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SRI KALAHASTEESWARA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering.

AIR CRAFT STRUCTURES


by P.CHIRANJEEVI 09381A0309

ABSTRACT:
The inventors of the first airplane were Orville and Wilbur Wright. On December 17, 1903, the Wright brothers made the first successful experiment in which a machine (aka airplane) carrying a man rose by its own power, flew naturally and at even speed, and descended without damage. The Wright Brothers designed their first aircraft: a small, biplane glider flown as a kite to test their solution for controlling the craft by wing warping. Wing warping is a method of arching the wingtips slightly to control the aircraft's rolling motion and balance. In the air craft there are so many parts which are designed in a better manner for the safety and comfort of the passenger. The main aim of topic is to explain each and every part briefly.

INTRODUCTION
o The structure of an aircraft depends on the optimum requirement of the customer and environment conditions. o It contains the basic information regarding the components of aircraft and the basic concept of its design.

MAJOR AIRPLANE COMPONENTS


o Fuselage o Wings o Empennage o Landing gear o Power plant

AIRPLANE COMPONENTS

FUSELAGE
o The fuselage includes the cabin and/or cockpit o Which contains seats for occupants and the controls for the airplane. o The fuselage may also provide attachment for the other major airplane components.

FUSELAGE

Fuselage Design

WINGS
o Wings play a important role in lifting the airplane. o Wings are connected to the fuselage of the airplane.

EMPENNAGE
The tail part of the airplane in aeronautical language is known as Empennage. The empennage plays a key role in turning left or right sides during flying with the help of a stabilizer.

LANDING GEAR
Landing gear is the principle support for airplane during parking ,landing and take off positions.

POWER PLANT
Power plant usually consists of engine and propeller shaft .The power from the engine is transmitted to the propeller shaft.

Function of Aircraft Structures: Part specific


Skin
Reacts the applied torsion and shear forces transmits aerodynamic forces to the longitudinal and transverse supporting members. Acts with the longitudinal members in resisting the applied bending and axial loads.

Ribs and Frames:


1. Structural integration of the wing and fuselage 2. Keep the wing in its aerodynamic profile

Spar: 1. Resist bending and axial loads. 2. Form the wing box for stable torsion resistance.

Stiffener or Stringers: 1. Resist bending and axial loads along with the skin. 2. Divide the skin into small panels and thereby increase its buckling and failing stresses. 3. Act with the skin in resisting axial loads caused by pressurization.

Air Frame

AIRPLANE FORCES

AIRPLANE FORCES
Thrust Force: It is caused by a propeller. This aerodynamic force pulls the airplane forward through space. Drag force: The opposing aerodynamic force is Drag. It is mainly resists the motion of an object. Ex: If you stick your hand out of glass window while moving. Youll experience very simple. The amount of drag that your hand depends on a few factors.

1) The size of hand 2) The speed of car 3) The density of air. If car is moving slow, drag force on the hand is decrease. Thrust must be equal to OR grater than the drag. The amount of drag becomes larger than the amount of thrust, the plane will slow down.

If the thrust is increased so that its grater than the drag, the plane will speed up. Weight Force: It is acting in downward direction because of gravity. Lift Force: As air speeds up, its pressure drops so the faster moving air moving over the wing. The slower air moving underneath the wing. This result upward push of lift force.

CONCLUSION
These are the various parts of the modern aircraft which are designed in a better manner for the safety and comfort of the passengers. These are the various structures developed with additional features in newly designed airplanes such as Aloha 243,concordo flight 4590 in iceland.

REFERENCES
Mr. Shikhar. Chaturvedi, Technical Executive and Managing director for Taneja Aerospace and Aviation Limited, Bangalore. www.natgeotv.co.in/aircrashinvestigation/aloh a243 www.natgeotv.co.in/aircrashinvestigation/con corde4590 Aircraft Structure by John D Anderson.