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ADVERTISING ANALYSIS

APPROACHES TO ANALYSIS

ADVERTISING ANALYSIS Variety of Approaches

Art (Aesthetics) Drama Themes Music Culture Statistics Markets Research

Strategy Persuasion Systems Multimedia Psychology Sociology Politics Ethical

CREATIVITY

Can be developed Prepared to take risks Thinks outside box Has a sense of humor Open to new ideas Breaks rules sometimes Asks lots of questions Explores relationships

Avoids conformity Takes time to imagine Hangs with the creative Keeps journal of ideas Remembers dreams Has fun with product Does thorough research Keeps ads simple

WHY DO WE NEED TO BE CREATIVE


Ubiquity of advertising Overwhelming clutter Selective perception consumers Plethora of similar products Boredom of consumers Development of new media Market competition

HUMOR
What kind of humor is being used? Does it fall into a genre or type classification? (subtle, suggestive, slapstick, situational, standup) Is the humor at the expense of any group? Are there any stereotypes? Is the humor central to the ad? Peripheral? Does the humor have fun with the product? Are there animated or cartoon characters? Hybrid (mixture of animation and real world)?

HUMOR CONTINUED

Does the humor belittle the product? Does the humor involve conflict or violence? Is the humor exaggerated? Subtle? Are there humorous sound effects? Is there humorous music present? Are characters and voices humorous? Does the humor distract from message?

DRAMATIC DEVELOPMENT

How is the drama introduced? Does the drama follow certain conventions? How is the conflict identified? Are protagonists clearly identified? Are there powerful symbols present? What is the nature of the conflict? Man vs. ?? How is the conflict developed?

DRAMATIC DEVELOPMENT CONT.

Are characters developed? Are there climatic moments? How is the conflict resolved? Satisfactorily? How is the conflict related to the product? Does the conflict overshadow the message? Does the product lend itself to drama? Do production values support? Detract?

CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT

Is the celebrity an expert in the field? Does the expertise relate to the product? What are his/her characteristics? Is the celebrity credible? Does the celebrity endorse other products? How much is the celebrity being paid? Does the endorsement work for the product?

CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT CONT.

Has the celebrity had bad press? Does the bad press detract from endorsement? How does the celebrity handle the product? Does he/she show genuine appreciation for it? Can audience identify with the celebrity? How?

Credibility

Can the audience trust the spokesperson? Is there a history of credibility? Does the person behave consistently What are the persons qualifications? What experience do they have? Does the person show genuine concern? Is the person a good communicator? Are all of the above demonstrated?

INTERNET CODE OF ETHICS

Ads must be legal, decent, honest and truthful disclose advertisers identity be reasonably priced respect public groups respect privacy of data (right of refusal) avoid exploitation of children be sensitive to values of global audiences

ETHICS IN ADVERTISING

Puffery and deception Claim substantiation Copying other advertisers campaigns Copying other persons likeness Respect of trademarks Respect for children Respect for privacy

CONSUMER ANALYSIS

What do you know about the target consumer? Are there demographics for the consumer? What psycho-graphics (life style info) are there? What are the characteristics of the market where the product will be sold? What media are best suited to reach this consumer? Should a variety of media be used at the same time? Does the product provide a clear advantage to the consumer? Are there any incentives (rewards) that can be used?

CONSUMER CHARACTERISTICS (PROFILING?)



Is the target audience accurately described Is the target audience being stereotyped? What are the target audiences needs What are the target audiences wants What incentives can be used to encourage purchases? Where does the target audience live/shop? What is the target audiences buying power? What percentage of the market is the target group?

WORSHEET: ETHNOGRAPHIC

What ethnic group is being portrayed in the ad? What products does this group tend to buy? What distinguishes this group from others? What percentage of the population does this group enjoy? Is the culture unique? Characteristics? Is the portrayal stereotypical? Demeaning? What power in the culture does the group enjoy? What buying power does the group have? Are there several messages contained in the ad? Does political correctness affect the message?

WORKSHEET: CONSUMER

What do you know about the target consumer? Are there demographics for the consumer? What psycho-graphics are there? What are the characteristics of the market where the product will be sold? What media are best suited to reach this consumer? Should a variety of media be used at the same time? Does the product provide a clear advantage to the consumer? Are there any incentives that can be used?

TARGET AUDIENCES In the market place

Whites African-Americans Hispanic-Americans Asian-Americans (?) Vague Native Americans Persons (-18yrs) (65+ yrs) Graying Population Women (Minority?) People with Disabilities

75.10% 12.30% 13.11% 3.60% 0.90% 25.10% 12.40% 50.90% 16.81%

Changes in Society/Market

Population growth? Influx of population? Changing markets? Minority and majority? Immigration? Language? Aging? Gender? Glass ceiling broken? Income? Gay movement? Terrorism?

Approaching Minorities

Consult with people in the target area Feature them in starring roles, show diversity Be sensitive in use of language Learn about heritage and culture Tell the whole story, avoid stereotypes Dont remind of vulnerability Show people as happy with themselves

BRANDING
(IMAGE + IDENTITY) = REPUTATION
Name Logo Tag Line Colors Architecture Interior Design Music & Sounds Key Asset Visual Symbol Short Phrase Easy Identification Buildings Familiar Layout Easy Recall

BRANDING & LAW

TRADEMARK - Any word, name, symbol, device used to identify and distinguish products COPYRIGHT - Protection of original works, including trademarks, literature, music, art, design process, application (intellectual property) from misuse or abuse Sometimes a strong brand is not protected and becomes part of our language (e.g. Kleenex, Xerox, Coke, ChapStick

Two Approaches toward research And two kinds of research


Approaches: Deductive Reasoning
Applies a theory to a situation with the eye to identifying relationships or variables, and which predict certain outcomes
Assesses situations, conditions with the eye to establishing rules or theories or models Uses statistics to explain or demonstrate predicted relationships or outcomes

Inductive Reasoning

Quantitative Research Qualitative Research

Describes or analyses situations, people things to see how they behave and maybe come up with a theory

Research or Fact Finding

State Your Question (see Text) Who is the brand leader? How long has the company been in business? What do consumers feel about your product? What are competitors doing with same product? Conduct Primary Research First Hand Experience, Surveys, Focus Groups, Interviews, Observation, Experiments, Online Research, all of the preceding. Look for Secondary Resources Annual Reports, Customer Profiles, PR Files, Technical Reports Libraries, Trade Associations, Statistics, Market Data, Web Sites, etc. Interpret Data Problems: Asking wrong questions; believing all that people tell you, data relevance to product, biased results, studying atypical people Prepare Creative Brief Give to writers and artists, creative team

COMMON MISTAKES IN RESEARCH

False assumptions Bad theoretical assumptions Irrelevant data for clients needs/problems Asking the wrong questions Believing everything people tell you Using false sampling techniques Bias (Sample, Interviewer, Source, Results) Analyzing wrong people for typical audience

PRODUCT ANALYSIS
Who manufactures the product? Image? What are the products characteristics? What is unique about the product?

Are there other similar products in market?


Where is the product placed? Shelf? Display? How can the product be demonstrated best? What media are best to promote the product?

RHETORICAL ANALYSIS

Rhetorical criticism includes three approaches to persuasion: A rational or logical argument An emotional appeal The credibility of the persuader

Rational Analysis

What is the main argument? How is argument developed? Inductively? How are stages linked or developed? Are examples made? Comparisons? Are analogies or metaphors used? Are there fallacies or red herrings? Are there cause and effect relationships? Is the argument logical?

Emotional Appeal

What beliefs and values are portrayed? Can persons identify with actors involved? Why is identification possible? Is the predicament or situation understood? Has the audience experienced it? Does the audience empathize?

Why are/were your emotions raised? How do you feel as a result of the ad? What feelings are elicited? Guilt? Shame? Desire? Lust ? Anger? How do you respond?

REALITY ANALYSIS

What we judge to be real or believable depends to a large extent on our experience of life. How things are depicted contributes to our sense of reality, but it needs to be checked out. Our imagination can carry us to all sorts of environments and situations, but there needs to be a degree of familiarity for us to relate to. In a commercial this must be done in 30- 60 seconds!

REALITY ANALYSIS

What slice of life is shown? Does it portray life as it really is? Do actors play roles in a believable manner? How well is character developed? How is the environment portrayed? Is the time period reflected accurately? Are complex problems oversimplified? Does it reflect society as it is? Ideally?

Reality Analysis Continued

Are actions and their consequences clearly related? Is action natural, humane, in the given circumstances or predicament? Are the goals or ideals portrayed attainable by ordinary people? Can you identify with the above actions, behavior, goals?

SYMBOLIC OR SEMIOTIC APPROACH (Meaning and Interpretation)

Are there several levels of meaning? What powerful metaphors, similes are there? What roles do people play? How are relationships portrayed? Are there stereotypes or caricatures in the ad? How is conflict symbolized? How are colors used to convey meaning? How are music/sound effects used to convey meaning? How is the passage of time signified? How is light used to communicate mood/situation/threat?

INTENTIONALITY OR GRATIFICATION

Who or what is the source of this ad? Motivation? What is the primary purpose of the ad (evoke, shock, challenge, encourage, inform, entertain? What is the balance of information and entertainment? Is there a balance? Who or what is promoted? Why? What are the advantages of consuming the product? What is the target population? In what situation is the product shown/used? How do people react to the product? Is their life better as a result? Worse? How?

GREAT ACTOR/STAR

What role does the actor play? Does the ad depend on the star? Could somebody else play the role? What are his/her unique gifts, skills, ability? What other roles has the actor played? Is the actor type-cast? Has the star got any negative history? How does the star relate to other actors? Does the star relate well to the product/use the product well? Asset? Liability?

WHAT IS STRATEGY?

Determining what the agency (your) goals are Choosing aroadmap for your creative team The way you plan to sell the product Determining your message before you say it Application and development of your big idea Connecting with your audience A design to murder the competition! among other things!)

OTooles Three-Point Strategy


Who or what is the competition? To whom are you talking? What do you want them to know?

DDB Needhams Approach

In-use rewards (taste, feeling etc.) Results of use rewards (stronger teeth) Incidental-to-use-rewards (no mess) Example: Toothpaste

ROI Approach
Relevance Originality Impact ____________________ Return on investment Measured by CPM (Cost per thousand)

VIPS

VISIBILITY IDENTITY PROMISE SIMPLICITY

McCann-Ericksons Role Playing


Who are we trying to reach (target)? What are they thinking about us/product? Who also is selling this product? What would we like consumers to think of us? What is our major promise to consumers? How can we support this promise? What tone of voice should we adopt?

STRATEGY TERMINOLOGY
Generic Approach (ours is only brand in category) Preemptive claim (unexplored advantage) Unique selling position (competitive advantage) Brand Image (brand personality) Positioning (placement and superiority) Resonance (fundamental experiences of life) Affective (purely emotional) Identity (advertisers identity) Promise (claims about product)

INNOVATIVE & CREATIVE IDEAS

Maintaining a balance between..

Conformity
Technical Knowledge Practice Conventions

Freedom
New ideas Creativity Experimentation Dreams

Preparation for the BIG IDEA


IMMERSION (Do background research) ILLUMINATION (Open your mind) BIG IDEA DIGESTION (Play with idea) INCUBATION (Take time out) REALITY TESTING (Does it work?) BOUNCING IDEAS (OFF OTHERS) OPPENNESS (TO OTHERS IDEAS)

SOURCES OF IDEAS (Where do new ideas come from?)


Context (where does it fit into whole) Current events Timing Analogies Culture Shape Location

SOME IDEAS ABOUT IDEAS

Turn your idea into a campaign theme Think about what your audience will be doing Think about what time it will be Decide who you are trying to reach Describe your product Where is the product made or sold? Say it just in pictures or just in words Who is an ideal spokesperson? Think of the opposite of what you are saying

FACTORS OF ATTENTION

Novelty Proximity Familiarity Vitality Humor Suspense Conflict Reality Symbolism

ATTENTION

Brightness (shiny, reflective) Flashing (lights, colors, shapes) Movement (action, animation) High Contrast (black on white) Sound (high pitched, rhythmic) Color (hue, saturation, density) Placement (stand out, eye level) Size (large, big, bold, dominant)

FEEDBACK AND CRITICISM

Make I statements Be specific, make practical suggestions Be honest Show empathy Control your emotions Describe behavior carefully Give feedback immediately Check accuracy of feedback by repeating what is said

Plan

Analyze

Change Do

Look Back Do Again

Giving Face-To- Face Feedback

Ask for permission to give feedback Sit opposite the person Make eye contact Choose the appropriate time Choose the appropriate place Give time for responses If people become defensive, stop! Avoid evaluation, used description Listen carefully

SQUARE GAME RULES

1. The contents of each packet is different 2. Make sure all the pieces are out of the packet 3. Numbers on pieces indicate what packet they are from, nothing else. 4. Each group must make five squares of equal size. 5. In the first round no communication is permitted. 6. You may look at your group members pieces 7. The group that finishes first, wins

Gestalt Principles

Direction Similarity Contrast Rhythm Proximity Proportion Harmony Closure

LAYOUTS (see handout)

Symmetrical/asymmetrical Grid Picture window Band Axial Circus Frame Copy Heavy Mondrian

Z STRUCTURE OR EYE FLOW


DOMINANT DOMINANT

Least Dominant

2ND DOMINANT

BALANCE

BALANCE

SYMMETRICAL BALANCE Our eyes tend to notice unseen vectors or weight in a page. Balance occurs when the left hand side balances with the right hand side The result is. equilibrium and stasis Readers may find balance more satisfying (?) but less dynamic

ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE Asymmetrical balance occurs when there is more weight on one side. The placement of pictures, logos and blocks of print can achieve weight Most readers will notice the imbalance and maybe feel it is more dynamic

Wordswordswords

Select your target audience carefully Capture attention immediately Lure your reader into the copy Communicate a benefit or advantage Show satisfaction or approval Reinforce a brand name Make an emotional connection Enhance a visual image

GUIDELINES FOR COPY

Respect your product Keep it simple Write for one person Avoid jargon Be specific Avoid bragging Use present tense Vary length of sentences

Make strange familiar Make familiar strange Write out loud Test your copy on others Relate copy to visuals Remember Z layout Dominant LHS top Speed read test (30 seconds to read)

Guidelines for Copy

Dont try to do everything in one ad Write to one individual Avoid catchall phrases or generalizations Be specific (avoid vague descriptions) Keep bragging to a minimum! Use present tense and active voice Avoid clichs Vary the length of sentences Write out loud (speak it out aloud) Use contractions (cant, wont etc.) Test your copy and revise your work

USES OF COPY OR WORDS


Copy as headline Copy as a story Copy as dialog or conversation Copy as bulleted lists Copy as poetry or rhythm Copy as description or explanation Copy as information or identification

INVITING READERSHIP

Remember 4 Rs, Research, Roughs, Revision, Ready Set type no wider than 39 characters Type no smaller than 10-point Break up copy into blocks Use lower case when possible

Capitalize headline Align copy or wrap around Use punctuation (.?) Use italics sparingly Take care when type extends over pictures Remember to preserve white space

COLOR and EMOTION

Red: Love, sex, fire, danger, warmth, anger Green: Life, rebirth, growth, nature, environment Blue: Eternity, heaven, depression, moodiness, masculinity Yellow: Brightness, joy, happiness, comfort, light, warmth Purple: Royalty, grace, sacrifice, old age, wisdom Use high contrast so letters stand out on background Use edging to emphasize 3-D effect

FACTORS OF COLOR, PLACEMENT & ATTENTION

Colors have psychological association and symbolic value Pastels are soft, delicate, friendly Earth tones are natural, no-nonsense, earthy Some colors are warm, others are cold Some colors are powerful, stand out High contrasting colors are easily seen Some are compatible others are not This is subjective but conventions need to be recognized as part of our cultural heritage

PLACEMENT
Entrances (parking lots, doors, windows) Exits (cash registers, check out lines) Isles & Walkways (traffic flow) Eye level (shelf position, notices) Convenience (easily reach, near at hand) Foreground (rather than background) Association (connected, similar products) Sampling (easily touched, tasted, felt)

The Secrets of Radio

Reaches everywhere Constant companionship Mobility in home, work or car Concurrent with activity Classified or segmented audience Relies on listeners imagination Hot medium (requires more from viewers than from TV = theater of the mind) Relatively inexpensive Relatively easy to produce

SCRIPTING FOR RADIO

Type copy on right two-thirds of the page Use capital letters throughout Triple space lines Indicate all sources of sound, SFX, music, etc., on left hand one-third page Give instructions about how to treat sound Describe the voices that you would like to use Mark-up script with conventional marking Indicate if script extends beyond first page Indicate timing additively or subtractively Formats 30 seconds and 60 seconds (accurate)

Audio script format


CLIENT, PRODUCT, DATE, TRT
One-Third
00 Two -thirds

Sources
Mics. SFX

Copy or dialog goes here Put voices (names) on LHS of RH column ANNCR: or JOHN:

Music How will sound be treated? Up...underout V/O = Voice Over

15 Leave space between blocks of copy/dialog 20 USE CAPS THROUGHOUT

Separate with triple spacing


Timing cues additive or subtractive Put MORE at bottom of page if script follows onto next page

More

Video script format


Client, Product, Date, TRT
One Third
Two -thirds

Video
Video Sources
Shot #s Cameras #s Transitions Cut, mix, wipe, super CG VTRs DVEs 15

Audio
Audio sources and treatment of sound SFX/ VOs/ SOTs/ Music Copy or dialog goes here 20 Put voices (names) on LHS of RH column Leave space between blocks of copy/dialog USE CAPS THROUGHOUT Separate with triple spacing Put MORE at bottom of page if script follows onto next page

Timing cues additive or subtractive

Different Approaches to Radio Commercials

Dialog One voice Multi-voice Sound effects Dramatization (conflict, e.g. man vs. nature) Vignette (series of short situations) Interviews or testimonies Jingles (music associated with product)

Radio Spot Placement

Spots produced by station or agency Radio works on repetitive rotations The time of day is crucial ( match activity with time) Prime time is more important to TV than radio Buying a package includes specific and random placement The longer the commercial runs the better the deal Radio is most suitable for local sales not national sales Choose radio station that suits target audience

Writing for TV

Programs are vehicles for commercials Placement requires demographic information Placement requires ratings information Placement requires timing information Prime time is the best but most expensive Does the commercial match relevant behavior How long do you want commercials to run

Writing for TV

Do pictures say it all? Balance between words and pictures? Balance between entertainment and information? Does the opening shot grab attention? Is the product visible and being used? How are results shown? How is the consumer involved? What response is evoked? Contact ?

TV Commercial Types

Dialog Vignettes Drama (conflict man vs. nature) Testimonials Spokespersons Demonstrations Interviews Music videos

Video script format


Video
1 2 3 4

Audio
00 Audio opposite video (synchronous) Copy or dialog goes here

Sources
Cameras (alternate) Shots (see below)

15
VCR

Show where shots are cut in or mixed or wiped Put voices (names) on LHS of this block

Graphics 20 Transitions Titles Timing cues additive or subtractive

Leave space between blocks of copy/dialog CAPS THROUGHOUT Separate with triple spacing in CAPS Put MORE at bottom of page if script follows onto next page More

Video Shots and Transitions

XCU (Detailed Shot) CU (Close Up) MCU (Med. Close Up) MS (Mid Shot) LS or WS (Long Shot) O/S (Over shoulder) Two-shot, three-shot Reverse Shot

Cut (Instant change) Mix (Blend of shots) Wipe Super (superimpose) Key (Titles)

TYPES OF DIRECT MAIL

Regular recognizable mailings Catalogs of products (J.C. Penny, Haband, seasonal, yearly monthly, weekly ) Subscriptions to specialty magazines Book and music clubs (one book at a time) Special offers (two for the price of one) Sweepstakes Prizes and rewards Based on questionnaires

Direct Marketing

Ready made list (?) Existing profile (?) Pinpointing prospects Personalized messages Faster Sales Wide variety of packaging options Less competition from other media (?) Motivational incentives

Hot Trends in Direct Marketing

Establishing personalized relationships Use traditional media to generate new leads Offers of new products and upgrades High impact mail to build traffic Gathering lists of usage (profiles) Building loyalty over time Providing enhanced value

Tricks of Direct Marketing


Maintaining and updating the list (gold mine in value) Dynamic message (keeping reader/participant as long as possible searching for information) Making an offer (advantages of product and price cheaper than in store (?) ) Encouraging immediate response (prizes for early bird reply) Standout in the mail (avoiding junk/clutter) Use of customers names and details Catalogs/fliers-bringing retail store to home (sale items and seasonal products)

Internet

1. Research and planning


Web Site Map (maintaining easy flow/links or branching) What does your client do best? What products are most popular? Put important elements first (upfront) Pay attention to navigation and flow across pages Group related products/topics together

2. Design (keep content and page templates constant)


3. Development

Refine the design (one idea per paragraph) Use meaningful keywords, subheads, paragraphs, bullets Use Inverted pyramid style (conclusion first and then details) Reduce verbiage to absolute minimum (Continued)

Internet continued

4. Production
Reduce picture/definition Use humor sparingly (?) Use animation sparingly

for shorten download times

Use banner ads sparingly(?) Keep it simple Provide index and search opportunities for Website Try to be different End with logo or name (running heads?) Provide an escape (link back to home) Provide access to Web master (e-mail or phone)

Integrated Marketing:
Combined Marketing Tools With Maximum Impact

Promotions (short term incentives) Premiums (free items or discount prices) Contests, sweepstakes and games Coupons (buy one, get one free) Samples (Try it youll like it!!) Rebates (small refunds for proof of purchase) Point of purchase Advertising (at the moment of decision) News releases Special events (radio station live broadcast) Special packaging (standout colors and containers) Guerilla Marketing (spectacular events) Product placement (in TV shows and films)

Creating Retail Advertisements

Emphasize stores personnel Emphasize stores location/parking/ ease of access Emphasize stores pricing policy Offer price reduction on special products/coupons Emphasize your stores products/quality Emphasize your stores history/service Emphasize stand on issues (e.g. recycling policy) Emphasize one thing about your store Be honest or truthful about your store

Retail Advertising/Marketing

Two emphases: promote products and store Sometimes retail ads sought out by customers Remember several clients to please Promotion of competing brands Broad range of products Urgent need to move merchandise More detailed advertisements Retail ads reflect local tastes and fashions Easier to track for success Retail ads are more volatile

Task & Maintenance functions


Task Goal setting Agenda setting Summarizing Decision making Analyzing Defining Reminding Time keeping Maintenance Listening Supporting Gate keeping Clarifying Interpreting Representing Consensus testing Expressing feelings

Task

Maintenance

Convincing the Client or Selling your campaign

Research your client/know names Discover if you have competitors Know where and when you will present Survey the resources available to you Try out the acoustics/public address system Arrange the seating if possible Rehearse out aloud Time your segments Introduce all who will present/ mention contributions

Presentation Tips

Start and end on time Cultivate rich voice and clear articulation Avoid monotony and boredom Reduce opening remarks to basic minimum Dress well (over rather than under) Get the attention of audience right away Be prepared for questions Stand tall with good posture Make eye contact Use appropriate gestures and facial expressions

Making you Presentation

Introduce yourself/presenters Grab your audiences attention immediately Use attractive, colorful, visuals Mention/show the structure of your presentation Make 3-5 major points Link each point in a logical manner Conclude with summary Ask for contract or order Ask for questions

Correcting Problems in Presentation

Reduce distance between you and audience Try to see everybody eye to eye Dont be rattled by interruptions Acknowledge opponents contributions Use bullets and lists to speed up process Keep calm if possible by rehearsing first with your team (trial runs) then to clients (real thing) Ask for feedback often/avoid being defensive about it Dont argue with your client, listen carefully Dont skip important steps in interests of time Keep on schedule

Presentations continued

Avoid boredom Involve your audience Do not apologize Dont be distracted Dont try to evaluate how well you are doing Dont run over time Try to identify VIPs/ administration by name

Grab attention quickly Be ware of opposition Be aware of supporters Cultivate level of comfort Monitor time Keep intros. Short Emphasize clients needs Be open to questions

Organization of Advertising

In-house, out-of-house All service and specialty advertisers Research departments Market manager (family of products) Brand Manager (one specific product. A brand is its name, design, symbols or logos) Advertising Manager (coordinates all efforts across all products)

Organization of Agencies
Account executives (liaison between agency and client) Creative Department (come up with big ideas, objectives of campaigns, copy and graphic designers) Media Department (selects media to carry clients product, buys media)

Selling Yourself

Articulate your objective Identify your strongest selling points Assess the competition (who is applying with you) Understand your target audience (future employers) Develop a creative communication message Use a cover letter State your strengths Supply a resume Provide a portfolio

PROMOTION OF HARMFUL PRODUCTS?

Harmful tobacco products Harmful hard liquor Harmful pharmaceutical drugs Harmful diets, food Harmful environmental products Harmful childrens toys/games Causes attention deficit syndrome (ADS) Promotes superficial values Promotes false priorities, values, goals

Advertising..

Cultivates a dream world Shapes values Shapes images Shapes fashion Provides quick solutions Provides easy solutions Creates dissatisfaction Cultivates guilt Uses obsolescence (wears out or gets old at planned time)

Uses entertainment as a vehicles of advertising Uses news as a vehicle of advertising Increases cost of products Promotes permissiveness and greed Promotes consumerism (wants, in stead of needs?) Plans constant interruptions of programs Promotes clutter

Children and Advertising

Children watch more hours of TV than they spend in school Children cannot distinguish between fact and fiction before age of 6 Children cannot distinguish between programs and commercials before age 7 Advertisers get to parents through children Animated toys perform impossible stunts High percentage of TV ads promote inappropriate food products Commercials convey perceptions of roles and values

ETHICAL STANDARDS Advertising should ..

be legal, decent, honest and truthful disclose advertisers identity respect the role of news groups, forums, etc. offer to correct any mistakes, misinformation refuse to send unsolicited commercial message respect the sensitivity of global markets disclose the purpose of research (using personal data) safeguard the security of data, files, lists post privacy policy on websites

ETHICAL STANDARDS In terms of children, advertisers should

not exploit childrens natural credulity not include harmful content indicate material intended for adults encourage parents to participate in programs supervise childrens online activity encourage children to obtain permission from parents provide information to parents to protect children

GOVERNMENT AGENCIES Supervise Advertising Practices

Federal Trade Commission (monitors false, deceptive, misleading ads) Federal Drug Administration ( monitors food drugs, ingredients, quality claims in ads) Federal Communications Commission (monitors radio and television broadcasts, licenses, free speech, fairness, etc.) Environmental Protection Agency (monitors products impact on environment)

ADVERTSING ...

is dependent on media for existence is inescapable because of ubiquity (everywhere) encourages materialism cultivates expectations of instant gratification cultivates expectations of instant solution creates feelings of dissatisfaction

emphasizes superficial contains deceptive halftruths promises more than it can deliver creates feelings of frustration, dissatisfaction creates feelings of inferiority creates feelings of guilt

BULLET THEORY
Direct influence (S-R) Pavlov and dog experiments

Response Stimulus

Association
PROPAGANDA AND BRAIN WASHING?

INDIRECT MESSAGE PROCESSING


FILTERING AND SELECTIVE PERCEPTION
sender S message r

message

receiver

USES AND GRATIFICATION Palmgreen

Beliefs and values lead to consumption of particular media which reinforce beliefs and values over time
Particular programs Consumption Beliefs and Values Media Media media Media

Reinforcement over time

Gratification

ECONOMIC DETERMINISM Shiller & Bagdikian


Profit is the motivation throughout the system
Mass production Warehouse Factory 1 2 Wholesaler 3

Media

Ad Agency 5 4

Retailer

Consumer 7

PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH TO ADVERTISING

CONSCIOUS Appeal to rational self Normal senses

Rational awareness Ability to make decisions If, necessary resist suggestion Repressed desires Hypnotic state dream world, open to suggestion

SUBCONSCIOUS Appeal to secret desires Repressed

UNCONSCIOUS No appeal possible

Sleep, unresponsive total unawareness, no recall

CREATION OF NEEDS

Fat Smelly Dirty Slow Unattractive Vulnerable Unprotected Isolated

Diet pills Deodorant Soap, toothpaste Computer, fax Beauty products Insurance Burglar alarms Telephone

PERSUASION SEQUENCE STRUCTURE

Grab attention
Identify need Provide solution Imagine satisfaction Provide contact

Listen, sound, movement, dramatic event, novelty


Show lack of something, tap dissatisfaction, frustration Show how product works solves problems

Show joy, satisfaction fulfillment, accomplishment


Provide contact, easy access, number, address, etc.

Public Service Announcements Types or foci

Environmental organization Animal organizations Health organizations Human organizations Youth organizations Elderly organizations Poverty organizations Education organizations Literacy organizations

PUBLIC RELATIONS
External Publics Community Internal publics External Publics Staff Administration Management Government Investors External Publics Environmentalists

External Publics

PUBLICS

Shareholders Customers Employees Suppliers Financial Institutions Legislators Community Activists Print/Broadcasting Media

Donors Clients Volunteers Members Taxpayers Government Agencies Voters

Advertising and Public Relations


Advertising Uses media primarily to communicate Uses persuasive strategy Promotes new innovations and products to consumers Sells commodities and products to consumers Aims for short term and long term consumption Encourages immediate response/consumption Encourages long term postconsumer service

Public Relations Uses interpersonal relationships and media to communicate Uses persuasive strategy Promotes images and ideas to public/s Aims for long term good relationships between insiders and outsiders of organizations Aims at credibility and trust in relationships Develops relationships over time

Public Relations and Media

Promotes good images and relationships Repairs damaged images and relationships Cultivates positive attitudes within and without organizations Uses strategic placement to communicate with publics Manipulation occurs if Media accept news releases on face value Media do not have enough knowledge to be critical Media are too busy and go with prepared reports News Media are used to advertise for PR consultants

PROBLEMS WITH PR

Clients are usually in trouble through bad management or carelessness Image transformation form bad to good through deception Provides positive spin (ignoring the negative) Sometimes undermines credibility of opposition Uses clients wealth to manipulate media (bias) Uses prominent people to voice positions Superficial currying of favor with workers

Maslows Hierarchy of needs Most Important


Self Actualization Esteem Needs Relationship, acceptance Safety Needs Physiological Needs

Self fulfillment Self esteem Love, affection friends, approval Security, stability Food, drink, sleep sex Least Important

DOUBLE MESSAGES
OR PRIMANRY AND SECONDARY MESSAGES
Primary Message Supply a material need Solve a real problem Consume a real product Receive physical gratification Secondary Message Satisfy an idealistic need Solve an idealistic problem Provide and ideal goal Receive mental gratification