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Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter 01

Auditing and Assurance Services

“Our system of capital formation relies upon the confidence of

millions of savers to invest in companies.

The auditor’s opinion is critical to that trust."

-- James R. Doty, Chairman

Public Company Oversight Board (PCAOB)

Learning Objectives

Define information risk and explain how the financial statement auditing process helps to reduce this risk, thereby reducing the cost of capital for a company.

Define and contrast financial statement auditing, attestation, and assurance type services.

Describe and define the assertions that management makes about the recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of the financial statements and explain why auditors use them as the focal point of the audit.

Define professional skepticism and explain its key characteristics.

Describe the organization of public accounting firms and identify the various services that they offer.

Describe the audits and auditors in governmental, internal, and operational auditing.

List and explain the requirements for becoming a certified information

professional.

User Demand for Reliable Information

• Today’s information

More complex Demanded by remote users Demanded in a more timely manner Has far reaching consequences

Information risk

The risk that the information disseminated by a company will be materially false or misleading.

Users demand an independent third party assessment of the information

Business risk

The risk that an entity will fail to meet its stated business objectives

Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

Management’s Responsibility For Financial Reporting

One of its most important provisions clearly indicates that the management team is responsible for the financial reporting process and the financial statements.

In fact, Section 302 of the Act states that the key company officials must certify the financial statements. That is, the company CEO and CFO must sign a statement indicating:

  • 1. They have read the financial statements.

  • 2. They are not aware of any false or misleading statements (or any key omitted disclosures).

  • 3. They believe that the financial statements present an accurate picture of the company’s financial condition.

Source: U.S. Congress, Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, Pub. L. 107-204, 116 Stat/ 745 (2002).

Management’s Financial

Statement Assertions (PCAOB)

Existence or occurrence Assets and liabilities included in

the accounts exist and recorded transactions are valid and have

actually occurred.

Rights and obligations- Entity has a legal claim on all assets and revenues reported and has a legal responsibility for all liabilities and expenses

Completeness - All balances and transactions have been recorded in the financial statements

Valuation or allocation Assets, liabilities and recorded transactions have been valued in accordance with GAAP

Presentation and disclosure All accounts are presented in the appropriate place and all information required has been disclosed in the statements and footnotes.

Management’s Financial

Statement Assertions (ASB)

Assertions about Events and Transactions

Occurrence Events giving rise to transactions are valid and have taken place

Completeness and Cutoff - All transactions have

been recorded and are recorded in the appropriate period Accuracy Transactions are recorded at the correct

amount Classification Transactions have been posted to the proper account

Management’s Financial

Statement Assertions (ASB)

Assertions about Account Balances

Existence Balances include only assets and liabilities that exist

Rights and obligations Entity has legal claim on all assets and revenues reported and has a legal responsibility for

all liabilities and expenses

Completeness Balances include all items that should be included in accordance with GAAP

Accuracy and valuation Balances are reported at the proper amount in accordance with GAAP

Management’s Financial

Statement Assertions (ASB)

Assertions about Presentation and Disclosures Occurrence and rights and obligations items presented

have occurred and are either owned by or represent the responsibility of the entity

Completeness the proper disclosures have all been made by the entity

Classification and understandability accounts in the

disclosures have been appropriately grouped and users can comprehend the disclosures

Accuracy and valuation the amounts in the disclosures have been properly measured and are valued in accordance with GAAP

Exhibit 1.5: Assertions and their

Relationships to the Financial Statements

Exhibit 1.5: Assertions and their Relationships to the Financial Statements 1-10

Professional Skepticism

Refers to an auditor’s questioning mindset towards

representations made by management and evidential matter gathered

Inquiry alone is never enough. The auditor must obtain sufficient corroborative evidence.

Unusual financial trends need investigation

Documents are always checked for authenticity or possible alteration Ask questions, get answers, then verify the answers.

Must be skeptical because a potential conflict of interest

always exists between the auditor and the client.

Management wants to portray the company and its operations in the best possible light. Auditors want to make sure that this portrayal is fair and accurate.

Types of Audits and Auditors

Financial (External Auditors/CPAs)

Ensure that financial statements are reliable

Operational (Internal and Governmental Auditors/CIAs)

Improve operational economy Improve operational efficiency

Compliance (Internal and Governmental Auditors)

Ensure compliance with company and/or governmental rules and regulations

Forensic (Fraud Auditors/CFEs)

Designed to investigate a crime and will often involve gathering evidence designed to convict a fraudster