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Sequence the formation of sedimentary rocks Explain the process of lithification Describe features of sedimentary rocks

Mechanical/Physical
Breakdown of rock Does not change the rocks composition Only changes size and shape

Chemical
Changes the chemical composition of rocks
Acid rain, rust, calcite*

Weathering and Erosion


Breakdown of rocks = weathering Small particles of rocks = sediments
Particles range from really small to very large

Movement of sediments = erosion Deposition


Sediments have been carried then deposited Larger sediments deposit first

Lithification
Sediments are turned into sedimentary rocks
Compaction
Particles pushed together due to more and more deposition Water and air gets squeezed out

Cementation
Minerals grow and cement compressed particles together

Sedimentary Features
Bedding
The making of layers that go horizontal in the rocks

Graded bedding
Small particles layer at the top of a layer Larger particles layer are at the bottom layer

Cross bedding

Ripple marks
Small ridges made by wind, waves or river current

Sorting and Rounding


Harder minerals generally take long to break apart When sediments move they break apart and get rounded

Describe the types of clastic sedimentary rocks Explain how chemical sedimentary rocks form Describe biochemical sedimentary rocks

Types of Sedimentary rocks


Clastic
Rocks made of particles of other rocks
Coarse grained
Gravel sized particles

Medium grained
Sand sized particles

Fine grained
Silt/clay size particles

Chemical and Biochemical


Result due to evaporation and precipitation of minerals Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
Crystals precipitate out due to saturation Crystals settle on the bottom Called evaporites

Biochemical
Formed from the remains of once living things Shells settle on bottom are buried Lithification then occurs Water gets pushed out Rocks like limestone are made

Compare and Contrast the different types and causes of metamorphism Distinguish among metamorphic textures Explain how mineral and compositional changes occur during metamorphism Apply the rock cycle to explain how rocks are classified

Recognize metamorphic rocks


Metamorphism = to change Changes result due to heat and pressure High heat needed for metamorphism comes from the earths interior

Metamorphic Textures
Foliated
Rocks that have undergone great pressure Cause mineral to be compressed This compression causes rocks to have layers

Non-Foliated
Rocks that have undergone great pressure and heat

Types of Metamorphism
Regional
High temperatures and pressure affect an entire area

Contact metamorphism
Magma comes into contact with already existing rocks changes the existing rocks

Hydrothermal metamorphism
Hot water reacts with rocks Gold, copper, zinc, and lead are formed this way

Economic Importance of Metamorphic Rocks


Trade materialsGold, silver, copper and lead Building materialsmarble, slate