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1.

Number Systems
Location in course textbook

Chapt. 2 ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Common Number Systems


Used by humans? Yes No No No Used in computers? No Yes No No

System
Decimal Binary Octal Hexadecimal

Base Symbols
10 2 8 16 0, 1, 9 0, 1 0, 1, 7 0, 1, 9, A, B, F

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Quantities/Counting (1 of 3)
Decimal 0 1 2 Binary 0 1 10 HexaOctal decimal 0 1 2 0 1 2

3 4 5 6 7
ITEC 1011

11 100 101 110 111

3 4 5 6 7

3 4 5 6 7
p. 33

Introduction to Information Technologies

Quantities/Counting (2 of 3)
Decimal 8 9 10 Binary 1000 1001 1010 HexaOctal decimal 10 11 12 8 9 A

11 12 13 14 15
ITEC 1011

1011 1100 1101 1110 1111

13 14 15 16 17

B C D E F

Introduction to Information Technologies

Quantities/Counting (3 of 3)
Decimal 16 17 18 Binary 10000 10001 10010 HexaOctal decimal 20 21 22 10 11 12

19 20 21 22 23
ITEC 1011

10011 10100 10101 10110 10111

23 24 25 26 27

13 14 15 16 17

Etc.

Introduction to Information Technologies

Conversion Among Bases


The possibilities:
Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal
pp. 40-46

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Quick Example

2510 = 110012 = 318 = 1916


Base

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Decimal to Decimal (just for fun)

Decimal

Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal
Next slide

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Weight 12510 => 5 x 100 2 x 101 1 x 102 = 5 = 20 = 100 125

Base

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Binary to Decimal
Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Binary to Decimal
Technique
Multiply each bit by 2n, where n is the weight of the bit The weight is the position of the bit, starting from 0 on the right Add the results

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Example
Bit 0 1010112 => 1 1 0 1 0 1 x x x x x x 20 21 22 23 24 25 = = = = = = 1 2 0 8 0 32 4310

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Binary to Octal
Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Binary to Octal
Technique
Group bits in threes, starting on right Convert to octal digits

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Example
10110101112 = ?8

1 011 010 111

10110101112 = 13278
ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Binary to Hexadecimal
Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Binary to Hexadecimal
Technique
Group bits in fours, starting on right Convert to hexadecimal digits

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Example
10101110112 = ?16

10 1011 1011

10101110112 = 2BB16
ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Decimal to Binary
Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Decimal to Binary
Technique
Divide by two, keep track of the remainder First remainder is bit 0 (LSB, least-significant bit) Second remainder is bit 1 Etc.

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Example
12510 = ?2 2 125 2 62 2 31 2 15 7 2 3 2 1 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1

12510 = 11111012
ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Decimal to Octal
Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Decimal to Octal
Technique
Divide by 8 Keep track of the remainder

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Example
123410 = ?8

8 8 8 8

1234 154 19 2 0

2 2 3 2

123410 = 23228

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Decimal to Hexadecimal
Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Decimal to Hexadecimal
Technique
Divide by 16 Keep track of the remainder

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Example
123410 = ?16

16 16 16

1234 77 4 0

2 13 = D 4

123410 = 4D216

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Octal to Binary
Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Octal to Binary
Technique
Convert each octal digit to a 3-bit equivalent binary representation

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Example
7058 = ?2

111 000 101

7058 = 1110001012
ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Octal to Decimal
Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Octal to Decimal
Technique
Multiply each bit by 8n, where n is the weight of the bit The weight is the position of the bit, starting from 0 on the right Add the results

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Example

7248 =>

4 x 80 = 2 x 81 = 7 x 82 =

4 16 448 46810

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Octal to Hexadecimal
Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Octal to Hexadecimal
Technique
Use binary as an intermediary

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Example
10768 = ?16 1 0 7 6

001
2

000
3

111

110
E

10768 = 23E16
ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Hexadecimal to Binary
Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Hexadecimal to Binary
Technique
Convert each hexadecimal digit to a 4-bit equivalent binary representation

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Example
10AF16 = ?2

0001 0000 1010 1111

10AF16 = 00010000101011112
ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Hexadecimal to Decimal
Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Hexadecimal to Decimal
Technique
Multiply each bit by 16n, where n is the weight of the bit The weight is the position of the bit, starting from 0 on the right Add the results

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Example

ABC16 =>

C x 160 = 12 x 1 = 12 B x 161 = 11 x 16 = 176 A x 162 = 10 x 256 = 2560 274810

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Hexadecimal to Octal
Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Hexadecimal to Octal
Technique
Use binary as an intermediary

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Example
1F0C16 = ?8 1 F 0 C

0001
1

1111
7 4

0000
1

1100
4

1F0C16 = 174148
ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Exercise Convert ...


Decimal 33 Binary 1110101 Octal

Hexadecimal

703
1AF
Dont use a calculator!
Skip answer
ITEC 1011

Answer

Introduction to Information Technologies

Exercise Convert
Answer

Decimal 33 117

Binary 100001 1110101

Octal 41 165

Hexadecimal
21 75

451
431

111000011
110101111

703
657

1C3
1AF

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Common Powers (1 of 2)
Base 10
Power
10-12 10-9 10-6 10-3 103

Preface pico nano micro milli kilo

Symbol p n m k

Value .000000000001 .000000001 .000001 .001 1000

106
109 1012

mega
giga tera

M
G T

1000000
1000000000 1000000000000

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Common Powers (2 of 2)
Base 2
Power
210 220 230

Preface kilo mega Giga

Symbol k M G

Value 1024 1048576 1073741824

What is the value of k, M, and G? In computing, particularly w.r.t. memory, the base-2 interpretation generally applies
ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Example
In the lab 1. Double click on My Computer 2. Right click on C: 3. Click on Properties

/ 230 =

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Exercise Free Space


Determine the free space on all drives on a machine in the lab
Free space
Drive A: C: D: E: etc.

Bytes

GB

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Review multiplying powers


For common bases, add powers
ab ac = ab+c

26 210 = 216 = 65,536


or

26 210 = 64 210 = 64k


ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Binary Addition (1 of 2)
Two 1-bit values
A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 A+B 0 1 1 10

two
pp. 36-38

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Binary Addition (2 of 2)
Two n-bit values
Add individual bits Propagate carries E.g., 10101 + 11001 101110
1 1

21 + 25 46

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Multiplication (1 of 3)
Decimal (just for fun)
35 x 105 175 000 35 3675
pp. 39 ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Multiplication (2 of 3)
Binary, two 1-bit values
A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 AB 0 0 0 1

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Multiplication (3 of 3)
Binary, two n-bit values
As with decimal values E.g., 1110 x 1011 1110 1110 0000 1110 10011010
ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Fractions
Decimal to decimal (just for fun)

3.14 =>

4 x 10-2 = 0.04 1 x 10-1 = 0.1 3 x 100 = 3 3.14

pp. 46-50 ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Fractions
Binary to decimal
10.1011 => 1 1 0 1 0 1 x x x x x x 2-4 2-3 2-2 2-1 20 21 = = = = = = 0.0625 0.125 0.0 0.5 0.0 2.0 2.6875

pp. 46-50 ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Fractions
Decimal to binary
3.14579
.14579 x 2 0.29158 x 2 0.58316 x 2 1.16632 x 2 0.33264 x 2 0.66528 x 2 1.33056 etc. p. 50 ITEC 1011

11.001001...

Introduction to Information Technologies

Exercise Convert ...


Hexadecimal

Decimal 29.8

Binary
101.1101

Octal

3.07 C.82
Dont use a calculator!
Skip answer
ITEC 1011

Answer

Introduction to Information Technologies

Exercise Convert
Answer

Decimal 29.8
5.8125 3.109375 12.5078125

Binary Octal 11101.110011 35.63


101.1101 11.000111 1100.10000010 5.64 3.07 14.404

Hexadecimal 1D.CC 5.D 3.1C C.82

ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies

Thank you

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ITEC 1011

Introduction to Information Technologies