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Introduction Bamboo species in Gujarat Terminology Preservation of bamboo for structural purposes Methods of test for bamboo Design

esign guide lines as per Bureau of Indian standards Application of bamboo in various projects References

More than 100 species of bamboo are native to India and a few of them are solid but most them are weak in structure. All of them are systematically tested so far. Out of them 16 species are recommended for structural usage in round form.

BAMBOO RESOURCES IN INDIA

Species Bambusa arundinacea

States/UTs Arunachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, Tripura Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura Tripura Arunachal Pradesh, Assam,Mizoram, Nagaland Mizoram Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Orissa, Karnatak, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan Assam, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura, Manipur, Meghalaya Nagaland Tripura, Assam Assam Arunachal Pradesh Orissa

Bambusa balcooa Bambusa pallida Bambusa tulda


Bambusa polymorpha Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Dendrocalamus longispathus Dendrocalamus strictus

Melocanna bambusoides Neebenzia balcooa Oxytenanthera nigrociliata Oxytenanthera parviflora Pseudostachyus polymorphium Polystachia pargracile

There are 22 species of bamboos reported from the State; the dominant species are Bambusa arundinacea (Katas or Thorny bamboo) and Dendrocalamus strictus (Manvel or Solid bamboo). Dendrocalamus strictus is economically the most important. It is found in the dry forests over a large part of the State. Bambusa arundinacea is found in mixed moist forests as well as in the moist dry forest of the State.

Distribution of bamboo bearing area in Gujarat (in sq. km)


Forest Division District Forest area 557 628 475 563 937 709 1,163 723 1,106 884 587 1,107 382 192 Bamboo bearing area 365 426 451 563 933 543 896 162 417 602 214 165 91 39

Valsad(S)
Valsad(N) Dang (S) Dang(N) Vyara Rajpipla(W) Rajpipla(E) Chhotaudepur Godhra Baria Sabarkantha(S) Banaskantha Junagadh Porbandar

Valsad
Valsad & Navsari Dang Dang Surat Surat/ Bharuch Narmada Vadodara Panchmahals Dahod Sabarkantha Banaskantha Junagadh Porbandar

Introduction continued.

Dendrocalamus strictus
Local names Nakur bans, Kiri bidiru GUJARAT Habitat & distribution Found normally, in dry, open forests. Widely distributed, it is the most common bamboo in India. Culm The culm is up to 10 m tall, erect but slightly arched at the top. Uses The culms are used as building material and for making furniture, mats, basketry and

Introduction continued.

Bambusa bambos
Habitat & distribution Prefers rich and moist soil, and thrives near perennial rivers and valleys. Found almost throughout India, and is common in Central and South India. Culm The culm is up to 30 meters tall, cylindrical, dark green, erect, strong and hollow. Uses It is used as raw material for pulp and paper, to make panel products and handicrafts, and for thatching and roofing.

GROUPING
16 species of bamboo recommended for structural applications are classified in three groups on the basis of their strength properties namely Modulus of elasticity(E) in green condition Modulus of rupture (R) Maximum compressive strength (fc max)

1. 2. 3.

GROUP

MODULUS OF RUPTURE(R) N/mm2

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY(E) 103 N/mm2

MAX. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH N/mm2


MCS> 35

GROUP A

R> 70

E> 9

GROUP B

70 >= R >50

9 >= E >6

35 > MCS >30

GROUP C

50 >=R > 30

6 >= E > 3

30 >= MCS > 25

BAMBOO :- Tall perennial grasses found in tropical and sub-tropical regions.

BAMBOO CULM :- A single shoot of bamboo usually hollow except at nodes which are often swollen.
CROSS WALL :- A wall at the node closing the wall inside circumference and completely separating the hollow cavity below from that above.

SLIVER :- Thin strips of bamboo processed from bamboo culm. BAMBOO MAT BOARD :- A board of two or more bamboo mats bonded with an adhesive. CURVATURE :- The deviation from the strightness of the culm.

NODE :- The slab in a bamboo culm where branches sprout and a diaphragm is inside the culm and the walls on both sides of node are thicker. LENGTH OF INTERNODE :Distance between the adjacent nodes.

SPLITS :- The pieces made from the quarters by dividing the quarters radially and cutting longitudinally. TAPER :- The ratio of the difference between minimum and maximum outer diameter to length. WALL THICKNESS :- Half the difference between outer diameter and inner diameter of the piece at any cross section.

Various recommended preservatives are given below :-

Coal Tar Creosote :This is a fraction of coal tar with boiling point range 200.c and widely used admixed with fuel oil. Copper- Chrome-Arsenic composition :Composition of Copper Sulphate CuSO4.5H20, arsenic pentoxide As2O5.2H2O and Sodium dichromate Na2Cr2O7.2H2O in proportion of 3:1:4.

Acid-Cupric-Chromate Composition :Composition of this preservative comprises of 1.68 parts chromic acid Cr2O3,50 parts of copper sulphate CuSO4.5H2O and 47.5 parts of sodium dichromate Na2Cr2O7.2H2O.

Copper-Chrome-Boron Composition :Composition of this preservative comprises of boric acid H3BO3, copper sulphate CuSO4.5H2O and sodium dichromate Na2Cr2O7.2H2O in proportion of 1.5:3:4.

Boric-Acid-Borax :This has been used successfully against lyctus borers. A mixture in ratio of 1:1.5 is found more suitable. Copper-Zinc-Napthenate :These are copper and zinc salts of napthenic acid.

METHODS OF TREATMENT
1. Surface application ( brushing, dipping)

3. Boucheire Process Process 4. Diffusion

5. Inter Nodal Injection

2. Hot & Cold

METHODS OF TEST FOR BAMBOO


Following are the physical and mechanical properties of round bamboo Physical Properties 1. Moisture Content 2. Basic mass per volume or density 3. Shrinkage Mechanical Properties 1. Static bending strength 2. Compressive strength parallel to grain 3. Tensile strength parallel to grain 4. Shear Strength parallel to grain

MOISTURE CONTENT

The test specimen shall be about 25mm in length and 25 mm in width and having full wall thickness.

It shall be weighed (mi) and then dried in a hot air oven at a temperature of 103 c for 24 h.
The weighing shall be carried out and recorded every 2 h until the difference between successive weighing does not exceed 0.01 g, when drying shall be completed.

The final mass shall be considered as the oven dry mass (m0)
Moisture Content percentage= (mi m0/ mi) x 100

BASIC MASS PER VOLUME OR DENSITY

Place a beaker containing water on a top-pan balance and tare the weight to zero.

The test specimen attached to a sharp needle shall then be completely immersed in water while ensuring that specimen does not touch the beaker. Considering the specific gravity of water as 1, displaced water mass reading shall be considered as the volume of the test specimen in (Vg).
Mass per volume = (m0/Vg)x100

DESIGN CONSIDERATION
BASIC REQUIREMENTS A structure shall be designed and constructed by personnel having the appropriate skill and experience in such a way that,
1.

With appropriate probability, it will remain fit for the use for which it is required, having due regard to its intended life and costs. The structure will be adequately maintained. The structure shall be used in accordance with design limits brief.

2. 3.

SELECTION OF BAMBOO
The following factors should be considered in the selection of bamboo culms (whole plants) for use as reinforcement in concrete structures:
1.

Use only bamboo showing a pronounced brown color. This will insure that the plant is at least three years old. Select the longest large diameter culms available.

2. 3.

Do not use whole culms of green, unseasoned bamboo.


Avoid bamboo cut in spring or early summer. These culms are generally weaker due to increased fiber

4.

COLUMNS

Columns and struts are essential components sustaining compressive forces in a structure. They transfer load to the supporting media. Design of column shall be based on one of the following criteria

1.

Full scale buckling test on same species, size and other relevant variables.
Calculations based on the following. The moment of inertia shall be determined as follows

2.

Columns continued

The outer diameter and the wall thickness shall be measured at both ends, correct up to 1 mm for diameter of culm and 0.1 mm for the wall thickness. With these values the mean diameter and the mean thickness for the middle of the column shall be calculated and moment of inertia determined.

For bamboo columns the best available straight bamboo culms shall be selected.
The bending stresses due to initial curvature, eccentricities and induced deflection shall be taken into account, in addition to those due to lateral load.

Columns continued

For strength and stability, larger diameter thick walled sections of bamboo with closely spaced nodes shall be used. Alternatively, smaller sections may be tied together as a bundle-column.

APPLICATION OF BAMBOO IN PROJECTS


National Institute of Fashion Technology, Kangra, Himachal Pradesh NMBA has designed classroom structures for NIFT.

National Institute of Fashion Technology has opened a centre at Kangra, Himachal Pradesh. In this regard NMBA has erected classroom structures at their centre at Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, by using engineered bamboo products in their premises.
On the basis of their requirement NMBA has designed twelve class room structures of size 32x26 incl 6 verandah having bamboo composite framework & engineered bamboo based false ceiling & wall panels. These structures have been well appreciated by NIFT authorities and are already in regular use.

APPLICATION OF BAMBOO IN PROJECTS

SOUTH CAMPUS (DELHI UNIVERSITY) NMBA has designed a canteen structure for Delhi University. Delhi University is in process of massive expansion of infrastructure like classrooms, hostels, cafeteria and other facilities. In this regard on demonstration basis NMBA has erected a canteen structure at South Campus by using engineered bamboo products in their premises for the showcase. On the basis of their requirement NMBA has designed a canteen structure of size 32x84 having steel framework, Bamboo jute composite roofing sheets & engineered bamboo based false ceiling & double wall panels.

APPLICATION OF BAMBOO IN PROJECTS

STRUCTURES FOR 96TH INDIAN SCIENCE CONGRESS, SHILLONG


96th Indian Science Congress had been held from 3rd Jan. to 7th Jan. 2009 at North Eastern Hills University, Shillong. Meghalaya for which 50 nos. of one room set (22'x12'), 50 nos. of two room set (32'x24') & 10 nos. of dormitories (60'x20') had been constructed in cluster by using Engineered bamboo based materials for the accommodation of 550 delegates for the conference. These structures will be utilized for the accommodation for the future upcoming conferences/ seminars and faculty.

APPLICATION OF BAMBOO IN PROJECTS


Dantewada, Chhattisgarh Forty Eight Residential School Buildings are in under construction at very remote areas of Dantewada District, Chhattisgarh in collaboration with Rajeev Gandhi ShikshaN Mission. Chhattisgarh through technical & financial assistance by NMBA for the construction of these prefabricated structures for hostel accommodation. The structure consists of MS framework, GI roofing sheets engineered bamboo wall panels and bamboo false ceiling.

BOOK
Design and building with bamboo by:- Jules J.A.Jansse

CODES
Bureau of Indian standards CED 13(7702)WC- 2009 Preservation of bamboo for structural purposes- IS

9096 : 2006 Tests for bamboo IS 6874 : 2008

WEB SITES

http://www.wondergrass.in http://www.inbar.int http://www.bambootech.org