You are on page 1of 76

BASIC AERODYNAMICS PART I

Federal Aviation Administration

PRESENTED BY: Dennis H. Whitley FAASTeam Lead Representative NORTH FLORIDA REGION

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

MY MOTTO
SHOW ME A PILOT THAT CANT ANSWER A CORRELATIVE QUESTION AND/OR CANT PERFORM A GIVEN TASK, & ILL SHOW YOU A PILOT THAT DOESNT UNDERSTAND WHAT HE/SHE IS TRYING TO ACCOMPLISH.
NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

FLIGHT INSTRUCTING MUST NOT BE THE BY-PRODUCT OF BUILDING FLIGHT HOURS.


NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

BUILDING FLIGHT HOURS MUST BE THE BY-PRODUCT OF FLIGHT INSTRUCTING.


NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

SAFETY
COMMITMENT VS

DEDICATION
NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

THIS DISCUSSION IS BASED ON


SUBSONIC AIRCRAFT AND WILL BE VERY BASIC NO FORMULAS VERY LITTLE MATH
NORTH FLORIDA FSDO-15 JANUARY 27, 2010

AERODYNAMICS PART I

Federal Aviation Administration

WE WILL TALK ABOUT


ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

4 FORCES LIFT/WEIGHT/THRUST/DRAG
GROUND EFFECT TURNING TENDENCIES

TRIM DEVICES
AERODYNAMICS OF SPINS SLIPS/SKIDS ADVERSE YAW
NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

WHAT IS ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE?


NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IS THE WEIGHT OF ALL THE AIR UPON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH.

WHAT DOES 30 hg MEANS? HOW WAS ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE MEASURED?

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

10

36

TORICELLI'S MEASUREMENT
RULER YARD

STICK
GLASS TUBE 1 SQUARE INCH INNER DIAMETER BY 3536 INCHES TALL INCHES TALL
TORICELLI'S MEASUREMENT
RULER

GLASS TUBE 1 SQUARE INCH INNER DIAMETER BY 35 INCHES TALL

MERCURY

CONTAINER WITH MERCURY

MERCURY

CONTAINER WITH MERCURY

RULER YARD STICK

36

TORICELLI'S MERCURIAL BAROMETER

RULER YARD STICK

36

TORICELLI'S MERCURIAL BAROMETER

TORICELLI'S 30.00 MERCURIAL BAROMETER

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

MERCURY

SEA LEVEL

HOW WAS THE DROP OF PRESSURE WITH ALTITUDE VERIFIED?

HOW WAS THE WEIGHT OF THE AIR DETERMINED?

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

17

MERCURY

1 SQUARE INCH

29.92" hg.

14.7 lbs.

14.7 lbs.

WHAT IS AN ALTIMETER?
A PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL GAUGE
NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

20

FROM SOURCE 10 5 0

15

20

25
30 35 10 5 0

15

20

25
30 35

FROM SOURCE

40

40

HG

HG

15 10 5 0

20

25

30 35
40

HG

Static Port

Kollsman Window

static port pressure 31.00 hg.

31.00

sea level pressure 31.00 hg.

SEA LEVEL

static port pressure 23.00 hg.


31.00

sea level pressure 31.00 hg.

WHAT IS ALTIMETER SETTING?


SEA LEVEL PRESSURE CORRECTED FOR NONSTANDARD TEMPERATURE.

WHAT IS THE MAIN REASON THAT AN AIRPLANE IS ABLE TO FLY? BECAUSE OF THE WEIGHT OF THE AIR. In other words the aerodynamic effect air has on the aircraft.
NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

26

DEFINITION OF AERODYNAMICS The branch of science that deals with the forces produced by air flowing over specially shaped surfaces called airfoils.
NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

27

IS THERE ANY THING WRONG WITH THIS PICTURE?

TWO THINGS
THE FLOWING OF THE RELATIVE WIND THE DIRECTION OF THE RELATIVE WIND

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

28

CAN WE FLY WITH A FLAT WING?

1ST LAW: Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.

3RD LAW: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

AT CRUISE COSTANT ALTITUDE


NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

30

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

31

MINIMUM MANEUVERING SPEED SLOW FLIGHT


NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

32

STALL

PA-28 SERIES
NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

33

WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF FOIL? TO PREVENT FROM BEING SUCCESSFUL

TO THWART

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

34

AIRFOIL
Any surface designed to deflect the airflow passing over it or striking it, and thereby obtaining an useful reaction

AN AIRFOIL IS AN

AIR DEFLECTOR

HOW MANY AIRFOILS ARE THERE?

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

36

AIRPLANE WING.

AILERONS.
SLATS LANDING FLAPS. VERTICAL STABILIZER. RUDDER. HORIZONTAL STABILIZER. ELEVATOR/STABILATOR TRIM TABS.

FUSELAGE. FEARING.

PROPELLER.
ROTOR BLADE.
NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

STRUTS.
Federal Aviation Administration 37

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

WHAT IS LIFT?

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

38

A FORCE CREATED BY

A DEFLECTION OF AIR
AND PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL AROUND AN AIRFOIL. IS CALLED LIFT WHEN IT ACTS UPWARD. WHEN IT ACTS DOWNWARD IS CALLED NEGATIVE LIFT. WHEN IT ACTS SIDEWAYS IS CALLED SIDE LIFT. WHEN IT ACTS FORWARD IS CALLED THRUST
NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

39

HOW IS LIFT CREATED?


AIR PASSING BY AN AIRFOIL
DEFLECTION -- ISSAC NEWTON AIRS CHANGE OF DIRECTION--BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE PRESSURE DIFERENTIAL-- BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

40

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

41

WHATS WRONG WITH THIS PICTURE

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

42

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

43

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

44

CAN WE FLY WITHOUT THE HELP OF BERNOULLIS?

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

45

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

46

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

47

THRUST
Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's second and third laws. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction the accelerated mass will cause a proportional but opposite force on that system.

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

48

LIFT
LIFT is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's second and third laws. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction the accelerated mass will cause a proportional but opposite force on that system.
Thrust is LIFT DIRECTED FORWARD.

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

49

THE PROPELLERS

DEFLECTION OF AIR

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

50

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

51

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

52

DRAG
NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

53

PARASITE DRAG
FORM
INTERFERENCE
NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

54

INDUCED DRAG GROUND EFFECT


COMMANDER TYSON
NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

55

ASSUMED ANGLE OF ATTACK

ASSUMED LIFT

STAGNATION AREA UPWASH RELATIVE WIND DOWNWASH

ASSUMED RELATIVE WIND IS THAT RIGHT?

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

56

STAGNATION AREA RELATIVE CURRENT

UPWASH DOWNWASH

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

57

INDUCED ANGLE OF ATTACK

ASSUMED LIFT INDUCED LIFT

INDUCED RELATIVE WIND

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

58

DOWNWASH INDUCED ANGLE OF ATTACK ASSUMED LIFT INDUCED LIFT

INDUCED RELATIVE WIND

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

59

ASSUMED LIFT INDUCED ANGLE OF ATTACK

DOWNWASH

INDUCED LIFT

WING TIP VORTICES


TOTAL ENDUCED DRAG

INDUCED RELATIVE WIND

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

60

WING THREE-DIMENSIONAL FLOW

UPWASH MODIFIES RELATIVE WIND

DOWNWASH PULLS BACK ON LIFT VECTOR

WING TIP VORTICES PULLS LIFT VECTOR FURTHER BACK

ASSUMED LIFT INDUCED ANGLE OF ATTACK

DOWNWASH

INDUCED LIFT

WING TIP VORTICES TOTAL ENDUCED DRAG

INDUCED RELATIVE WIND

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

62

ASSUMED LIFT INDUCED ANGLE OF ATTACK

DOWNWASH

INDUCED LIFT

INDUCED RELATIVE WIND

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

63

ASSUMED LIFT INDUCED ANGLE OF ATTACK INDUCED LIFT

INDUCED RELATIVE WIND

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

64

WASHOUT

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

65

WHAT DOES THE STABILATOR DO?

WHAT DOES THE ANTI-SERVO TAB DO?

STABILIZED UNACCELERATED CLIMB A B C

IF DESCENDING
IN A 60 BANK HOW MANY G S?

DYHEADRAL

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

70

ADVERSE YAW

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

73

OVERBANKING TENDENCIES

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

74

MANEUVERING SPEED VA

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

75

LOAD FACTOR

NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Federal Aviation Administration

76