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Derived Nouns and Adjectives

Georgia Center for Language

Overview
Outline

Part I
Verbal Nouns Active Participles Passive Participles Nouns of Place and Time

Part II
Nouns of Instance Nouns of Intensity and Profession Nouns of Instruments, Vehicles, and Vessels Relative Adjectives (Nisba) Nouns of Concept (Feminine Nisba)

Derived Nouns and Adjectives


Noun: a word that is the name of something (as in a person (Bob), animal (cat), place (field), thing (pencil), quality (goodness), idea (feminism) or action (spitting). Adjective: a word typically serving as a modifier of a noun to denote a quality of the thing named (the barbarous tribes), to indicate its quantity or extent (the vast armies), or to specify a thing as distinct from something else (the Roman legion).

Derived Nouns and Adjectives


Part I Verbal Nouns Active Participles Passive Participles Nouns of Place and Time

The Verbal Noun

Meaning and Use


In English, we make nouns out of verbs by adding noun-forming suffixes, of which there are more than twenty:

-tion: Hibernate/Hibernation; Qualify/Qualification Gerund suffix -ing: Bake/Baking; Cook/Cooking -ant: Defend/Defendant; Claim/Claimant More Suffixes

The Arabic serves the same function as the English noun-forming suffix. Arabic has a small set of predictable, fixed noun-forming patterns, with one verbal noun pattern for each measure, with the exception of measure I.

Verbal Nouns I-X


Measure I ( )

Measure II ( )
=

More than 40 forms exist. Most common forms: = = =

Verbal Nouns I-X


) ( Measure III ) ( Measure IV ) ( Measure V
=
=

= =

) ( Measure VI
=

Verbal Nouns I-X


) ( Measure VII ) ( Measure VIII ) ( Measure IX
= = =

) ( Measure X
=

The Active Participle


Meaning and Use

Noun: the doer of the action of the verb


= Adjective: attributes the description of the verbs meaning to the noun it modifies
To be clear (verb) = clear (adjective) To write = writer

Active Participles
Measure I

Sound verbs = Hollow verbs ) = ( Assimilated verbs = Defective verbs () = Doubled verbs =

Active Participles
Active Participles for Measures II-X

Formed by adding the prefix and voweling the second radical of the root with the kesra II III IV V VI VII VIII IX - X -

The Passive Participle


Meaning and Use

Something that has undergone the action of the verb


Noun = Adjective

To employ = employee (one who has been employed)

To write = written (something that has been written)

Passive Participles
Measure I

Sound verbs

Hollow verbs

Assimilated verbs Defective Verbs

) = ( ) = ( = = = =

Doubled Verbs

Passive Participles
Passive Participles for Measures II-X

Formed by adding the prefix and voweling the second radical of the root with a fatha II
III IV V VI X

VIII

The Noun of Place and Time


Meaning and use

Show the location or time of the action of the verb Patterns for Measure I

Patterns for Measures II-X follow the pattern of the passive participle

= = =

Other Derived Nouns


Part II
Nouns of Instance Nouns of Intensity and Profession Nouns of Instruments, Vehicles, and Vessels Relative Adjectives (Nisba) Nouns of Concept (Feminine Nisba)

The Noun of Instance


Meaning and Use

Nouns of Instance are used to indicate one occurrence of the meaning of the verb.
To strike = a strike or hit To punch = a hit or punch

To sit = session

The Noun of Intensity and Profession


Meaning and Use

Nouns of Intensity and Profession denote intensive meaning of the active participle.
Verb = Active Participle = Noun of Intensity/Profession To do = Doer = Effective (Done very well) To cook = one who is cooking = chef (professional cook)

= =

To steal = thief = professional thief


To shoot = shooter = sharpshooter

= =

= =

= =

Nouns of Intensity and Profession


, ,

Other patterns Schulz pg. 74

The Noun of Instruments, Vehicles, and Vessels


Meaning and Use

The feminine form of the Nouns of Intensity and Profession often denote Instruments and Vehicles.
Verb = Noun of Intensity/Profession = Noun of Instrument/Vehicle

To dive = professional diver = submarine

= =

To wash = launderer (profession) = washing machine

) = = ( = =

Nouns of Instrument, Vehicles and Vessels


Other patterns
= = = =

For more examples and patterns see Schulz pg. 77-79

The Relative Adjective


Meaning and Use

By adding the suffix or to nouns, the noun becomes an adjective related to the nouns original meaning.

= = = = = =

The Noun of Concept


Meaning and Use

The Feminine Nisba is formed by adding the suffix to a noun, and it is often used to denote an abstract idea or concept.
Expression = Expressionism

Capital = Capitalism

Nation = Nationalism

Bibliography
All the Arabic You Never Learned the First Time Around by Jim Price A Student Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic by Eckehard Schulz