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ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES

TOPICS OF DISCUSSION

INTRODUCTION DIFFUSION IN SPATIAL SETTING THE CATALYTIC ROLE OF GEOGRAPHICAL CLOSENESS IN ADOPTION OF AMTS AUTO-COMPONENT INDUSTRY IN INDIA CHALLENGES AND PRESENT STATUS GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION AND IMPORTANCE OF MACHINERY SUPPLIERS, CUSTOMERS AND COMPETITORS TOOL AND CUTTER GRINDING CUTTING THE HARD STUFF RIGHT APPLICATIONS AMT CONCLUDING REMARKS

INTRODUCTION

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The feature of embedded ness of a firm into its environment, implied in the systemic approach - the fact that a proper explanation of the firm's behavior thrives largely on the definition of closeness, - in the 'relational' and 'physical' sense.

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Research in the last few decades have mainly - analysis and modeling-implies that intensity in the 'relational' space and magnitude of the 'distance' space governs the process of adoption

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Taking the specific case of auto component industry in India, our investigation shows that being physically closer to other firms - customers and machinery suppliers is very important for the adoption -AMT

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DIFFUSION IN A SPATIAL SETTING

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The process of diffusion is a very complex -socioeconomic phenomenon

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In recent years, particularly since the last decade, there is a resurgence of interest in the broad institutional context of diffusion - Implied in this is the idea that even though the root of the process of adoption is grounded in the firm, the connectedness of the firm with other firms, and other organizations has significant impact .

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Due to the presence of similar firms, the potential adopter can gather first hand information about the traits new technologies and by that way a greater amount of expected uncertainty of adoption could be reduced.

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THE CATALYTIC ROLE OF GEOGRAPHICAL CLOSENESS IN ADOPTION OF AMTS

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It is often held geographical proximity sustains the interactions - makes them stronger and more effective by facilitating - face-to-face communication .

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In a long distance communication - would involve a lot of cost in terms of time and resources to build mutual trust or personal relation. In contrast when there is physical closeness - easier to develop close personal relationships, as it would be reinforced by commonality of culture and social solidarity.

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Importance of locational proximity - understood is apparent in the case of new process technologies require multiple sets of complementary Advanced manufacturing techniques, - FLEXIBLE AUTOMATION TECHNIQUES,

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Obviously - when a firm is purchasing an AMT, a large degree of uncertainty surrounds the future use qualities of these capital goods - a wise firm is less inclined to purchase these advanced capital goods through a 'simple, discrete, off-the shelf' market transactions - more motivated towards an 'organized market' transaction.

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The interactive perspective sees the benefits to the users in three distinct stages the preinstallation phase of design and production, phase of installation and start up - of normal operation of the new process installation .

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AUTO-COMPONENT INDUSTRY IN INDIA, CHALLENGES AND PRESENT STATUS

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The automotive industry plays a pivotal role in Indias economy, both by directly contributing a major share - indirectly, but noticeably - by stimulating growth in other core sectors of the economy

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The extent and quality of spillovers from this industry therefore - depends largely on the type and level of technology it is using - the automotive industry is known to be the largest user of AMTs in generaL- the study of adoption of AMTs for this industry is apparently crucial.

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The auto-component sector has emerged as an important industry in its own right because of the momentous changes in technology, organization and trade15. The component industry in India, like in any other country, is mainly driven by the changes that are taking place in the global automotive component industry since the mid-eighties.

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Their role has significantly increased not only in production but in design as well. Due to the opening up of the automotive sector to the global players, the last decade has seen a vastly changed scenario as far as the vehicle production is concerned.

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The most spectacular change has been in the passenger car segment. From just three main players in the early eighties, the segment today has about twenty, including major international firms viz., General Motors (GM), Ford, Mercedes, Honda, Daewoo, Hyundai, Fiat etc. These firms have infused fiercer competition in recent years.

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As the auto assemblers are continuously introducing more complex parts, the component firms need to upgrade their capabilities in order to keep pace with them. The auto component firms are being increasingly called upon to move up in the value chain and develop technology intensive product baskets.

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The availability of highly skilled and educated workforce (primarily English-speaking managers), low-cost manufacturing base and the partnering linkages with global supply chain are some of the advantages that lend the Indian industry an edge over other developing countries

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Most of the auto-component firms in India are still producing old and technologically less sophisticated components for lower vintages of automobiles. This poses a great threat of getting eliminated by large overseas component producers.

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The bottom line argument thus remains that of adoptions of newer technologies in the form of advanced manufacturing techniques and advanced management practices.

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GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION AND IMPORTANCE OF MACHINERY SUPPLIERS, CUSTOMERS AND COMPETITORS

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In this section we analyze the responses to some of the questions asked in the survey, which have direct bearing on the importance of geographical proximity

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Geographical proximity has been perceived to be very important by the auto component firms

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Both customers and machinery suppliers are important facilitators of adoption process though impact of similar firms cannot be denied.

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Presence of customers in the neighbourhood seems to be more important than that of machinery suppliers

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TOOL AND CUTTER GRINDING

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Like most other decisions in industry, deciding how and where to sharpen tools is a product-specific choice. It depends on overall cost, not just the rework fee.

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The overall goal is achieving good surface-finish and accuracy at high speed.

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A unique feature of our machine is automated dressing. The user simply sets the frequency and the dresser does the rest. Measuring the reworked tool is an important aspect of the process.

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CUTTING THE HARD STUFF RIGHT

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Compared to standard machining of traditional materials (steel, Al), successful precision machining of hard materials is more sensitive to parameters such as machine-tool accuracy, stiffness, toolholder design, cutting-tool material and geometry, fixturing coolant presentation, and machining technique

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Material hardness is defined by its resistance to permanent deformation. Hardness shouldn't be confused with the modulus or toughness of the material. It's the combination of elastic and plastic properties that determine a material's resistance to permanent deformation

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It's the hardness characteristics of these materials that make them candidates for commercial uses including: semiconductor applications; aerospace instrumentation
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Machine-tool and metrology-systems manufacturers are moving toward harder materials such as MMCs and straight ceramics to improve the stiffness of machine beds and frames, and to provide enhanced thermal performance, reduced susceptibility to corrosion, and extended service life.

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A key design factor in machine tools is the rigidity or stiffness of the cutting tool to the workpiece. Obviously, components and subassemblies must also have high stiffness. Machine stiffness is a major contributing factor to overall machine accuracy and performance.

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Coolant presentation is an extremely important factor to consider in precision machining of hard materials. In any machining operation, heat must be controlled and removed from the tool and workpiece rapidly and consistently

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APPLICATIONS

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A major new breakthrough in composites manufacturing technology is not likely to occur in the foreseeable future. Most likely, there will be a series of improvements to existing manufacturing technologies, and manufacturing concepts already generated will be proven .

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Small to medium size stitched/RTM parts have been fabricated with some success; however, the fabrication of complete wing skins and box by this method is a long way off . For this technology to be incorporated into wing design, an appropriate automatic stitching machine has to be developed

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Filament Winding is a mature manufacturing technique which has been in existence for a long time. Improvements in automation, speed, variable thickness,, consistent quality, flexibility in fiber orientation, control of resin and void content, and shapes other than cylinders will be seen before more versatility appears in application

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Pultrusion method has the potential for cost reduction, but current technology is limited to constant cross sections and is restricted in fiber orientation. Pultrusion is not as popular as metal extrusions

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Continuous Sandwich Panel method is already used in production. However, it is limited to making flat constant sandwich panels. Future improvements will increase speed of fabrication and quality.

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CONCLUDING REMARKS

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Demand-side uncertainties of the firms constrain them to go for these highly expensive forms of technologies. The more reliable their customers are, the less is the possible risk that they would not have consistent demand in order to justify their investment in these kinds of technologies

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Therefore, being physically close to the customers allows them to develop a more sustainable and long term relation, which would reduce their risks of adoption

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QUERIES ????

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