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What is column

The columns in a structure carry the loads from the beams and slabs down to the foundations and therefore they are primarily compression members , although they may also have to resist bending forces and to the continuity structure.

h larger of the two cross-section dimension b Smaller of the two cross-section dimension Lex - Effective height w.r.t major axis of bending

Ley Effective height w.r.t minor axis of bending


Lox- Clear height between restrains w.r.t major axis Loy Clear height between restrains w.r.t minor axis

Main classification of columns

Effective height

of a column
+ . + . +

For braced members


= . +

For braced members

nonfailing column failing column

beam End 1

For unbraced members For un-braced members


+ + +

= +
End 2

and =

Effective length for isolated members


nonfailing column

Effective length factor ,F , for braced columns

Column effective lengths

300 mm

500 mm

Slenderness ratio of a column

Effective lengths for isolated members Euercode 2 states that second order effects may be ignored if they are less that 10% of the first order effects. As an alternative, if the slenderness is less than the slenderness limit , then second order effects may be ignored.

Limiting slenderness ratio- short or slender columns


= effective creep ratio( if not known A can be taken as 0.7) = ( if not known B can be taken as 1.1 )

fyd = the design yield strength of the reinforcement = design compressive strength of the reinforcement = the total area of longitudinal reinforcement
Calculating factor C

= the design ultimate axial load in the column = 01 02 ( if not known then C can be taken as 0.7 )

01 , 02 are the first order moments at the end of the column with 01 02

Design bending moments

1. 2. 3.

Short columns resisting moments and axial forces


The area of longitudinal steel for these columns is determined by, using design charts or constructing M-N interaction diagrams a solution of the basic design equations an approximate method

Load N Moment M

Moment M Load N

The basic equations derived for a rectangular section as shown in figure and with a rectangular stress block are,

1. For the depth to the neutral axis x determine the strain sc in the compression and the strain st in the tension steel.

steel

2. Determine the steel stresses fsc in compression and fst in tension from the stress-strain diagram .The forces in the steel are Cs= fscAs in compression and T=fstAs in tension.

design ultimate axial load design ultimate moment the depth of the stress block = 0.8x the area of longitudinal reinforcement in the more highly compressed face = the area of reinforcement in the other face the stress in reinforcement the stress in reinforcement ,negative when tesile.

For most column,biaxial bending will not govern the design. Buildings internal and edge columns will not usually cause large moments in both directions. Corner columns may have to resist significant bending about both axes,but the axial loads are usually small and a design similar to the adjacent edge columns is generally adequate. For members with a rectangular cross section,separate checks in the two principal planes are permissible if the ratio of the corresponding eccentricities satisfies one of the following conditions.

Subject to the following conditions; a) if


then the increased single axis design moment is


= +

b) if

<

then the increased single axis design moment is


= +

= 1

Values of coefficient

Design of slender columns

1. A general method based on a non-linear analysis of the structure and allowing for second-order effects that necessitates the use of computer analysis. 2. A second-order analysis based on nominal stiffness values of the beams and column that,again,requires computer analysis using a process of iterative analysis. 3. The moment magnification method where the design moment are obtained by factoring the first-order moment. 4. The norminal curvature method where second-order moments are determined from an estimation of the column curvature.These secon-order moments are added to the first-order moments to give the total column design moment