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CHAPTER 13

WATER POLLUTION & TREATMENT

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Definition
It refers to the degradation of water quality at which the water cannot be used for its existing, intended and potential purpose anymore.

It is usually due to anthropogenic activities.


A pollutant is any biological, physical and chemical substance that is known to be harmful to other desirable living organisms.
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Point source pollution Point source pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway through a discrete conveyance, such as a pipe or ditch. Examples of sources in this category include discharges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory, or a city storm drain.
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Non-point source pollution


Non-point source (NPS) pollution refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source. NPS pollution is often accumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. The leaching out of nitrogen compounds from agricultural land which has been fertilized is a typical example. Nutrient runoff in stormwater from "sheet flow" over an agricultural field or a forest are also cited as examples of NPS pollution.
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Water Pollutants
Waste effluent (Industrial) Urban run-off (sewage) Agricultural run-off (pesticides) Oil spillage (petroleum) Acid precipitation (SO2, NOx) Suspended solids

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Pollution Category
According to UK Environment Agency, pollution can be categorized into 3 categories based on the severity. Category 1 involves one of the following: Closure of a source of water abstraction Extensive fish kill Potential or actual persistent on water quality or aquatic life Major effect on the amenity value of receiving water Extensive subsequent remedial measures.
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Category 2 is less severe and may cause Necessity to notify downstream abstractors Significant fish kill Render water unfit for livestock Measurable effect on animal life in water Contaminate the bed of river Reduce the amenity value of water to their owners or to the general public.

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Category 3 is relatively minor and has no significant or lasting effect on the receiving water.

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The New River flows at 200 cfs as it enters California. The water at this point is three colors: dark green, white (foam), and milky brown/green.

Point source pollution

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Water Treatment

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Level of Water Treatment


Primary treatment involves eliminating parts of the solids from the WW. Normally, physical treatment is involved. Secondary treatment involves removal of organic matter and remaining suspended material. Normally, biological treatment is required. Advanced treatment involves removal of suspended and dissolved materials. (Usually, chemical treatment is applied)
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Water Treatment
Water treatment is basically categorized into physical and chemical treatment. Biological treatment is integrated in some of the treatment processes. Physical treatment Screening Sedimentation Filtration Chemical treatment Coagulation Disinfection Ion exchange

Mixing Flocculation
Aeration Membrane Filtration
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Adsorption Chemical Oxidation


Chemical Precipitation
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Physical Process - Screening


First treatment process Course Screens:
Easily separate and remove large matter carried along by the raw water, which might negatively affect the efficiency of later treatment procedures or make their implementation more difficult.

Fine Screens: Remove floating and suspended material


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Physical Process - Sedimentation


-A detention process to allow the settlement of flocculated/suspended particles. -Suspended material may be particles, such as clay or silts, originally present in the source water.

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Physical Process - Filtration


To remove residual solids that remain in water after settling. Filter bed is made of layers of sand, gravels and charcoal.

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Chemical Process- Chemicals Mixing


Coagulants: To coagulate suspended solids and materials. Lime-soda ash: To treat water hardness Rapid mixing removes dissolved gases
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Flocculation
in the field of chemistry, is a process where in colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flakes by the addition of a clarifying agent.

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Chemical process - Flocculation and Coagulation


A process where small and suspended particles are joined to form larger particles so that they can settle at the bottom of the treatment tank.

Alum (Al3+) is usually used. Iron salts or synthetic organic polymers can also be used. Al2O3, FeSO4..
Colour may be removed through this process.
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Chemical Process - Disinfection


To destroy the pathogenic organisms present in the water. Types of disinfection include Chlorination, Ozone and UV radiation.

Colour and odour may be removed through this process.


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Chemical Process - Ion Exchange


It is basically used for softening water. The hardness in the water exchanges with ions from the ion-exchange material. When the ion-exchange material becomes saturated,. hardness will not be removed anymore
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Chemical Process - Ion Exchange (contd)


The ion exchange material can either be zeolites or synthetic resins. The zeolites and resins are characterized by the amount of hardness they can remove per volume of resin material and amount of salt needed for regeneration.

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Chemical Process - Ion Exchange (contd)


Synthetically made resins have higher exchange capacity and require less salt for regeneration compared to zeolites. They virtually remove 100% of water hardness which is not desired.

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Chemical Process - Adsorption


Adsorption is a process where a substance is transferred from liquid to the surface of a solid. Has been used since 1950 at US

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Adsorption
Adsorption is used to treat odor, taste, synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), THMs precursors and Disinfection by-products (DBPs). Able to remove contaminants until < 10 ppm. Able to be reused by regeneration process with acid. High efficiency, most common chemical treatment technique.
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Chemical Process - Membrane Process


A membrane is a thin layer of material that is able to separate materials as a function of their physical and chemical properties when a driving force is applied across the membrane. The membrane type depends on the target compounds.
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Feed

Permeate

The membrane acts like a barrier and only allows certain substance to pass through.

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Chemical Process - Chemical Precipitation


Removal of phosphorus, heavy metals. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) and alum are commonly used (can be added in aeration tank).

Settling tanks are required for settlement of precipitates.


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Chemical Process- Ammonia

stripping
Remove ammonia. It can be done by raising the pH to convert the ammonium ion into ammonia and be stripped from the water by passing large quantities of air through the water.

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Disinfection

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Chlorination
Chlorine may be used as element (Cl2), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), or calcium hypochlorite [Ca(OCl)2)]. When chlorine is added to water, a mixture of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) is formed.

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Chlorine Dioxide
It is a very strong oxidant. It is formed by combining chlorine and sodium chlorite. It does not persist long enough as a distribution-system disinfectant.

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Ozonation
It is a powerful oxidant which is more effective than chlorine in destroying viruses and cysts in water. However, it does not persist in water and decay back to oxygen in minutes.

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UV radiation
UV light disrupts the genetic material in cells of pathogenic organisms, causing them unable to reproduce and cannot cause an infection. It is effective in destroying Cryptosporidium, Giardia and viruses. Turbidity may affect the performance of UV disinfection system.
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Bonus (0.5)

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