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A Seminar on

ALGORITHM FOR FUTURE ANTICIPATIVE REASONING (AFAR) FOR AGV IN AN AUTONOMOUS DECENTRALIZED FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM
Abhijith Gopinath S1/ M-Tech (Production Engineering) Roll No. 1

CONTENTS OF PRESENTATION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM (FMS) AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE (AGV) AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLES IN FMS CENTRALISED FMS AUTONOMOUS DECENTRALISED FMS (AD FMS) ALGORITHM FOR FUTURE ANTICIPATIVE REASONING IN AD FMS MODEL OF AD FMS STUDIED ALGORITHM OF HYPOTHETICAL REASONING PROPOSED HYPOTHETICAL REASONING ANTICIPATING AD FMS CONDITIONS AFAR FOR PART INPUT AGV WITH INTELLIGENT KNOWLEDGE (AGVwIK) CONCLUSION REFERENCE

FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

Flexibility in manufacturing means the ability to allow variation in parts assembly and variations in process sequence, change the production volume and change the design of certain product being manufactured.

FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM


The primary characteristic of FMS is that it integrates the following: 1. Storage 2. Manufacturing Machines 3. Inspection 4. Tooling 5. Materials Handling Equipments

ADVANTAGES OF FMS
To reduce set up and queue times Improve efficiency Reduce time for product completion Utilize workers better Improve product routing Produce a variety of Items under one roof Improve product quality Serve a variety of vendors simultaneously Produce more product more quickly

BASIC COMPONENTS OF FMS


1. WORKSTATIONS In present day applications the workstations are CNC machine tools that perform machining operation on part families. 2. COMPUTER CONTROL SYSTEM These systems are used to coordinate the activities of the processing stations and the material handling system in the FMS.

Multi axis CNC Laser Mini Workstation

The interface for a computer controlled traffic control system

BASIC COMPONENTS OF FMS


3. MATERIAL HANDLING AND STORAGE SYSTEM

Functions 1. Random, independent movement of parts between stations. 2. Handle a variety of part configurations. 3. Temporary storage. 4. Convenient access for loading and unloading. 5. Compatible with computer control.

SOME MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS


Cranes for Bulk Material Handling

Forklift Trucks

Conveyor Belts

Automated Guided Vehicles

Robotic Arms

An Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers. They are most often used in industrial applications to move materials around a manufacturing facility or a warehouse.

The most important advantage of AGV is that it can be optimally integrated to any manufacturing system.

AGV SYSTEM
1 = Automated Guided Vehicle 2 = Management system

5 6 6 4

3 = Data transmission
4 = Guide track (laser, inductive, optical) 5 = Loading/ Unloading Points

6 = Load handling equipment


7 = Machining Centres

3
1 2

TASK ALLOCATION TO AGV


Collection Point Delivery Point

The shop floor layout is fed into the AGV as a .dft program. Based on the instruction received the AGV moves along the specified path and performs the operation

Current Position
The AGVs are provided with sensors to prevent collision. At intersections AGVs pass on a First come First Pass Basis.

MAIN APPLICATIONS OF AGV


Repetitive movement of materials over a distance Regular delivery of stable loads When on-time delivery is critical and late deliveries are causing inefficiency Processes where tracking material is important

AGVs transporting Work in Process jobs

AGV used to move cargo in a port

AGVs transporting a palette of finished goods

AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLES IN FMS


An AGV based material handling system is designed and implemented to impart flexibility and efficiency to the production system. An effective AGV controller is needed to monitor the equipment status and route the work piece movement, so that the right material can be moved to the right place at the right time. The routing algorithms for AGV are different for the 2 types of FMS: 1. Centralised FMS 2. Autonomous Decentralised FMS

CENTRALISED FMS
The route planning of AGV systems is determined by centralised decision making system, which controls the entire shopfloor.
Central Computer

AGV

Position

Onboard Controller

Guide Path

The routing instructions are sent to different AGVs to perform the task.

AUTONOMOUS DECENTRALISED FMS


The basic components of AD FMS are listed below: CNC M/C 1. Several CNC Machine Tools 2. Robots, Controller 3. Transportation systems (AGVs) Robot 4. Computer systems Controller 5. Controllers and 6. Warehouses. Each of these components communicates and exchanges their information while they decide on what action to perform next.
Controller

Computer AGV Controller LAN Computer Computer

CNC M/C

ALGORITHM FOR FUTURE ANTICIPATIVE REASONING IN AUTONOMOUS DECENTRALISED FMS


In the autonomous decentralized system, the AGV routing is generated by several decision making subsystems. The original problem is decomposed into an individual routing problem for each AGV. In this paper, a technique for anticipating the next action of AGV is proposed. This includes an advance prediction of action in a few steps, which will be able to enhance the efficiency condition of the overall FMS. In this way, we develop an Algorithm for Future Anticipative Reasoning (AFAR) of the next action decision of AGV.

MODEL OF AD FMS STUDIED


The AD-FMS consists of multiple agents inside a factory that is shown in figure. The agent can be divided into a parts warehouse, product warehouse, transportation systems for material handling (AGV) and several MCs. The movement of the AGV inside the FMS is restricted on the dashed line grid with equal speeds. The MCs can machine several types of parts The machining time for each type of machining process is fixed. Moreover, there also exist multiple types of MC that can perform the same machining task. The similar types of MC are represented as MC1, MC2, etc. Each MC in these groups is identified by MC1-1, MC1-2, etc.

MODEL OF AD FMS STUDIED


The information exchange and cooperation between each agent in this AD FMS is described as follows: The AGV transmits the information of what type of part and where it is going, the parts warehouse transmits the information of what type of part that it prepares, the MC transmits the information of what type of part that is currently machined and the time remaining to finish the machining process. All the information that is transmitted is taken by the needed agent as materials to perform the next action.

ALGORITHM OF HYPOTHETICAL REASONING


What is Hypothetical Reasoning? Considering different assumptions in order to see what follows from them. In other words, reasoning about alternative possible worlds (i.e., states of the world), regardless of their resemblance to the actual world.

The AFARs real-time production scheduling is done by using 2 types of hypothetical reasoning: 1. Action Decision Hypothetical Reasoning (ADHR) that decides where the AGV will move to. 2. Part Input Hypothetical Reasoning (PIHR) that decides the kinds of parts to be input onto the production floor.

OPERATION CONDITIONS OF AGV

The operating condition of AGV is eternally broadening like a tree structure, where the node is assumed as the next AGV action.

PROPOSED HYPOTHETICAL REASONING PROCESS


Step1: The existing AGV hypothesis depth is set as 0. Step2: For the next hypothesis depth, if the selected branch is FALSE, then the farthest left side branch is selected and assumed to be TRUTH. Step3: Run simulation to the selected branch. Step4: Based on the simulation result, the selection branch is judged whether it is TRUTH or not. Step5: If the simulation result is FALSE, then go to STEP 6. If it is TRUTH, then go to STEP 8.

PROPOSED HYPOTHETICAL REASONING PROCESS


Step6: The branch to the right is then selected and assumed to be TRUE, and go to Step 3. Step7: Go up to another depth of hypothesis. Step8: If the hypothesis is a set value then go to Step 9, if not go to Step 2. Step9: If the selection branch becomes TRUE, then STOP.

ANTICIPATING THE AD-FMS CONDITIONS


We propose a novel idea of forecasting future conditions in the AD-FMS. The terms that define AFAR are given below: 1. Standard of TRUTH/FALSE judgments. 2. Function of machine selection priority [M(MCN)]. 3. Function of parts warehouse selection priority [Fp ]. 4. Function of product warehouse selection priority [Ff ]. 5. Value of part selection priority [V(n)]. 6. Value of Task Decentralisation [Fd (MCN)].

STANDARD OF TRUTH/FALSE JUDGMENTS


From the result of IHS that shows the operation rates of the AD-FMS, we can judge whether the hypothetical reasoning has any contradictions or not based on the following 6 standards. If the standard is not achieved, then it is judged that a contradiction has occurred. [Std 1]: Total MC operation rates are above 75% [Std 2]: Total MC operation rates are above 50% [Std 3]: Total MC operation rates are above 25% [Std 4]: Total MC operation rates are above 0% [Std 5]: Total AGV operation rates are above 50% [Std 6]: Total AGV operation rates are above 0%

FUNCTION OF MACHINE SELECTION PRIORITY

The MC with higher selection priority means that it still has many tasks remaining and is given a top priority to be selected as TRUTH.

FUNCTION OF PART WAREHOUSE SELECTION PRIORITY

Where, max.parts.N : Maximum number of possible part input AllProPt : Numbers of all parts at AGV or MC destination.N : Total numbers of destinations, i.e., AGV, MC, parts and product warehouse. It is a value of determining the number of parts that are under machining or transferring process,

FUNCTION OF PRODUCT WAREHOUSE SELECTION PRIORITY

Ff = destination.N Fp
Where, destination.N : Total numbers of destinations, i.e., AGV, MC, parts and product warehouse.
Fp : Function of Part Warehouse Selection Priority.

VALUE OF PART SELECTION PRIORITY

Where, TotalProT(n) : Total time for processing part n ProRate(n) : Production rates of product n CompPt(n) : Numbers of product n that have completed machining process AllCompPt : Numbers of all that have completed machining process ProPt(n) : Numbers of part n at AGV or MC AllProPt : Numbers of all parts at AGV or MC

VALUE OF TASK DECENTRALIZATION

where, MC.Efficiency : Operation rates of MCN(%)

A MC with a lower production rate has a higher value of task decentralization, that results in the MC to be selected easier.

ALGORITHM FOR FUTURE ANTICIPATIVE RESPONSE (AFAR) FOR PART INPUT


Algorithm for parts input and AGV Decision: Step 1: Add one depth to the hypothesis depth. Step 2: Calculate part selection order V(n). Step 3: Select the branch with the highest value for V(n). Step 4: Calculate M(MCN), Fp , Ff and Fd for the selected branch. Step5: The node with the maximum values of M(MCN) is regarded as TRUE. AGV has to move towards that node, collect the part and take it to the machine having highest value of Fd. Add one depth to the hypothesis depth. Step6: If the value of M(MCN) is less than zero then select the branch with the next highest value of V(n) and go to Step 4. If all branches are completed go to Step 7. Step 7: Stop.

AGV WITH INTELLIGENT KNOWLEDGE (AGV-wIK)


In this paper, AGVs are considered as intelligent agents that are able to adopt knowledge, transmit their information to each other and understand mutually. If one AGV can understand the behavior of another AGV, it is possible to avoid collision, and to cooperate in their tasks. Here, we define each AGV as having 6 types of intelligent knowledge: 1. Routing knowledge Long Term Memory 2. Self knowledge 3. Others knowledge 4. Answer knowledge Short Term Memory 5. Avoidance knowledge. 6. Sending knowledge

APPLICATION OF AFAR IN OUR NEIGHBOURHOOD


This concept gains importance as the International Container Transshipment Terminal at Vallarpadam is looking forward to automation of cargo handling. The proposed VISL is also planning to provide the same facility. AGVs have been successfully employed for material handling in many ports worldwide. AFAR is applicable for AGVs employed in container terminals. The incorporation of AFAR will dramatically improve the prospects of these projects.

Railway line to Vallarpadam exclusively for container movement

Vallarpadam ICTT

APPLICATION IN CONTAINER TERMINALS


Here we have Export Storage, Gate Buffer Storage and Train Buffer Storage instead of Part Warehouses. Product Warehouse is replaced by Import Storage. The cargo movements are actuated by AGVs. Huge volumes of cargo can be handled by incorporating this technique.

CONCLUSION
The branch of automation is witnessing major advancements. In this paper, a technique was proposed to anticipate the next action of AGV, which will improve the efficiency of Autonomous Decentralized Flexible Manufacturing System (AD-FMS) Environment. We have also discussed on how to apply this technique in automated container terminals. AFAR will be a milestone in the field of logistics.

REFERENCE

This presentation was based on a research paper published in World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology Journal 09/2007 issue

OTHER REFERENCES
1. www.wikipedia.com 2. M. P. Groover, Automation, Production System and Computer Integrated Manufacturing 3. P Radhakrishnan, S Subramanian, V Raju, CAD/CAM/CIM

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