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FUEL GAS SYSTEM OF KTGTPS

INTRODUCTION:
Monitoring and safety of Fuel System is very important for any industry, for equipment, workers and also for environment safety.

For KTGTPS 21 MMCFD of Natural Gas at 2.0 bar (minimum) is required to run 32 Engines at full Load.

SSGC YARD (Part of Sui-southern Gas Company): There is monitoring, ,metering and filtering.

Gas Chromatograph System: This is for Gas quality analysis. Gas chromatography (GC), is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition. GC can be used to prepare pure compounds from a mixture

Chromatography is the separation of a mixture of compounds (solutes) into separate components. By separating the sample into individual components, it is easier to identify (qualitate) and measure the amount (quantitate) of the various sample components The main parts of a basic GC system are shown in Figure 1. One or more high purity gases are supplied to the GC. One of the gases (called the carrier gas) flows into the injector, through the column and then into the detector. A sample is introduced into the injector usually with a syringe or an exterior sampling device. The injector is usually heated to 150-250C which causes the volatile sample solutes to vaporize. The vaporized solutes are transported into the column by the carrier gas. The column is maintained in a temperature controlled oven. The solutes travel through the column at a rate primarily determined by their physical properties, and the temperature and composition of the column. The various solutes travel through the column at different rates. The fastest moving solute exits (elutes) the column first then is followed by the remaining solutes in corresponding order. As each solute elutes from the column, it enters the heated detector. An electronic signal is generated upon interaction of the solute with the detector. The size of the signal is recorded by a data system and is plotted against elapsed time to produce a chromatogram The purpose of the gas chromatograph is to separate mixtures into individual components that can be detected and measured one at a time. A plot of the detector output is called a chromatogram, which charts the detectors response as a function of time, showing the separate components. The separation occurs based on differences in affinities for the two phases. As shown in the figure, the sample is introduced into the GC column by way of a heated injector, which volatilizes all three components and introduces them into the gas flowing over the stationary phase. In this example, the compound represented by the arrowhead has the least affinity for the stationary phase. As a result, it moves ahead of the other two components and will reach the detector first. The compound symbolized by the diamond has the greatest affinity for the stationary phase and spends the most time associated with it. As a result, this compound will be the last to reach the detector. Separation has been achieved based on the different affinities of the three types of molecules found in the sample. In reality, complex mixtures cannot always be completely separated, with some compounds emerging from the column simultaneously. This is called coelution, which can often be overcome using detectors such as mass spectrometers (MS).

Gas Filter It filters the gas from solid particles, liquid vapours and other impurities. Gas Flow-meter Turbine gas meter are flow meters. The flow of gas turns a turbine wheel and rotating speed of turbine is proportional to linear speed of gas.

Pressure Regulator: Function of gas pressure regulator is to keep the outlet pressure constant, when inlet pressure vary. The main diaphragm is actuated through an impulse line from outside pressure. The valve remain open as long as outside pressure is below the set value and closes when reaches above set value. Pressure regulator setting can be adjusted by spring screw.

Safety Shut off Valve:


Safety shut off valves control the given gas pressure.
They interrupt the gas flow at excess gas pressure or gas shortage automatically. The diaphragm of shut off valve is actuated by an impulse outside pressure. When pressure excess the set value, spring closes the valve.

Safety Blow Off Valve


Safety blow off valve prevents short pressure peaks in front of gas appliances. When pressure exceeds the set value, It vents the gas outside through vent line.
The diaphragm is actuated from a down impulse bore from inlet pressure.

Double Solenoid Valve


The function of double solenoid valve is to operate or close when an electrical voltage applied to it. When shutdown or tripped, a plc gives it a signal and it immediately cutoff the fuel supply.

Zero Pressure Regulator The function of ZPR is to keep the pressure within 15mbar. Maximum input pressure is 60 t0 70mbar.

Air-Gas Mixer Card/Valve:


The function of Air-gas mixture card is to operate the valve by servo motor to keep the required Air-gas mixture for efficient combustion.
According to Stochiometry, this ratio should be 1:14 (Gas: air).

Turbocharger:
The turbocharger's compressor draws in ambient air-fuel mixture and compresses it before it enters into the intake manifold at increased pressure. This results in a greater mass of air entering the cylinders on each intake stroke. The power needed to spin the centrifugal compressor is derived from the kinetic energy of the engine's exhaust gases

After air-gas mixture, it enters into the 1st stage cooling by Jacket water, then 2nd stage cooling by inter cooler. After cooling to 55C, air-fuel mixture enters into the cylinder for combustion through actuator.

Pre-Chamber Gas Street: