Submission

Slide 16

R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

Summary
Inevitably more bandwidth necessary for next generation of WLAN (VHT)
Concurrent operation of PHY and MAC functions jointly on different bands reduces overhead and latency Multi-band Modulation, Coding, and MAC moves WLAN into cognitive arena

Submission

Slide 17

R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

November 2007

doc.: IEEE 802.11-07/2780r1

References
B. Hassibi and B.M. Hochwald, ``How much training is needed in a multiple-antenna wireless link, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol.49, no.4, Apr. 2003, pages 951-964. H. Hashemi, ``Integrated Concurrent Multi-Band Radios and Multiple-Antenna Systems, PhD Thesis, Caltech University, 2003. J. Choi and R. W. Heath, Jr., ``Interpolation Based Transmit Beamforming for MIMOOFDM with Limited Feedback,'' IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 4125-4135, Nov. 2005. B. Mondal and R. W. Heath, Jr., ``Algorithms for Quantized Precoded MIMO-OFDM Systems,'' Proc. of the IEEE Asilomar Conf. on Signals, Systems, and Computers, pp. 381-385 Pacific Grove, CA, USA, Oct. 30 - Nov. 2, 2005. J. Choi, B. Mondal, and R. W. Heath, Jr., ``Interpolation Based Unitary Precoding for Spatial Multiplexing MIMO-OFDM with Limited Feedback,'' IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 4730-4740, December 2006. N. Devroye, P. Mitran, and V. Tarokh ``Achievable Rates in Cognitive Radio Channels,' IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol.52, no.5, pp. 1813-1827, May 2006. R. C. Daniels and R. W. Heath, Jr., ``60 GHz Wireless Communications: Emerging Requirements and Design Recommendations,'' submitted to the IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, April 2007.
Slide 18 R. C. Daniels, UT Austin

Submission