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MELJUN CORTES Number Systems prepared by MELJUN P. CORTES dated September 19, 2012 as Slide Lectures Handouts

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You are on page 1of 63

MELJUN P. CORTES

Used by humans? Yes No No No Used in computers? No Yes No No

Base Symbols 10 2 8 16 0, 1, 9 0, 1 0, 1, 7 0, 1, 9, A, B, F

MELJUN P. CORTES

Quantities/Counting (1 of 3)

Decimal

0 1

Binary

0 1

Octal

0 1

Hexadecima l

0 1

2

3 4 5

10

11 100 101

2

3 4 5

2

3 4 5

1000

10

9

10 11 12

1001

1010 1011 1100

11

12 13 14

9

A B C

6

7

110

111

6

7

6

7

13

14 15

1101

1110 1111

15

16 17

D

Ep. 33 F

MELJUN P. CORTES

Quantities/Counting (2 of 3)

Decimal Binary

HexaOctal decimal 10

11 12 13 14

8

9 10 11 12

1000

1001 1010 1011 1100

8

9 A B C

13

14 15

1101

1110 1111

15

16 17

D

E F

MELJUN P. CORTES

Quantities/Counting (3 of 3)

Decimal Binary

HexaOctal decimal 20

21 22 23 24

16

17 18 19 20

10000

10001 10010 10011 10100

10

11 12 13 14

21

22 23

10101

10110 10111

25

26 27

15

16 17

Etc.

MELJUN P. CORTES

The possibilities:

Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

pp. 40-46

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Quick Example

Base

MELJUN P. CORTES

Decimal

Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

Next slide

MELJUN P. CORTES

Base

MELJUN P. CORTES

Binary to Decimal

Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

MELJUN P. CORTES

Binary to Decimal

Technique

Multiply each bit by 2n, where n is the weight of the bit The weight is the position of the bit, starting from 0 on the right Add the results

MELJUN P. CORTES

Example

Bit 0 1010112 => 1 x x x x x x 21 22 23 24 25 20 = 1 = 2 = 0 = 8 = 0 = 32 4310

1 0 1 0 1

MELJUN P. CORTES

Octal to Decimal

Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

MELJUN P. CORTES

Octal to Decimal

Technique

Multiply each bit by 8n, where n is the weight of the bit The weight is the position of the bit, starting from 0 on the right Add the results

MELJUN P. CORTES

Example

MELJUN P. CORTES

Hexadecimal to Decimal

Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

MELJUN P. CORTES

Hexadecimal to Decimal

Technique

Multiply each bit by 16n, where n is the weight of the bit The weight is the position of the bit, starting from 0 on the right Add the results

MELJUN P. CORTES

Example

ABC16 =>

MELJUN P. CORTES

Decimal to Binary

Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

MELJUN P. CORTES

Decimal to Binary

Technique

Divide by two, keep track of the remainder First remainder is bit 0 (LSB, least-significant bit) Second remainder is bit 1 Etc.

MELJUN P. CORTES

Example

12510 = ?2

2 125 2 62 2 31 2 15 7 2 3 2 1 2 0

1 0 1 1 1 1 1

12510 = 11111012

MELJUN P. CORTES

Octal to Binary

Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

MELJUN P. CORTES

Octal to Binary

Technique

Convert each octal digit to a 3-bit equivalent binary representation

MELJUN P. CORTES

Example

7058 = ?2

7058 = 1110001012

MELJUN P. CORTES

Hexadecimal to Binary

Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

MELJUN P. CORTES

Hexadecimal to Binary

Technique

Convert each hexadecimal digit to a 4-bit equivalent binary representation

MELJUN P. CORTES

Example

10AF16 = ?2

10AF16 = 00010000101011112

MELJUN P. CORTES

Decimal to Octal

Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

MELJUN P. CORTES

Decimal to Octal

Technique

Divide by 8 Keep track of the remainder

MELJUN P. CORTES

Example

123410 = ?8 8 8 8 8 1234 154 19 2 0

2 2 3 2

123410 = 23228

MELJUN P. CORTES

Decimal to Hexadecimal

Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

MELJUN P. CORTES

Decimal to Hexadecimal

Technique

Divide by 16 Keep track of the remainder

MELJUN P. CORTES

Example

123410 = ?16 16 16 16 1234 77 4 0

2 13 = D 4

123410 = 4D216

MELJUN P. CORTES

Binary to Octal

Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

MELJUN P. CORTES

Binary to Octal

Technique

Group bits in threes, starting on right Convert to octal digits

MELJUN P. CORTES

Example

10110101112 = ?8

10110101112 = 13278

MELJUN P. CORTES

Binary to Hexadecimal

Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

MELJUN P. CORTES

Binary to Hexadecimal

Technique

Group bits in fours, starting on right Convert to hexadecimal digits

MELJUN P. CORTES

Example

10101110112 = ?16

10 1011 1011

10101110112 = 2BB16

MELJUN P. CORTES

Octal to Hexadecimal

Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

MELJUN P. CORTES

Octal to Hexadecimal

Technique

Use binary as an intermediary

MELJUN P. CORTES

Example

10768 = ?16 1 0 7 6

001

000

111

110

10768 = 23E16

MELJUN P. CORTES

Hexadecimal to Octal

Decimal Octal

Binary

Hexadecimal

MELJUN P. CORTES

Hexadecimal to Octal

Technique

Use binary as an intermediary

MELJUN P. CORTES

Example

1F0C16 = ?8 1 F 0 C

0001 1

1111 7 4

0000 1

1100 4

1F0C16 = 174148

MELJUN P. CORTES

Decimal 33 1110101 703 1AF

Dont use a calculator!

Binary

Octal

Hexadecimal

Skip answer

Answer

MELJUN P. CORTES

Exercise Convert

Answer

MELJUN P. CORTES

Common Powers (1 of 2)

Base 10

Power

10-12 10-9

Symbol p n

10-6

10-3 103 106 109 1012

milli

kilo mega giga tera

m

k M G T

.001

1000 1000000 1000000000 1000000000000

MELJUN P. CORTES

Common Powers (2 of 2)

Base 2

Power

210 220 230

Symbol k M G

What is the value of k, M, and G? In computing, particularly w.r.t. memory, the base-2 interpretation generally applies

MELJUN P. CORTES

Example

In the lab 1. Double click on My Computer 2. Right click on C: 3. Click on Properties

/ 230 =

MELJUN P. CORTES

Determine the free space on all drives on a machine in the lab

Free space

Drive

A: C: D: E: etc.

Bytes

GB

MELJUN P. CORTES

For common bases, add powers

ab ac = ab+c

or

26 210 = 64 210 = 64k MELJUN P. CORTES

Binary Addition (1 of 2)

Two 1-bit values

A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 A+B 0 1 1 10

two

pp. 36-38

MELJUN P. CORTES

Binary Addition (2 of 2)

Two n-bit values

Add individual bits Propagate carries E.g., 10101 + 11001 101110

1 1

21 + 25 46

MELJUN P. CORTES

Multiplication (1 of 3)

Decimal (just for fun)

35 x 105 175 000 35 3675

pp. 39

MELJUN P. CORTES

Multiplication (2 of 3)

Binary, two 1-bit values

A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 AB 0 0 0 1

MELJUN P. CORTES

Multiplication (3 of 3)

Binary, two n-bit values

As with decimal values E.g., 1110 x 1011 1110 1110 0000 1110 10011010 MELJUN P. CORTES

Fractions

Decimal to decimal (just for fun)

pp. 46-50

MELJUN P. CORTES

Fractions

Binary to decimal

10.1011 => 1 0 1 0 1 x x x x x 1 x 2-3 = 2-2 = 2-1 = 20 = 21 = 2-4 = 0.0625 0.125 0.0 0.5 0.0 2.0 2.6875

pp. 46-50

MELJUN P. CORTES

Fractions

Decimal to binary

3.14579

.14579 x 2 0.29158 x 2 0.58316 x 2 1.16632 x 2 0.33264 x 2 0.66528 x 2 1.33056 etc.

11.001001...

p. 50

MELJUN P. CORTES

Decimal 29.8 101.1101 Binary Octal

Hexadecimal

3.07

C.82

Dont use a calculator!

Skip answer

Answer

MELJUN P. CORTES

Exercise Convert

Answer

Binary 101.1101

Octal 5.64

Hexadecimal

1D.CC 5.D

11101.110011 35.63

3.109375

12.5078125

11.000111

1100.10000010

3.07

14.404

3.1C

C.82

MELJUN P. CORTES

Thank you

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MELJUN P. CORTES

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