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Organizational Structure and Design

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Designing Organizational Structure


Organizing
Arranging and structuring work to accomplish an organizations goals.

Organizational Structure
The formal arrangement of jobs/tasks within an organization.

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Purposes of Organizing Divides work to be done into specific jobs and departments.

Assigns tasks and responsibilities associated with individual jobs.


Coordinates diverse organizational tasks.

Clusters jobs into units.


Establishes relationships among individuals, groups, and departments.

Establishes formal lines of authority.


Allocates and deploys organizational resources.
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Organizational Design
When Managers create or change the structure, they are engaged in Organizational design. Organizational Design is a process that involves decisions about six key elements:

1. Work specialization 2. Departmentalization 3. Chain of command 4. Span of control 5. Centralization and decentralization 6. Formalization
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Organizational Structure
Work Specialization
The degree to which tasks in the organization are divided into separate jobs with each step completed by a different person. Overspecialization can result in the form of boredom, fatigue (exhaustion), stress, poor quality, increased absenteeism, and higher turnover.

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Departmentalization by Type
Functional
Grouping jobs by functions performed

Process
Grouping jobs on the basis of product or customer flow

Product
Grouping jobs by product line

Customer
Grouping jobs by type of customer and needs

Geographical
Grouping jobs on the basis of territory or geography

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The Five Common Forms of Departmentalization

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Geographical Departmentalization

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Product Departmentalization

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Process Departmentalization

+ More efficient flow of work activities Can only be used with certain types of products

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Customer Departmentalization

+ Customers needs and problems can be met by specialists


- Duplication of functions - Limited view of organizational goals

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Organizational Structure (contd)


Chain of Command
The continuous line of authority that extends from upper levels of an organization to the lowest levels of the organization and clarifies who reports to whom.

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Organizational Structure (contd)


Authority
The rights inherent in a managerial position to tell people what to do and to expect them to do it.

Responsibility
The obligation or expectation to perform.

Unity of Command
The concept that a person should have one boss and should report only to that person.

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Organizational Structure (contd)


Span of Control
The number of employees who can be effectively and efficiently supervised by a manager. Width of span is affected by:

Skills and abilities of the manager Employee characteristics Characteristics of the work being done Similarity of tasks Complexity of tasks Physical proximity of subordinates Standardization of tasks Sophistication of the organizations information system Strength of the organizations culture Preferred style of the manager

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Contrasting Spans of Control

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Organizational Structure (contd)


Centralization
The degree to which decision making is concentrated at upper levels in the organization.

Organizations in which top managers make all the decisions and lower-level employees simply carry out those orders.

Decentralization
Organizations in which decision making is pushed down to the managers who are closest to the action.

Employee Empowerment
Increasing the decision-making authority (power) of employees.
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Factors that Influence the Amount of Centralization and Decentralization

More centralization
Environment is stable. Lower-level managers are not as capable or experienced at making decisions as upper-level managers. Lower-level managers do not want to have a say in decisions. Decisions are significant. Organization is facing a crisis or the risk of company failure. Company is large. Effective implementation of company strategies depends on managers retaining say over what happens.
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Factors that Influence the Amount of Centralization and Decentralization

More Decentralization
Environment is complex, uncertain.
Lower-level managers are capable and experienced at making decisions. Lower-level managers want a voice in decisions. Decisions are relatively minor. Corporate culture is open to allowing managers to have a say in what happens. Company is geographically dispersed. Effective implementation of company strategies depends on managers having involvement and flexibility to make decisions.
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More centralization
Environment is stable. Lower-level managers are not as capable or experienced at making decisions as upper-level managers. Lower-level managers do not want to have a say in decisions. Decisions are significant. Organization is facing a crisis or the risk of company failure. Company is large. Effective implementation of company strategies depends on managers retaining say over what happens.

More Decentralization
Environment is complex, uncertain. Lower-level managers are capable and experienced at making decisions. Lower-level managers want a voice in decisions. Decisions are relatively minor. Corporate culture is open to allowing managers to have a say in what happens. Company is geographically dispersed. Effective implementation of company strategies depends on managers having involvement and 919 flexibility to make decisions.

Organizational Structure (contd)


Formalization
The degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized and the extent/degree to which employee behavior is guided by rules and procedures.
Highly formalized jobs offer little discretion over what is to be done. Low formalization means fewer constraints on how employees do their work.

Mechanistic Organization: An organizational design that is rigid and tightly controlled Organic Organization: An organizational design that is highly adaptive and flexible.
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Mechanistic Versus Organic Organization

High specialization Rigid departmentalization Clear chain of command Narrow spans of control Centralization High formalization

Cross-functional teams Cross-hierarchical teams Free flow of information Wide spans of control Decentralization Low formalization

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Contingency Factors
Structural decisions are influenced by:
Overall strategy of the organization

Organizational structure follows strategy.


Firms change from organic to mechanistic organizations as they grow in size. Firms adapt their structure to the technology they use. Dynamic environments require organic structures; mechanistic structures need stable environments.

Size of the organization

Technology use by the organization

Degree of environmental uncertainty

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Contingency Factors (contd)


Strategy and Structure
Achievement of strategic goals is facilitated by changes in organizational structure that accommodate and support change.

Size and Structure


As an organization grows larger, its structure tends to change from organic to mechanistic with increased specialization, departmentalization, centralization, and rules and regulations.

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Contingency Factors (contd)


Technology and Structure
Organizations adapt their structures to their technology. Routine technology = mechanistic organizations Non-routine technology = organic organizations

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Contingency Factors (contd)


Environmental Uncertainty and Structure
Mechanistic organizational structures tend to be most effective in stable and simple environments. The flexibility of organic organizational structures is better suited for dynamic and complex environments.

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Common Organizational Designs


Traditional Designs
Simple structure

Low departmentalization, wide spans of control, centralized authority, little formalization

Functional structure

Departmentalization by function Operations, finance, marketing, human resources, and product research and development Composed of separate business units or divisions with limited autonomy under the coordination and control the parent corporation.
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Divisional structure

Strengths and Weaknesses of Traditional Organizational Designs

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Contemporary Organizational Designs


Team Structure What it is: Advantages: Disadvantages: A structure in which the entire organization is made up of work groups or teams. Employees are more involved and empowered. Reduced barriers among functional areas. No clear chain of command. Pressure on teams to perform.

Matrix-Project Structure

What it is:

A structure that assigns specialists from different functional areas to work on projects but who return to their areas when the project is completed. Project is a structure in which employees continuously work on projects. As one project is completed, employees move on to the next project.
Fluid and flexible design that can respond to environmental changes. Faster decision making. Complexity of assigning people to projects. Task and personality conflicts.
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Advantages: Disadvantages:

Contemporary Organizational Designs

Boundaryless Structure
What it is: A structure that is not defined by or limited to artificial horizontal, vertical, or external boundaries; includes virtual and network types of organizations.

Advantages:
Disadvantages:

Highly flexible and responsive. Draws on talent wherever its found.


Lack of control. Communication difficulties.

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Organizational Designs (contd)


Contemporary Organizational Designs
Team structures

The entire organization is made up of work groups or selfmanaged teams of empowered employees.

Matrix and project structures

Specialists from different functional departments are assigned to work on projects led by project managers. Matrix and project participants have two managers. In project structures, employees work continuously on projects; moving on to another project as each project is completed.

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Organizational Designs (contd)


Contemporary Organizational Designs (contd)
Boundaryless Organization

An flexible and unstructured organizational design that is intended to break down external barriers between the organization and its customers and suppliers.
Removes internal (horizontal) boundaries:

Eliminates the chain of command


Has limitless spans of control Uses empowered teams rather than departments

Eliminates external boundaries: Uses virtual, network, and modular organizational structures to get closer to stakeholders.
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Removing External Boundaries


Virtual Organization
An organization that consists of a small core of full-time employees and that temporarily hires specialists to work on opportunities that arise.

Network Organization
A small core organization that outsources its major business functions (e.g., manufacturing) in order to concentrate on what it does best.

Modular Organization
A manufacturing organization that uses outside suppliers to provide product components for its final assembly operations.

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Todays Organizational Design Challenges


Keeping Employees Connected
Widely dispersed and mobile employees

Building a Learning Organization Managing Global Structural Issues


Cultural implications of design elements

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Organizational Designs (contd)


The Learning Organization
An organization that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt, and change through the practice of knowledge management by employees. Characteristics of a learning organization:

An open team-based organization design that empowers employees Extensive and open information sharing Leadership that provides a shared vision of the organizations future.

A strong culture of shared values, trust, openness, and a sense of community.

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Terms to Know
organizing organizational structure organizational chart organizational design work specialization departmentalization cross-functional teams chain of command authority responsibility unity of command span of control centralization decentralization employee empowerment formalization mechanistic organization organic organization unit production mass production process production simple structure functional structure divisional structure team structure matrix structure project structure boundaryless organization virtual organization network organization learning organization

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