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Presented By

Mr. STHITA PRAJNA RATH
KRUPAJAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
 INTRODUCTION
 MOTIVATION
 OBJECTIVE
 BACKGROUND
 MODELING OF PV ARRAY
 MPPT ALGORITHIM
 PHASE LOCKEDLOOP
 PWM GENERATOR
 GRID CONNECTED PV SYSTEM
 SIMULATION RESULT
 CONCLUSION
 REFERENCE

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 Due to the exponential growth of power demand now a
day’s distributed Power Generation Systems (DPGS)
based on renewable energies are not anymore regarded
as one of the engineering challenges today .
◦ The major challenge in this area is synchronization of the
DPGS to the utility grid because of the stochastic behavior
of the input power from the non conventional energy
resources .
◦ Our research mainly includes the source & grid side
controller i:e; MPPT controller & PLL technique which help
for grid synchronization for a hybrid energy system .


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 Till now 400 million Indians have no access to
electricity and between 2009 and 2019 we are
forecasting an increase in Indian electricity
generation of 70.0%, which is among the highest for
the Asia Pacific region.
 To meet such huge demand DGPS is one solution but
the grid synchronization of DGPS is a major
technical challenge, generally PLL technique with
PWM-VSI is used to interface the DG to the utility
grid hence the grid–side inverter control strategy is
a major issues for ensuring grid stability in all
adverse situation
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The over all objectives to be achieved in this
study are:
 PV Array Model design using MATLAB/SIMULINK
 MPPT algorithm implemented using SIMULINK
 Combine the above results to track the MPP of PV
array using buck converter.
 Replace dc link voltage and connect solar pv
system with grid connected PWM inverter using PLL
technique




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Fig 1 . DISTRIBUTED GENERATION
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 The single-diode model of the theoretical photovoltaic cell and
equivalent circuit of a practical photovoltaic device including the
series and parallel resistances.



s
R
I
V
p
R
pv
I
d
I
practical PV device
ideal PV cell
0,
exp 1
,
cell
c
I
d
qV
I I I
pv cell
akT
(
| |
= ÷ ÷
(
|
\ .
¸ ¸
FIG 2. Single diode model of pv
array
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{ }
( )
exp 1
q V IR
V IR
s
s
I I N I N
pv p s p
N akT
R
s c
sh
(
| |
+
+
( |
= ÷ ÷ ÷
( |
\ . (
¸ ¸
( )
,
,
exp 1
/
sc n I T
s
oc n V T
t
I K
I
V K aV
=
(
(
¸ ¸
+ A
+ A ÷
[ ( )]
,
I
n
G
I I K T T
pv pv n c n
G
= + ÷
Δ
T
=Tc − T
n

The equivalent circuit for the solar module arranged in N
P
parallel and
N
S
series is shown
N
s
R
s
N
p
I
V
N
s
R
p
N
p
N I
p ph
S
N
p
N
exp 1
IR N V
V
s p
q
IR
s N N
N
p S
s
I I N I N
ph p s p
akT R
c sh
( | | ¦ ¹
| |
¦ ¦
( |
+
´ ` | +
( |
|
¦ ¦
¹ ) \ . ( |
= ÷ ÷ ÷
( |
( |
( |
\ . (
¸ ¸
The terminal equation for the current
and voltage of the array becomes as
follows:
fig 3.General Equivalent
circuit models of generalized
PV Array
FIG 4. MPPT algorithm based on P & O technique
0 5 10 15 20 25
0
50
100
150
200
P-V CHARECTERSTICS OF SOLAR PV
VOLTAGE
P
O
W
E
R
Consequentl
y, a phase –
locked loop
can track an
input
frequency, or
it can generate
a frequency
that is multiple
of input
frequency.
Whenever reference signal are in phase i:e, error signal are
zero then we will sure that both PV source and load voltage are
produced same voltage and they are synchronized each other
GRID SIDE CONTROL DIAGRAM
 The three-phase grid connected inverter
shown in this is composed of a dc voltage
source (V
dc
), six switches, and utility grid
(Vgrid). In inverter-based DG, the produced
voltage from inverter must be higher than the
Vgrid. It is required to assure power flow to
grid. Since Vgrid is uncontrollable, the only
way of controlling the operation of the
system is by controlling the current that is
following into the grid.

Phase sequence of SPV system with conventional grid should be
matched . for this 3-Φ should be 120
0
phase apart from each other for
both the system
Frequency of SPV system should same as grid. Generally grid is of
50Hz frequency capacity
One of the vital point is voltage matching . voltage level of both the
system should be same, otherwise synchronizing not possible

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
500
1000
1500
TIME
P
O
W
E
R
OUTPUT POWER THRUOGH MPPT CONTROLER
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
x 10
-5
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
TIME
OUTPUT OF PLL
Current & voltage generated
from inverter
0.8 0.82 0.84 0.86 0.88 0.9 0.92 0.94 0.96 0.98 1
-400
-200
0
200
400
TIME
V
O
L
T
A
G
E
LOAD VOLTAGE
0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1
-40
-20
0
20
40
LOAD CURRENT
TIME
C
U
R
R
E
N
T
Load Voltage & Current waveform
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
100
200
300
400
500
OUTPUT VOLTAGE SOLAR PV THROUGH MPPT CONTROLER
TIME
V
O
L
T
A
G
E
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-100
-50
0
50
100
CURRENT THROUGH INVERTER
TIME
C
U
R
R
E
N
T
 From the study we observe that in the PLL
technique reference signal are in phase, so
that the error signal are zero, so here we get
conclusion that the both source are in phase
with each other i:e, both load voltage and
solar PV produced same voltage of 400V. By
using the MPPT controller we get the output
power of solar PV system is 1420W.

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