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Cathode ray Oscilloscope

Prof.S.Lakshminarayana, M.Tech.,Ph.D.,

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UNIT III Analog Oscilloscope: CRT features, Deflection: Electromagnetic, Electrostatic, Post Deflection Acceleration. Block Diagram of CRO: Vertical Section, Attenuator, Vertical Amplifier, Delay line. Horizontal Section. Time Base, Sweep Modes, Triggered sweep. Oscilloscope Probes: Active and Passive Types, Dual trace oscilloscope: Block Diagram, Functioning of Digital Storage Oscilloscope.

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Tube Photograph
Karl Ferdinand Braun invented the CRT oscilloscope as a physics curiosity in 1897.

The first dual beam oscilloscope was developed in the late 1930s by the British company A.C.Cossor (later acquired by Raytheon).

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Tube Diagram
y plates x plates

anode

heater supply

- + H.T. supply

phosphor screen

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electron gun photograph

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summary
y plates
electron gun produces a beam of electrons

x plates
light produced on the screen by electron beam

heater supply

anode

a p.d. across the y plates deflects the trace vertically

a p.d. across the x plates deflects the trace horizontally

- + H.T. supply

phosphor screen

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Power Supply: -1500V to 1000V; +300V. A potential divider circuit will supply voltages to different electrodes as shown. Intensity: Applied between Cathode and Control grid. It adjusts the beam current which increases or decreases the number electrons bombarding the phosphor varying the intensity. Higher frequency (>100MHz) Higher accelerating potential decreases deflection sensitivity Solution: Some pre-acceleration before deflection, post acceleration after deflection.

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Post acceleration de-focuses the beam. To reduce this effect multiple focusing electrodes are used with different negative voltages.
Electronic Lenses.

Focus Control: Focus the electron beam to a fine spot. Astigmatism: Produces round spot.

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Fluorescent Screen:
Phosphor is used as screen material on the inner surface of a CRT. Phosphor absorbs the energy of the incident electrons. The spot of light is produced on the screen where the electron beam hits. The bombarding electrons striking the screen, release secondary emission electrons. These electrons are collected or trapped by an aqueous solution of graphite called Aquadag which is connected to the second anode. Collection of the secondary electrons is necessary to keep the screen in a state of electrical equilibrium. The type of phosphor used, determines the color of the light spot. The brightest available phosphor isotope, P31, produces yellowgreen light with relative luminance of 99.99%.

The structure of the cathode ray tube

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Thermionic Emission The work done on each electron from the filament is W = eV where V is the p.d. across the filament and the anode. e-Electron-volt The electron-volt is an amount of energy equal to the work done on an electron moved through a p.d. of 1V.
1 electron-volt = 1.6X10-19 J

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Spot Beam Deflection Sensitivity:

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Electrostatic Deflection:

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Electrostatic Deflection:

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Electrostatic Deflection:

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Electrostatic Deflection:

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-1500V 300V

Detailed Block Diagram of CRO.

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Deflection of Electrons in a Uniform Magnetic Field

The force F acting on an electron in a uniform magnetic field B is given by F=Bev


Since the magnetic force F is at right angles to the velocity direction, the electron moves round a circular path.

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Deflection of Electrons in a Uniform Electric Field

The vertical displacement y is given by


1 2 1 eV p 2 y at ( )t 2 2 md 1 eV p x 2 ( ) 2 2 md v

This is the equation for a parabola.

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The centripetal acceleration of the electrons is

Bev a m
v 2 Bev Hence a r m

which gives

mv r eB

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Deflection Sensitivity = Volts per cm.


The brightness of the CRO depends on the accelerating potential (higher). The higher the potential, the lower will be the sensitivity, and the higher the deflection voltage. This problem is eliminated by two step acceleration (Post deflection acceleration tube) which will not change the deflection sensitivity.
Phosphors.

Aquadag, for protection of the screen. A conductive coating on the


phosphor screen to reduce the effect of secondary electrons from screen. Graticules. Plastic sheet with graduations on the outer surface of the screen. Compensating Probes. X1, X10. Delay Line. Missing leading edge because of delay (0.1sec.) introduced by triggered sweep. During flyback period the initial portion of the signal is missing. To

observe the entire waveform including the leading edge, 0.25 sec may be
introduced. Coupling: ac, Ground, DC.

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Need For Delay Line.


You never see the leading edge of the event that triggered the sweep. That is to say, the sweep is triggered by the leading

edge of a pulse, and by the time the beam starts across the
screen it is now displaying the signal ~ 100 nsec after the event. To solve this problem, the Keebler Elves added

wideband analog delay lines between the vertical amplifier


and the CRT's deflection plates. So, by the time the beam has started its short trip across CRT's face, the signal that triggered the sweep is finally dribbling out of that long delay line.

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V.Deflection Plates V.AMP.


0.25S Delay Line

H. Deflection Plates H.AMP.

Trigger Generator

Linear Time base Generator

Need for Delay Line

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CASCADE LC NETWORKS AS DELAY LINE

A delay line composed of cascade LC network (often called lumped-parameter delay line) is shown in fig (a). The physical appearance of the delay line is shown in fig.
It consists of two sections. Each section is a Tsection shown in fig. (b). They are connected in a push-pull type of connection.

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If the delay line consists of n sections,

Limitations: It is difficult to arrange a delay line composed of cascaded LC sections that has adequate delay. Copper losses and other factors tend to lengthen the rise time if the rise time is to be shorter than 10 us. in a delay line. Optimum response of the delay line requires precise proportioning L and C values in each section. The variable capacitors should be carefully adjusted.

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DISTRIBUTED - PARAMETER DELAY LINE For very short rise times, the delay line consisting cascaded LC sections is not practical. In such cases, one can use distributed parameter delay line shown in fig. 8.19. It consists of a flexible insulated inner core on which specially manufactured co-axial cable with high value of inductance per unit length is wound in the form of a helix. To reduce eddy currents, the outer conductor is made of braided insulated wire. It is connected at the ends of the cable (one end is shown in the figure).

FIGURE 8.19 : DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER DELAY LINE

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The inner coil is equivalent to a solenoid of n turns per meter. If the flexible inner core is ferromagnetic, it increases the inductance value the delay time and Zo. The two co-axial cylinders separated by polyethylene, constitutes the capacitance of the delay line.

Balanced distributed parameter

Distributed-parameter

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Printed Circuit Type Delay Line.

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VERTICAL AMPLIFIER,Y-Gain
To deflect the electron beam of a CRO, voltages in the range of 100 500VP/P are required. The input voltage is of the order of a few millvolts. Hence the gain should be of the order of 105Volts. Small input voltages are amplified by built-in amplifiers before applying to the Y-plates. Y- Gain = 0.5 V/div: 0.5 volt will cause a vertical deflection of 1
division. The vertical amplifier is required to furnish current gain to charge and discharge deflection plates capacitance. It is usually a differential power amplifier with adjustable D.C voltage for vertical shift of the horizontal line.

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Time Base
Saw-tooth voltage applied internally across the X-plates.
volts

time

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Time Base
controls the speed at which the spot sweeps across the screen horizontally from left to right.
spot on right side of screen spot at centre of screen spot on left side of screen

volts

Fly back

time

Time taken for spot to move across the screen and back

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spot on right side of screen spot at centre of screen spot on left side of screen

volts

Fly back

time

Screen

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spot on right side of screen spot at centre of screen spot on left side of screen

volts

Fly back

time

Screen

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SWEEP MODES
Single sweeps
Some oscilloscopes offer thesethe sweep circuit is manually armed (typically by a pushbutton or equivalent) "Armed" means it's ready to respond to a trigger. Once the sweep is complete, it resets, and will not sweep until re-armed.

Types of trigger :
External Trigger, a pulse from an external source connected to a dedicated input on the scope.

Edge Trigger, an edge-detector that generates a pulse when the input signal crosses a specified threshold voltage in a specified direction. These are the most-common types of triggers; the level control sets the threshold voltage, and the slope control selects the direction (negative or positivegoing). (The first sentence of the description also applies to the inputs to some digital logic circuits; those inputs have fixed threshold and polarity response.) Video Trigger, a circuit that extracts synchronizing pulses from video formats such as PAL and NTSC and triggers the time base on every line, a specified line, every field, or every frame. This circuit is typically found in a waveform monitor device, although some better oscilloscopes include this function. Delayed Trigger, which waits a specified time after an edge trigger before starting the sweep. As described under delayed sweeps, a trigger delay circuit (typically the main sweep) extends this delay to a known and adjustable interval. In this way, the operator can examine a particular pulse in a long train of pulses.

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When the CRO is not triggered, the electron beam in CRT is turned OFF or blanked. If this is not done the light spot will remain at the left end of the screen and is likely to destroy the phosphor. In addition, the electron beam is turned off during the 'fly back' or 'retrace' of the spot. To locate the base line, when there is no input signal, most CROs have a built-in oscillator to trigger the beam.

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The triggered Sweep.


Oscilloscopes became a much more useful tool in 1946 when Howard Vollum and Jack Murdock invented the triggered . It would start a horizontal trace when the input voltage exceeded an adjustable threshold. Triggering allows stationary display of a repeating waveform, as multiple repetitions of the waveform are drawn over the exact same trace on the phosphor screen. Without triggering, multiple copies of the waveform are drawn in

different places, giving an incoherent jumble or a moving image


on the screen.

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Triggered Sweep
To display events with unchanging or slowly (visibly) changing waveforms, but occurring at times that may not be evenly spaced. A triggered sweep starts at a selected point on the signal, providing a stable display. In this way, triggering allows the display of periodic signals such as sine waves and square waves, as well as nonperiodic signals such as single pulses, or pulses that don't recur at a fixed rate.

With triggered sweeps, the scope will blank the beam and start to reset the sweep circuit each time the beam reaches the extreme right side of the screen. For a period of time, called hold off, the sweep circuit resets completely and ignores triggers. Once hold off expires, the next trigger starts a sweep. The trigger event is usually the input waveform reaching some user-specified threshold voltage (trigger level) in the specified direction (going positive or going negative trigger polarity).

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In some cases, variable hold off time can

be really useful to make the sweep ignore interfering triggers that occur before the events one wants to observe. In the case of repetitive, but quite complex waveforms, variable hold off can create a stable display that can't otherwise practically be obtained.

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Triggered Time base.


This type of sweep generator is used in triggered scopes i.e., the sweep does not start until the triggering pulse is received from the trigger circuit. This is achieved by connecting a transistor across the capacitor. Once the sweep is completed, the voltage across the capacitor is reverted back to zero by discharging the capacitor through the transistor. After a period of time called, hold-off time, the sweep starts again. The relationship between the trigger pulse and the sweep waveform is shown in fig.

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Delayed Sweep.
Another feature of most good scopes is Delayed Sweep allows to trigger on an event and observe the signal after some predetermined time interval. For example: if you wanted to observe one single scan line, out of 525 lines of a television signal, you would trigger off the beginning of each television field time (16.67 msec) but hold off displaying that particular scan line (HD = 63.5 usec) until the correct amount of time has passed. In essence the Delayed Sweep is just a fancy "One-Shot" multivibrator with a ten turn pot, triggered from the scope's normal sweep circuit; and holds off the sweep across the screen until some time interval after which time the scope sweeps for the interval of one TV scan line.

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Delayed Sweep (Dual Time Base) : To observe a small portion of a long wave in detail, most oscilloscopes use two time bases.

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The oscilloscope remains blanked until after the delay period, when the second time base would be triggered and the oscilloscope un blanked the second time base. Time base 1 supplies a linear voltage to a comparator.

This is a ramp voltage. The comparator output


triggers the second time base when the ramp voltage

reaches a chosen value set by the reference voltage.


Thus, the time delay can be controlled by varying the reference voltage input to the comparator.

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Dual Trace System (Adding another input channel) Many times measurements require the comparison of two signals. An application would be comparing the waveforms of a good circuit to the waveforms of a bad circuit. Also, the trigger selection must be considered to adequately display the two signals. Two scope modes help us to display two waveforms. 1. Chop 2. Alternate

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DUAL TRACE OSCILLOSCOPE Figure shows a block diagram of a dual trace oscilloscope. This CRO has a single electron gun whose electron beam is split into two by an electronic switch. There is one control for focus and another for intensity. Two signals are displayed simultaneously. The signals pass through identical vertical channels or vertical amplifiers. Each channel has its own calibrated input attenuator and positioning control, so that the amplitude of each signal can be independently adjusted.

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Electronics Switch for Dual Trace CRO


Analog Switch

Analog Switch

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Trigger Source

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Chop and Alternate Modes Alternate mode A signal applied to Channel A is displayed for one sweep, then a signal for Channel B is displayed for one sweep. The alternate mode should be chosen when comparing two higher frequency signals. The alternate mode must be used on time-unrelated waveforms Chop mode A signal applied to Channel A is displayed for a short segment, then a signal applied to Channel B is displayed for a short segment. The chopping action happens fast enough that both waveforms displayed appear continuous; the segments will not be seen.

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ALTERNATE MODE
The electronic switch alternately connects the main vertical amplifier to channels A and B and adds a different dc component to each signal; this dc component directs the beam alternately to the upper or lower half of the screen. The switching takes place at the start of each new sweep of the sweep generator. The switching rate of the electronic switch (100KHz) is synchronized to the sweep rate, so that the CRT spot traces the channel A signal on one sweep and the channel B signal on the succeeding sweep [Fig. 7.19(b)].

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Fig. 7.19(b). Time Relation of a Dual-Channel Vertical Amplifier in Alternate Mode

The sweep trigger signal is available from channels A or B and the trigger pick-off takes place before the electronic switch. This arrangement maintains the correct phase relationship between signals A and B. When the switch is in the CHOP mode position, the electronic switch is free running at the rate of 100-500 KHz, entirely independent of the frequency of the sweep generator.

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Chap Transient Blanking


Time Relation of a Dual-Channel Vertical Amplifier in Chop Mode

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The switch successively connects small segments of A and B waveforms to the main vertical amplifier at a relatively fast chopping rate of 500 KHz e.g. 1 [is segments of each waveform are fed to the CRT display (Fig. 7.19 (c)). If the chopping rate is slow, the continuity of the display is lost and it is better to use the alternate mode of operation. In the added mode of operation a single image can be displayed by the addition of signal from channels A and B, i.e. (A+B), etc. In the X-Y mode of operation, the sweep generator is disconnected and channel B is connected to the horizontal amplifier. Since both pre-amplifiers are identical and have the same delay time, accurate X-Y measurements can be made.

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The chop mode is used to compare two low-frequency, time-related signals.

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Measuring d.c. Potential Difference


y

If the Y-gain control is set at 2 volts/division And the vertical deflection, y, is 1.5 Then d.c. voltage = = 1.5 x 2 3.0 V

Y-input

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Displaying Waveforms

Y-input

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Displaying Waveforms
When input voltage frequency is the same as the time-base frequency

Input Voltage c.r.o. screen

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Displaying Waveforms
When input voltage frequency is the twice the time-base frequency

Input Voltage C.R.O. Screen

Special CROs.

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Problems at High Frequencies: When the frequency of input signal increases, the writing or scanning speed of the electron beam also increases leading to reduction in the intensity of the display. For the image to be sufficiently brilliant, the accelerating voltage should be increased which decreases deflection sensitivity. So we have to apply a higher deflection potential to maintain the required deflection sensitivity.

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Digital oscilloscopes
The first Digital Storage Oscilloscopes (DSO) was invented by Walter LeCroy In this technique the first time base delays the triggering of the second time base. Trigger signal from the vertical amplifier is given to time base -1 and after a set time period, controlled by the components of time base 1, the second time base is triggered.

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Advantages of Digital Storage


1. The time base is more accurate and stable as it is crystal generated. 2. Allows Up to 7 GHz Bandwidth Acquisitions for Singleshot events. 3. Digital memory and waveforms can be stored. 4. Finds Glitches with Peak Detect/Envelope 5. Acquires Waveforms before the Trigger 6. Allows High Resolution Single-shot Averaging 7. Makes Accurate Timing Measurements 8. Provides Highest Bandwidth with Equivalent Time Digitizing 9. Enables Digital Signal Processing 10. Bright images at high frequencies. 11. Allows a Color Display

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Stored waveform is continuously displayed by repeatedly scanning therefore a conventional CRT can be used for the display- The stored display can be displayed indefinitely as long as the power is applied to the memory which can be supplied with small battery. Digitized waveform can be analyzed by oscilloscope or by reading the contents of the memory into the computer. Some of the digital oscilloscopes use 12 bit converters whose resolution is 0.025% and accuracy is 1% which are better than the 2-5% of analog storage oscilloscopes. Display of the stored data is possible in both amplitude versus time and x-y modes. In DSO fast memory readout is used for CRT display in addition to this a slow readout is also possible which is used for development of hard copy with external.

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Fig., 4.37 shows the block diagram of DSO. which consist of.

Data acquisition. Storage. Data display.


Data acquisition is carried out with the help of both analog to digital & digital to analog converters, which is used for digitizing storing and displaying analog waveforms. Overall operation is controlled by control circuit which usually consist of microprocessor. Data acquisition portion of the system consist of a sample-and-hold (S14) circuit and an analog to digital convert ADC. Which continuously samples and digitizes the input signal at a rate determined by the sample clock, and transmit the digitized data to memory for storage. The control circuit determined whether the successive data points are stored in successive memory location or not, which is done by continuously updating the memories "address counter.

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Digital storage oscilloscope In DSO the waveform to be stored is digitized, stored in a digital memory and retrieved for display on the storage oscilloscope.

Fif.4-37Block Diagram of a DSO

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When the memory is full, the next data point from the ADC is stored in the first memory location writing over the old data. The data acquisition and the storage process is continues till the control circuit receive a trigger signal from either the input waveform or an external trigger source. When the triggering occur the system stops and enters into the display mode of operation in which all or same part of the memory data is repetitively displayed on the cathode ray tube. In display operation two DACS are used which gives horizontal and vertical deflection voltages for the CRT. Data from the memory gives the vertical deflection of the electron beam, while the time base counter given the horizontal deflection in the form of stair case sweep signal. The screen display consist of discrete dots representing the various date points but the number of dot is very large as 1000 or more that they tend to blend together and appear to be a smooth continuous waveform. The display operation ends when the operator presses a front-pane] button commands the digital storage oscilloscope to begin a new data acquisition cycle.

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Bandwidth
A 10MHz CRO does not mean it will correctly measure signals at 10MHz. Vertical Amps are not so wide-band as to amplify all signals. 10MHz is the 3dB point. A 10MHz signal of 1v will measure 0.707v on the screen. Clipping introduces odd order harmonics. A CRO operating near the max freq. will not show the harmonics and you think you are reading a clean signal. Square waves begin to look like sine waves. A rule of thumb is 5 times. To measure 2MHZ use a 10MHz CRO. 3 times is suitable for most Amateur work. For 7MHz. Times 3 = 21. Use a 20 MHz CRO.
64

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Rise Time
In the digital world, rise time measurements are critical. Rise time may be a more appropriate performance consideration when you expect to measure digital signals, such as pulses and steps. Your oscilloscope must have sufficient rise time to accurately capture the details of rapid transitions. Rise time describes the useful frequency range of an oscilloscope. To calculate the oscilloscope rise time required for your signal type, use the following equation: Oscilloscope Rise Time Required = Fastest Rise Time of Measured Signal 5

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Sample Rate
Sample rate specified in samples per second (S/s) refers to how frequently a digital oscilloscope takes a snapshot or sample of the signal, analogous to the frames on a movie camera. The faster an oscilloscope samples (i.e., the higher the sample rate), the greater the resolution and detail of the displayed waveform and the less likely that critical information or events will be lost, as shown in Figure 50. The minimum sample rate may also be important if you need to look at slowly changing signals over longer periods of time. For accurate reconstruction your oscilloscope should have a sample rate at least 2.5 times the highest frequency component of your signal. Using linear interpolation, sample rate should be at least 10 times the highest frequency signal component.

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Probes
Components

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Why not a simple co-axial cable? The input capacitance of the scope + Stray capacitance of the test leads will create oscillations or called ringing. This can be prevented by connecting a high resistance in series with a probe. Because of this, a slight change in the wave shape and attenuation takes place.

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Probes

High quality connector High impedance (10M) 50 for high frequency measurement

Compensating Probe

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The equivalent circuit forms a bridge. When the bridge is balanced,

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The coaxial capacitance equals 30 pf per foot. (Assuming a coaxial length of 3.5 ft, the total coaxial length capacitance is 105 pf). Substituting

C1should be so adjusted by connecting to a square wave of 1 KHz and a perfect waveform is observed. At low frequencies, the resistive components attenuate the signal by 10 times and at high frequencies, capacitor divider will act as attenuator.

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Passive probe
10 attenuation Good for low circuit loading Suitable to high frequency signal Difficult to measure less than 10mV signals 1 attenuation Good for small signals Introducing more interference

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The 10X attenuator probe works by balancing the probes electrical properties against the oscilloscopes electrical properties. Before using a 10X attenuator probe you need to adjust this balance for your particular oscilloscope. This adjustment is known as compensating the probe. Passive probes provide excellent general-purpose probing solutions. However, general-purpose passive probes cannot accurately measure signals with extremely fast rise times, and may excessively load sensitive circuits.

The steady increase in signal clock rates and edge speeds demands higher speed probes with less loading effects. Highspeed active and differential probes provide ideal solutions when measuring high-speed and/or differential signals.

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Active probe
Increasing signal speeds and lower-voltage logic families make accurate measurement results difficult to achieve. Signal fidelity and device loading are critical issues. A complete measurement solution at these high speeds includes high-speed, high-fidelity probing solutions to match the performance of the oscilloscope. Active and differential probes use specially developed integrated circuits to preserve the signal during access and transmission to the oscilloscope, ensuring signal integrity. For measuring signals with fast rise times, a high-speed active or differential probe will provide more accurate results.

Signal conditioning oscilloscope Require power source Good for high speed digital signals over 100MHz clock frequency

74

Choose the Right Voltage Probe For the Application


Type 1X Passive Probe 10X Passive Probe Z0 Passive Probe Bandwidth Rise Time Input C Input R

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15 MHz 100 MHz 500 MHz 3 GHz 9 GHz 500 MHz 6 GHz

23 ns 3.5 ns 700 ps 120 ps 40 ps 700 ps 80 ps

100 pF 13 pF 8 pF 1 pF 0.15 pF 2 pF 0.4 pF

1M 10 M 500 1M20 k

Active Probe

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General-purpose oscilloscopes have a standardized input resistance of 1 megohm in parallel with a capacitance of around 20 picofarads. This allows the use of standard oscilloscope probes. Scopes for use with very high frequencies may have 50-ohm inputs, which must be either connected directly to a 50- ohm signal source or used with Z0 or active probes.

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ATTENUATOR

It should present constant impedance on all ranges and at all frequencies.

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ATTENUATOR

Block diagram of the vertical section of an oscilloscope

Uncompensated attenuator shown the input capacitance of the amplifier

Simple compensated attenuator

Two-stage attenuator for a high-frequency oscilloscope.

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Problem:
Given that, Both horizontal and vertical axis have 6-bit resolution. Transients are to be displayed at a rate of 1 x 10-6 sec per division. Display has 10 divisions. Speed required for the input A/D converter = ? A resolution of 6-bits requires a conversion of one part in 26 = 64. Total time for a trace = Rate (in sec per division) x Number of divisions = lxl0-6xl0=10xl0-6s = 10s

Time required for each conversion,

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As the digitizing oscilloscope has to display transients, conversions must be made continuously rather over a period of several cycles. If a successive approximation converter were used, about 7 clocks would be required for each conversion. Hence, the required time per clock

Therefore, the required speed or the clock frequency of the input A/D converter.

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Questions regarding CRO


1. Why Timebase? 2. Why triggered timebase? 3. How trigger pulse is generated? 4. Why delayed timebase? 5. Why a dual timebase? 6. Why a Delay line? 7. What is the principle of DUAL TRACE? 8. How many trigger modes? 9. What is trigger hold and why? 10. What is synchronization? 11. Deflection Sensitivity? 12. BW of CRO depends on what factors? 13. Advantage of DSO?

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Questions regarding CRT


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. How electron beam is generated? What is the role of phosph\]\ How it is accelerated? What is pre & post acceleration? Points about deflection plates? What is Aqadog? Its relation to B.W