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3 2 1

1
For first time in
chemical department
FUEL FOR FUTURE
DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION
2
3
ADVISO
R
CO-
ADVISOR
Team CTL;
Meer Salman Muddasar 2007-chem-53
Osama Rasool Malik 2007-chem-11
Waseem Zia Bhutta 2007-chem-15
Syed Sheraz Hussain 2007-chem-31
ADVISOR: DR.SHAHID NAVEED

CO-ADVISOR: MR.ZAHEER ABBAS
PRESENTATION TURNOUT
4
QUICK REVIEW TO PROCESS
EQUIPMENT BREAK UP




















DESIGN + MECHANICAL DESIGN
CONTROL OF HEAT ASSEMBLY
HEATING ASSEMBLY SIMULATION
COAL LIQUID TECHNIQUE
A handful of COAL
Undergo set of
PHYSICAL &
CHEMICAL
conversions
YIELD
COAL LIQUEFACTION:-
Coal liquefaction is the conversion of coal into a
synthetic oil in order to supplement natural
sources of petroleum.






TARGET IS TO MAINTAIN HIGH H/C RATIO
MODES OF
COAL
CONVERSION
CARBONISATION
HYDROGENATION
6
Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 9/14/2012

7
8
Experimental Data from Patent # US 7,763,167 B2
Kg of Sulfur / Kg of Fe 2
Slurry Coal Concentration
(Kg of dry Coal/Kg of solvent ) 45/55
Gas / Liquid (NL / Kg) 600-1000
Reaction Temperature for both reactors (
o
C ) 455
Reaction Temperature for Hydrotreater (
o
C ) 330-390
High Temperature Separator controlled at (
o
C ) 420
Low Temperature Separator controlled at (
o
C ) 100
Reaction Pressure for reactors (MPa) 15-19
Reaction Pressure for Hydrotreater (MPa) 10--15
Catalyst Fe-OOH
Vacuum Tower has solid content (wt %) 50-55
Catalyst addition rate ( Fe / Dry Coal, wt %) 1
Conversion (%) 91.22
Oil Yield (%) 57.17
gas yield (%) 13.11
H
2
O yield (%) 12.51
Organic residue yield (%) 23.99
Hydrogen in the Recycle gas (vol %) 85
Composition Of
Coal (% mass)
C 51.34
H
2
6.17
S 4.88
N
2
5.65
Ash 13.48
O
2
18.48
Total 100
DATA AVAILABLE:-
9/14/2012
CTL
REACTOR
HEAT
EXCHANGER
SEPARATOR
FRACTIONATOR
EQUIPMENT BREAKUP
Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 12
PRINCIPLE TARGET
TO UNDERGO
COAL LIQUEFACTION REACTION
OF PREPARED COAL SLURRY
NOW WHAT IS AVALIABLE TO US..
REACTOR BALANCE:-
10
15
12
COMPONENTS STREAM 10(KG) STREAM 12(KG) STREAM15(KG)
ASH 13.48 - 13.5
CHAR - - 7.6
SYN OIL - - 49.7
SOLVENT 122.2 - 120.4
H
2
S - 15.3 19.4
NH
3
- 3.2 9.4
H
2
O - 40 50.9
CO
2
- 6.1 16.8
H
2
26.3 34.2 53.9
C 51.34 - -
S 4.88 - -
N
2
5.65 - -
O
2
18.48 - -
TOTAL(Kg) 242.33 98.8 341.6
9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 14
Experimental Data from Patent # US 7,763,167 B2
REACTION TEMPERATURE 455
0
C
REACTION PRESSURE 15 Mpa
SPACE VELOCITY OF COAL SLURRY .7 t/m
3
h
Catalyst Fe-OOH
Conversion (%) 91.22
Oil Yield (%) 57.17
gas yield (%) 13.11
H
2
O yield (%) 12.51
Organic residue yield (%) 23.99
Hydrogen in the Recycle gas (vol %) 85
Catalyst addition rate .5-1.0 wt %
Experimental Data from Patent # US 7,763,167 B2
solid particle specs.(coal , catalyst)
Diameter of coal particle .15 mm
Diameter of catalyst 20-30 Nm
Length of catalyst 100-180 Nm
Recovery of catalyst YES
9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 15
PRELIMINARY SELECTION
PERIMETERS TO BE KEPT IN MIND

PHASE IN CONTACT
NATURE OF FEED (DEGREE OF TURBULENCE)
OPERATING CONDITIONS
MODE OF OPERATION
CONTACTING PATTERN
BASED ON PHASE
CHEMICAL PROCESS ENGINEERING DESIGN AND ECONOMICS;H.SILLA;CHAPTER 7
9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 17
NATURE OF FEED
WE HAVE SOLID- LIQUID GAS SLURRY
AVALIABLE SO HIGH DEGREE OF CONTACT IS
DESIRED
PROMOTED HEAT MASS TRANSFER IS REQUIRED
TO GET HIGHER YIELD
CSTR

TUBULAR (SLURRY REACTOR INDICATED)
9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 18
OEPRATING CONDITIONS
OUR GIVEN CONDITIONS STATES THAT WE
CANNOT USE CSTR, AND BATCH IS ALREADY OUT
OF RACE, SO TUBULAR WOULD BE FINE CHOICE
9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 19
MODE OF OPERATION
CONTINUOUS

FOR LARGE
PRODUCTION RATE


BATCH

FOR SMALL
PRODUCTION
CAPACITY

9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 20
NATURE OF FEED INDICATE LARGE CONTACT IS
DESIRED

SHORT LISTED REACTOR IS TUBULAR
OUR SYSTEM CAUSE HOT SPOT PROBLEM, ALONG
WITH SOLID PARTICLES STUCK WITH WALL;

PROMOTED HEAT AND MOMENTUM RATES ARE
DESIRED
FLUIDIZED BED CONFIRMED
9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 21
3 PHASE FLUIDIZED REACTORS
Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 22
9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 23
+ POINTS OF USING IT
POTENTIALLY HIGH REACTION PER UNIT VOL.
NO PRECIPITATION OF MINERAL SALT
AXIAL TEMPERATURE PROFILE IS UNIFORM
CATALYST ADDITION DURING OPERATION
EASE OF HEAT RECOVERY


9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 24
CHEMISTRY INVOLVED
MODEL I)




RAMDOSS MODEL OF COAL LIQUEFACTION
MODEL II)




GERTENBACH MODEL OF COAL LIQUEFACTION
9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 25
MODEL OF SHENHUA COAL LIQUEFACTION
SPACE VELOCITY (OPERATIONAL CONSTRAINT)
REACTOR VOLUME
SAFETY FACTOR
L/D RATIO ( CONSTRAINT)
DETERMINATION OF LENGTH AND DIAMTER
HYDRODYNAMICS
DIMENSIONLESS GROUP OF NUMBERS
DETERMINATION
5 Vz DETERMINATION
HYDRAULIC DESIGN
THERMAL DESIGN
26
DESIGN
FOR SPECIFIC TYPE OF REACTOR ALL
FORMULATION AND DESGIN STEPS
ARE GATHERED FROM LITERATURE
SURVEY , AND RESEARCH PAPERS, AND
VALID FOR SPECIFIC RANGE OF
OPERATION AS DETERMINED
9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 27
INPUT PROPERTIES
Feed rate 24.3 t/hr
SLURRY VISCOSITY 9.8*10
-5
Kg/ms

SPACE VELOCITY OF COAL SLURRY .7-1.0 t/m
3
h
COAL PARTICLE SIZE .15mm
HELIUM DENSITY OF PARTICEL 1360 Kg/m
3
DENSITY OF SLURRY 893 Kg/m
3
SPHERICITY OF COAL PARTICLE 0.998
WEIGHT OF CATALYST IN FLOW STREAM .1585 t/day
Space velocity 0.7 t/m
3
h
feed rate 24.3 t/h
Mix volume 34 m
3
Safety allowance 20%
Final volume 41 m
3
L/D( for fluidized reactor) 7
Diameter 2 m
Length 13 m

9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 28
REACTOR VOLUME
9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 29
HYDRODYNAMICS
DIMENSIONLESS NO
Froud # 4.79

U
g
2
/gD
P

Re,
min
50.5 aRe
b
Fr
c

Galelio # 6.33x10
6
dp
3

s
2g/
L
2
Archimedus # 1.43x10
6
dp
3

L
(
s
-
L
)g/
2

Re,
p
7.93x10
4
dp
3

L
(
s
-
L
)g/18
2

HYDRODYNAMICS
= dimensionless factor
H
s
= C
s
/100 ; C
s
= mass of coal/mass of liquidx100
H
0
= height

= 11.1


U
oG
= superficial gas velocity

U
oG
= 0.265 m/sec
Gas liquid solid reactor design; Yatish t shah; university of Pittsburgh; USA; page 309
HYDRODYNAMICS
d
c
= column diameter
U
cG
= critical gas velocity


U
cG
= 0.102 m/sec
From Re,
mf
calculating U
mf



U
mf
= 3.71e-3 m/sec
Re,
mf
= a Ar
b
Fr
c

a= 5.12E-03
b= 0.662
c= -0.118
Fluidization; proceedings of the second engineering foundation conference, cambridge , england
32 32
HYDRODYNAMICS

= (4d
p
*q/3
L
C
D
)^
0.5
q = g(
p
-
L
)
U
t
= terminal velocity
C
D
= drag co-efficient = 0.93


U
T
= 0.55 m/sec
Cd-ch12 fluidized bed.doc
9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 33
HYDRODYNAMICS

= (.
_

*q
2
/
L
)^
0.333
q = g(
p
-
L
)
U
T
= transport velocity


U
T
= 0.98 m/sec
D
eb
= equivalent diameter of bubble = 1.70e-2m
U
B
= relative velocity of bubble

U
B
= 0.48 m/sec
Cd=4/3g(de/U
B
2
)
9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 34
PRESSURE DROP
WE ARE OPERATING ARE BED AT
TRANSPORT VELOCITY, SO PRESSURE
CALCULATION SHOULD BE BASED ON
WORSEST CONDITION.
A =

T
= TOTAL VOID AT TRANSPORT VELOCITY = .728 ( BY ITERATION)


AP = 17.12 KPa
t=(d
p
)
2
/150*q*
t
3
/1-
t
)
9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 35
THERMAL DESIGN
GIVEN THAT
TEMPERATURE OF REACTOR (ISOTHERMAL) 430
O
C

TEMPERATURE OF COOLING STREAM IN 40
O
C
TEMPERATURE OF COOLING STREAM OUT 290
O
C
COOLENT C
P
2.39 KJ/Kg K
HEAT OF REACTION TO BE RECOVERED 211688 KJ
COOLENT SELECTED IS DOW THERM T
THERMAL DESIGN
SPIRAL BAFFLE INSIDE JACKET TO ENHANCE
HEAT TRANSFER; BY INCREASING VELOCITY
Modeling of chemical kinetics and reactor design; A.kyode Coker, AKC technology
9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 37
THERMAL DESIGN
m
0
c
=

MASS FLOW RATE OF COOLENT (CALCULATED) = 354 Kg/h

FROM GIVEN RANGE OF OVER-ALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

U
D
= 180 W/m
2
K

Area of jacket = 4.8195 m
2



9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 38

Specification Sheet

Sr.
No : Parameters Qualitative / Quantitative Description
Conditions
1 . Identification R-1
2 . Function
TO CARRY OUT COAL LIQUEFACTION
REACTION OF COAL SLURRY IN SLURRY
REACTOR







3 . Mode Of Operation CONTINUOUS
4 . Shape TUBE
5 . Numbers Required 1
6 .
Operating
Temperature 455
0
C
7 . Operating Pressure 15 MPa

Specification Sheet

8 . Reactor Volume 41 m
3


9. Length 13 m

10 Diameter 2 m

11 .
Slurry viscosity 9.8*10
-5
Kg/m s

12.
Space velocity of coal slurry 0.7 t/m
3
hr
13.
Coal particle size .15mm
14.
Helium density of particle 1360 Kg/m
3

15.
Density of slurry 893 Kg/m
3

16.
Safety allowance 20 %

17.
WEIGHT OF catalyst IN FLOW
STREAM 0.1585 t/hr


Specification Sheet

15 .
Froud # 4.79

16 .
Re,
min
50.5
17 .
Galelio # 6.33x10
6
18 .
Archimedus # 1.43x10
6
19 .
Re,
p
7.93x10
4
20 . U
OG
0.265 m/sec
21. U
T
0.98 m/sec
22 . U
t
0.55 m/sec
23. Sphericity 0.998
24. Pressure drop 17.12 KPa
41

Specification Sheet


Sr.
No : Parameters Qualitative / Quantitative Description
Conditions
1 . Identification R-1

2 .

Function

To maintain isothermal condition of reactor,
using external jacket with internal baffle.

3 . Type External jacket
4 . Numbers Required 1
5 . Temperature in/out 455
0
C
6 . Coolant Temperature 40
0
C 290
0
C
7 . Area of coil 4.819 m
2
PRESENTED BY :
SYED SHERAZ HUSSAIN
2007-CHEM-31
SYNOPSIS:
What is a heat exchanger ?
Types of heat exchanger
Selection of the heat exchanger.
Main parts of the heat exchanger .
Design steps
Design calculations
Specification sheet





Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 45
PRINCIPLE TARGET
TO PREHEAT COAL SLURRY
BEFORE ENTERING INTO
CONVERSION REACTOR
A device built for efficient flow of thermal energy from
one fluid to another at a different temperature, whether
the fluids are separated by a solid wall so that they
never mix, or the fluids are directly contacted.

WHAT IS HEAT EXCHANGER??
CLASSIFICATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER
The selection in case of heat exchangers is dependent upon a number of
factors.
OPERATING TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES:
The heat exchanger in operation must be able to withstand the
operating stresses produced by the temperature and pressure
differences between the two fluids.
The most versatile heat exchangers for moderate to high heat
duties are shell and tube heat exchangers, pressure range is from
30 Mpa from shell side to 140 MPa on tube side. Temperature
range is limited to 200 C on each side.
COST:
Cost is a very important factor for the selection of heat
exchanger.
Shell and tube heat exchangers may be expensive if titanium or
other costly alloys are used


PRELIMINARY SELECTION CRITERIA
Reference:Fundamentals of heat exchanger design Ramesh K Shah
FOULING AND CLEANABILITY:
Fouling and cleanability are among the most important considerations for
the liquid liquid and gas liquid heat exchanger .Periodic cleaning and
replacement of some exchanger components depend on the fouling
propensity of the fluid employed.
In a shell and tube heat exchanger the tube fluid is generally selected as
the heavily fouling fluid since the tube sides may be cleaned more easily.

AVAILABILITY AND MAINTENANCE:
The heat exchanger selected for operation must be easy to maintain
moreover the parts of the exchanger if damaged should be easily available
and replaced .

PRELIMINARY SELECTION CRITERIA
Reference: Fundamentals of heat exchanger design Ramesh K Shah
According to a survey: S&T accounted for 85% of
new exchangers supplied to oil-refining,
chemical, petrochemical and power companies in
leading European countries. Why?
Can be designed for almost any duty with a very wide range
of temperatures and pressures
Can be built in many materials
Many suppliers
Repair can be by non-specialists
Design methods and mechanical codes have been established
from many years of experience


WHY SHELL AND TUBE??
Reference:http://zpi.ptfos.hr/proj_proc/lect3%5B1%5D.ppt
1.Tubes
2.Shell
3.Baffles
4.Tube Sheets
5.Head


MAIN PARTS OF STHE
Step 1.
Perform the energy balance and calculate heat
exchanger duty.
Step 2.
Obtain the necessary thermo physical properties of hot
and cold fluid streams at their mean temperature.
Step 3.
Select the tentative number of shell and tube passes.
Step 4.
Calculate the LMTD and the correction factor F
T
.
Step 5.
Assume a reasonable value of the overall coefficient on
outside tube area designated as U
do
.
DESIGNS STEPS
Step 6.
Select the tube diameter, it's wall thickness (In
Terms Of BWG) and the tube length. Calculate the
number of tubes required to provide the area
calculated above.
Step 7.
Select the tube pitch. Select the shell diameter that
can accommodate the required number of tubes.
Step 8.
Select the type, size (e.g. percentage cut) number
and spacing of baffles.
Step 9.
Estimate the shell side and tube side heat transfer
coefficients.
GENERAL STEPS CONT`D
Step11.
Calculate the overall coefficient U
do

Step 12.
Calculate the area based on this U
do
.
Step13.
Compare the U
do
and A values with those assumed
Step 14.
If area is in excess of 10% of that calculated then
the design is acceptable. If area calculations do not
agree assume a new value of U
do
and proceed in a
similar way
Step 10.
Select the dirt factors R
d
applicable to the system.
Step 15.
Calculate the shell side and tube side pressure drops
GENERAL STEPS CONT`D
Reference: Heat transfer principle and applications by B K DUTTA.
STEP 1

The first step is to calculate the heat duty
We know that Q= m*Cp*T
Q=15000.95*6.18*(420-337)
Q=7779300 KJ/hr
So the heat duty of the exchanger is 7779300
KJ/hr
8
9
16
17
STEP 2
COAL SLURRY GASES UNITS
MASS FLOW RATE 24230.05 15000.53 Kg/hr
TEMPERATURE 110 (in) 420 (in) C
TEMPERATURE

200 (out) 337 (out)

C
SPECIFIC HEAT 3.56 6.3 KJ/kg C
DENSITY 893.5 9.3 Kg/m
VISCOSITY 0.00062 0.000022 Kg/m.sec
THERMAL
CONDUCTIVITY
0.6595 0.7547 W/m. C

STEP 3

An iterative procedure is usually adopted for
the satisfaction of all conditions starting from
the basic assumption of 1-1 pass
countercurrent heat exchanger If the velocity
in the tubes comes out to be less than 1 m/s
which is the required range.
STEP 4
Calculation of LMTD. The temperatures are
mentioned below

t
1
= 110
o
C
t
2
= 200
o
C
T
2
= 337
o
C
T
1
= 420
o
C
The LMTD correction factor as obtained from
R=420-337/200-110 = 0.9
S=200-110/420-110 = 0.3

Corrected LMTD = 223*0.97
Corrected LMTD = 217 :C

LMTD = 223
o
C
Reference: for lmtd correction factor page no. 292 chapter 8 figure 8.10(b) .Heat transfer principles and applications by B K DUTTA
STEP 5:
Assume value of U = 460 W/m K
STEP 6,7,8:
Shell dia 0.5 m
Baffle spacing (25 % cut) 0.47 m
Reference: for selection of tubes and shell page no. 308 chapter 8 table 8.3 .Heat transfer principles and applications by
B K DUTTA
tubes
Thickness 16 BWG
Internal diameter 0.012 m
Outer diameter 0.019 m
Tube length 4.88 m
Tube pitch 0.024 m
Tube clearance 0.005 m
CALCULATIONS FOR 1-4 PASS
HEAT EXCHANGER

Assumed value of U=460 W/mK
Now as we know that Q= UA(LMTD)
Ft correction factor as obtained from graph and
used in LMTD =0.97
Corrected value of LMTD =217.64 C
Calculating the area as A=Q/U(LMTD)
A=7779300/217.64*480
Area =77.70 m

STEP 9:
Outer surface area of tubes=*O.D*length
Area =3.141*0.01905*4.88
Area=0.292 m

no. of tubes required = Area required/outer surface
area of tubes
No. of tubes = 77.70 m/0.292 m
No. of tubes = 266 tubes approximately

As selected from literature the value of the shell dia
assumed can accommodate 266 tubes and our
selection regarding the tube and shell specifications
is correct

Linear velocity =coal slurry flow rate/ flow area
Coal slurry flow rate=24230.05/(3600)(893.5)
Coal slurry flow rate =0.0075 m/s

Flow area =no. of tubes*/4*I.D
Flow area =67*3.141/4*0.012
Flow area =0.0075 m

Linear velocity =coal slurry flow rate/ flow area
Linear velocity =0.00754/0.0075
Linear velocity = 1 m/s
Since the velocity comes out to be in range the
design is acceptable



As we know that Reynolds no.=dv/
Reynolds no. = 893.5*0.01224*1.004/0.00062
Re = 17709

Jh factor as calculated from chart = 58
Now we know that
Jh= (HiDi/k)(CpU/k)^0.33(U/Uw)^0.14

From here H
i
is calculated as
Hi=Jh*k/d*/((CpU/k)^0.33(U/Uw)^0.14)
Hi= 21277 W/mK


TUBE SIDE CALCULATIONS
Reference: fig 8.11(a) chapter 8 heat transfer principles and applications by BKDUTTA
Flow area=(clearance*baffle spacing*shell
dia)/pitch
Flow area=(0.005*0.47*0.5)/0.024
Flow area = 0.0633 m

Mass flow rate = 15000.05/3600
Mass flow rate = 4.167 Kg/sec

Mass velocity = mass flow rate / flow area
Mass velocity = 4.167 / 0.0633
= 65.79 Kg/sec. m


SHELL SIDE CALCULATIONS
Equivalent diameter (D
H
) =

Equivalent diameter = 0.00451 meters

Reynolds no. = DG/
Reynolds no. = 0.00451*65.79/0.000021
Re. no. = 14129

Calculating the J
h
factor from the graph
Jh factor = 70
Now we have to calculate the shell side heat transfer
coefficient which is calculated as follows




Reference: fig 8.11(b) chapter 8 heat transfer principles and applications by
BKDUTTA
As we know that
J
h
=(HoDi/k)(CpU/k)^0.33(U/Uw)^0.14
Also Ho = J
h
*k/d*/((CpU/k)^0.33(U/Uw)^0.14)

Therefore Ho = 675.17 W/mK
STEP 10,11:
1/Ud = 1/Ho+Rdo+Ao/Ai(Rdi)+Ao/Ai.Hi
1/Ud = 0.002222
Ud = 450.866 W/mK

Since the calculated value of the overall heat transfer
coefficent is close to the assumed value therefore the
design is acceptable for further assurance we have to
check the area








STEP 12,13,14:
AREA VERIFICATION

Calculating the area as A=Q/U(LMTD)
Area =7779300/217.64*460
Area =77.7 m

Area Available A = Q/U(LMTD)
Area Available = 7779300/217.64*450
Area =79.43 m
Percentage excess area:
% excess area=100 (A
A
-A
R
)/A
R
% excess area = 2.2%
Since the excess area is with in the range of 10 %
the value is correct

TUBE SIDE PRESSURE DROP
P
t
= f x G
2
t

x L x n .
2 x g x p x D
i
x
t

P
t
= 25916.37 N/m
2

= 25.916 Kpa
= 3.6 psi
Where:
f = friction factor.
G
t
= Mass velocity of tube side fluid.
n = no. of tube passes.

t
= Dimensionless Viscosity ratio

PRESSURE DROP CALCULATION


Return Losses Can Be Calculated As
P
r
= 4n( V
2
) = 730 kg/m = 7.154 KPa
2 g
Total Pressure Losses:
P
T
= P
t
+ P
r
=33.07 KPa
P
T
= 4.8 psi

Note: Pressure Drop is in allowable limit.
CALCULATION OF RETURN LOSSES
Using The Relation
P
s
=
Ps = 13914 N/m
= 13.914 kpa
Ps = 2 psi
Note: Pressure Drop is in allowable limit.

PRESSURE DROP ACROSS SHELL

UNIT HEAT EXCHANGER
ITEM NO. 2
FUNCTION OF UNIT To pre heat the liquid coal slurry
TYPE OF UNIT Internal floating head
NO. OF UNITS 1
OPERATION Continous
HEAT DUTY 7779300 KJ/hr
HEAT TRANSFER AREA 78 m
2

OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICENT
450 W/m
2
K
VELOCITY IN TUBES 1 m/s
PERCENTAGE EXCESS AREA 2.2%
PRESSURE DROP ON SHELL AND TUBE
SIDE
4.8 and 2 psi respectively
No, OF TUBES 266
No. OF TUBE PASSES 4
MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION CARBON STEEL
SPECIFICATION SHEET

tubes
Thickness 16 BWG
Internal diameter 0.012 m
Outer diameter 0.019 m
Tube length 4.88 m
Tube pitch 0.024 m
Tube clearance 0.005 m
Shell dia 0.5 m
Baffle spacing (25 % cut) 0.47 m
Usama Malik (2007-CHEM-11)
IT IS DESIRED TO SEPARATE GAS ( SYN. Gas,
H
2
) FROM SYN. OIL AND SOLVENT, AND
RECOVERY OF OIL VAPORS
Objective
Synopsis
The separation of gas and liquids primarily
relies on physical differences in the phases.

This difference might be caused by gravity ,
momentum , filtration.

Separation vessel may be referred to as a
knockout drum, scrubber , flash chamber, or
impingement plate, mist eliminators.

PRINCIPLE OF GAS-LIQUID SEPARATOR
Specifications for oil gas separator ; API spec 12 J
Flash separator
1
Impingement
Separators
2
Deaerators
3
Conventional Gas
liquid separator
4
SELECTION CRITERIA PRELIMINARY
LEVEL 3 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 1
GAS-LIQUID
SEPARATORS
GRAVITY SETTLER
HORIZONTAL
VERTICAL
SPHERICAL
DEMISTER
SEPARATOR
HORIZONTAL
VERTICAL
SPHERICAL
Gas & liquid Flow rates

Feed Nature

Efficiency desired

Gas & liquid Hold ups

SELECTION CRITERIA
SEPARATOR
Material
Balance:-
32
35
COMPONENTS STREAM 31(Kg) STREAM 32(Kg) STREAM 35(Kg)
C
1
-C
3
3.62 3.62 -
C
4
-477 K 11.14 - 11.14
483-797 K 12.06 - 12.06
+797 K 4.2 - 4.2
H
2
0.641 0.641 -
SOLVENT 122.13 - 122.13
TOTAL(Kg) 153.78 4.27 149.51
83

Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 9/14/2012
31
Gas Settling Velocity
Gas Vessel Area
Total Vessel Area
Vessel Diameter
Liquid Volume
Liquid Height
Total Separator Height
Design Vapor velocity
Liquid-Gas inlet Nozzle design
Gas Outlet Nozzle Design
DESIGN CALCULATION

Mass liquid flow rate = m
l
= 14950 kg/hr
Mass Vapor flow rate = mg = 420 Kg/hr
Density of gas = 2 Kg/m
3
Density of Liquid = 698 Kg/m
3
Volumetric flow rate (liquid) = Q
l
= 21.4 m
3
/s
Volumetric flow rate (gas) = Q
g
= 210 m
3
/s
Operating pressure = 152 KPa



AVALIABLE DATA

Settling Velocity
u
t
= 0.0107(
l
-
g
/
g
)^
0.5

u
t
= 0.19 m/s

u
t
= 0.19*3600 = 718 m/hr.



SETTLING VELOCITY
Vessel Area For Gas = Vol. Flow rate of gas/settling velocity
Vessel area for gas = a
g
= 210/718 = 0.29 m
2
Vessel Area for liquid is roughly the same as that for gas.
Thus Vessel area for liquid is also = a
l
= 0.29 m
2
Total vessel area is then = a
v
= 0.29*2 = 0.58 m
2
Vessel area is also a
v
= D
v
2
/4
Thus vessel diameter is = D
v
= (4a
v
/)
0.5


D
v
= 0.86 m



VESSEL AREA & VESSEL DIAMETER
Chemical Engineering Design, coulson & Richardson, volume 6, page 463
Q
l
= 21.41 m
3
/hr

Residence time = t
r
= 4 minutes

Liquid Volume = V
l
= Q
l
*t
r
/60 = 1.42 m
3

Liquid Height = V
l
/ a
l =
4.88 m



LIQUID VOLUME & LIQUID HEIGHT
For pressure below 10 bar

L
v
/Dv = 3

L
v
= 2.5 m

Design velocity = v
d
= 0.75* v
a
= 0.14 m/s



VESSEL LENGTH & DESIGN VELOCITY
Chemical Engineering Design, coulson & Richardson, volume 6, page 463

mix
.
v
mix.
2
= 1500 (for Half Open Pipe)

mix.
= (m
l
+ m
g
)/(Q
l
+ Q
g
) = 66.4 kg/m
3
Q
l
+ Q
v
= Q= 231.41 m
3
/hr = 0.064 m/s
v
mix.
2
= 22.5 m
2
/s
2
v
mix.
= 4.57 m/s
a
min.
= Q/V
mix.
= 0.013 m
2
D
min.
= 0.131 m = 5 in.






INLET NOZZLE DESIGN

g
v
g
2
= 3700 (for Half Open Pipe)

g
= 2 kg/m
3
Qv = 210 m
3
/hr = 0.0583 m/s
v
g
2
= 1875 m
2
/s
2
v
g
= 43.3 m/s
a
min. Out.
= Qv/V
g
= 0.0013 m
2
D
min. Out.
= 0.041 m = 1.5 in.


OUTLET NOZZLE DESIGN
The pressure differential across the inlet
and vapor outlet is given by

P = (8x10
-4
)
g
.V
gout.

P = 0.06928 KPa.
PRESSURE DROP
Technical data API for gas liquid separator
Mechanical Design Consists of
Radial
Stress
Calculation
Shell/Head
Factor
Calculation
Shell
Thickness
Head
Thickness
Demister
Pad
Dimensions
Radial Stress = S = P
0
.D
v
/4t

Thickness factor = t = 0.03*D
v

S = (152*0.86)/(4*0.03*0.86)

S = 1266 KPa

RADIAL STRESS & SHELL FACTOR
Chemical Process Engineering Design & Economics, Harry S. Silla
Shell Factor =

s
= P/2.
s
.S-1.2P

Here
s
=
d
= 1 (for X-ray
Inspection & Longitudinal Weld)

Design pressure =
P = 1.1*P
0
= 167 KPa

Calculated Shell Factor =

s
= 0.071
SHELL FACTOR CALCULATION
Chemical Process Engineering Design & Economics, Harry S. Silla

h
= P / 2
h
.S-0.2P

h
= 0.066
Shell Thickness = t
s
=
s
D
v
+ t
c
Corrosion allowance = 0.0031m = 1/8 in.
Shell Thickness = t
s
= 2.56 in.
Head thickness = t
h
=
h
D
v
+ t
c
Head thickness = t
h
= 2.4 in.

HEAD FACTOR & THICKNESS
Chemical Process Engineering Design & Economics, Harry S. Silla
The material of construction to be used is
high alloy steel with nonferrous metals
due to the possibility of corrosion.

Standard Demister Pads used for
horizontal separator vessels is 0.011in.
Diameter wires interlocked knitting to
form a 6inch. Pad.
98
Demister Pads & Material Of
Construction
Chemical Process Engineering Design & Economics, Harry S. Silla
9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 99
Separator
Identification: Gas-Liquid Separator w/ demister pad
Identification No. 16
Material Of Construction High Alloy Steel w/ non-ferrous metals
Function: To separate C
1
-C
3
gases from syn. Oil &
recover oil vapors
Operation: Continuous

Type: Horizontal Vessel with demister pad
Operating Pressure: 152 KPa
Liquid mass flow rate: 14950 Kg/hr
Vapor mass flow rate: 420 Kg/hr
Specification Sheet:
9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 100
Maximum Design Gas velocity: 718m/hr
Vessel area: 0.58m
Vessel diameter: 0.86m
Liquid Height: 4.88m
Vessel Length 2.5m
Max. Velocity through Nozzle (inlet): 4.57 m/s
Min. nozzle diameter (inlet): 5 in.
Max. Velocity though Nozzle (gas Outlet) 43.3 m/s
Minimun Diameter of Nozzle(outlet) 1.5in.
Pressure Drop 0.069 Kpa
Shell Thickness: 2.56 in.
Head Thickness: 2.4 in.
Radial Stress: 1266 KPa
WASEEM ZIA
2007-CHEM-15

Distillation column 3-D
Feed Kg/hr Xi
Oil
4970.58 7.1%
Solvent
12037 4%
Char
759.64 26%
Ash
1348 63%
Main Funda

9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 104

9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 105

9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 106
Feed Kg/hr Xi
Oil
4970.58 7%
Solvent
12037 4%
Char
759.64 26%
Ash
1348 63%
Distillate Kg/hr
C1-70
406.93
70-400
100.35
Distillat
e
Kg/hr Xi
C1-70
406.93 80.3%
70-400
100.35 19.7%
Bottom Kg/hr Xi
C1-70
101.7 0.5%
70-400
1014.66 5.4%
400-975
1206.08 6.4%
975+
2140.94 11.5%
Solvent
12037 64.7%
Char
759.64 7.24%
Ash
1348 4.1%
Synopsis
Column Design
Hydraulics of the Column
Economics
NO. of theoretical Plates
Rmin
Feed Point
Efficiency
Actual Stages
Area
Diameter
Height
Columns Internals
Flooding
Weeping
Entrainment
Pressure Drop

Column Design
Hydraulics of the Column
Economics
Tray Cost for given Diameter
Installation Cost
Cost Height


9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 109
Assumptions
Reflux
Tray Spacing
Tray Thickness
Flooding
Hole Diameter

Column Design
Min no. of Stages
R
min
No of Theoretical Stages
Feed Point
Efficiency
Actual number of stages:
Actual Stages
Area
Diameter
Height
Columns Internals

Min no. of Stages
ln{( / ) ( / ) }
ln( / )
lk hk D hk lk B
M
lk hk avg
x x x x
N
o
=
=9
Rmin
1
B fB EB fEB DEB fDEB
B EB DEB
x x x
q
o o o
o u o u o u
+ + =

1
B fB EB fEB DEB fDEB TEB fTEB
M
B EB DEB TEB
x x x x
R
o o o o
o u o u o u o u
+ + + = +

q = 1
u = -0.95
R
m
Minimum reflex Ratio 0.89
R Optimum reflux Ratio R
m
x 1.2=1.1
No of Theoretical Stages

0.566
0.75 1
1 1
N Nm R Rm
N R
(

| |
=
(
|
+ +
\ .
(



N= 30
Actual number of stages:
Using O Connell correlation

Eo = 51 - 32.5 Log (a * a) = 80%

N
actual
=

30/0.8=37

Location of feed Plate
( )( )
( )
( )
(

|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
2
0198 . 0
013 . 0
4907 . 0
446 . 0
8 . 5
09 . 5
log 206 . log
D
B
B
D
N
N
From which,
Number of Plates above the feed tray = ND = 6
Number of Plates below the feed tray = NB =31
DIAMETER OF COLUMN
Guess From Excel Sheet
NET VAPOR VELOCITY

Flooding = 80 %

Net vapor velocity at flood conditions is Vnf

V
nf
= C
Sb
(/20)
0.2
(
L
-
V
/ V)
0.5



Net Vapor Velocity Vn
Then net vapour velocity is
Vn = 0.8 * V
nf

Check Entrainment:

0.5
V n
LV
n L
L
F
V

( (
=
( (

= 0.4
Fractional entrainment () = 0.05
Check Weeping
( )
( )
( )
2 / 1
2
min
4 . 25 9 . 0
v
d K
U
h

U
min
6.0E-05 m/s
V
actual
0.24 m/s


Pressure Drop

( )
max t d W OW r h h h h h = + + +
51
h l
d
V
U
h
C

(
=
(

h
h
Vm
U
A
=
=6.13mmliq
=0.35 m/s

hd 6.13 mmliq
hr 29.8 mmliq
ht 75.9 mmliq
Delta P 475.6 Pa
0.48 Kpa
Down comer Design

hap 30 mm
Aap 189 mm2
hdc 2.6E-10 mmliq
hb 116.02 mm
( ) bc dc w OW t h h h h h = + + +
0.2117 bc h m =

Economics


9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 124
Plate Specifications:-
A
c
= total column cross-sectional area.
A
d
= cross-sectional area of down comer.
A
n
= net area available for vapor-liquid disengagement.
normally equal to Ac Ad,for a single pass plate.
A
av
= active, or bubbling, area, equal to Ac 2Ad for single-
pass plates.
A
h
= hole area, the total area of all the active holes.
A
p
= perforated area (including blanked areas).
A
ap
= the clearance area under the downcomer apron.
Excel Sheet
Specification Sheet
Name Of The Unit Atmospheric Distillation Column
Quantity 1
Type Of Contactors Sieve Trays
Pressure 1.4atm
No. Of Trays 24
Tray Thickness 3mm
Tray Spacing 0.91m
Cross Sectional Area 39m
2
Diameter 7m
Height 21m
Weir Height 40mm
Weir Length 1m
Hole Diameter 3mm
Pitch 9mm

9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 127
9/14/2012 Team CTL, Chemical Dep. UET lhr 128