Aerodynamics
2009/2010
Prof Andrew Rae
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 2
Learning Outcomes and Assessment Methods
Learning Outcomes  On successful completion of this
module, the student will be able to:
Assessment Methods
1. Identify and analyse the aerodynamic forces on an
aircraft. Explain the effects of airflow at subsonic,
transonic and supersonic speeds.
Exam
2. Discuss the different types of aerodynamic
experimental methods and the advantages and
disadvantages of each method.
Assignment
3. Describe the factors leading to flow separation and
solve simple boundary layer and skin friction problems,
using standard basic results.
Exam
4. Discuss the relative merits of standard wing planforms
and explain the use and benefits of lift augmentation
devices.
Exam/Assignment
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 3
Content (1)
Fundamentals:
Static dynamic and total pressure; Bernoullis principle; Speed of
sound and Mach number; ISA tables.
Lift generation:
Circulation, lift and downwash; Kutta condition; KuttaJoukowski
theorem; spanwise lift distribution, loads and bending moment.
Subsonic Flows:
Contributions to subsonic drag; zerolift drag, skinfriction;
Horseshoe vortex system; wing planforms in subsonic flow;
induced drag; span efficiency; tip devices; wing design through twist
and camber including washout and washin.
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 4
Content (2)
Viscosity:
Definition; boundary layers; Reynolds number; velocity profiles; no
slip condition; effect of surface roughness on skin friction; laminar
and turbulent flows; local and global skin friction calculations;
boundary layer thickness definition; momentum and displacement
thickness; equivalent body in inviscid flow; transition and flow
separation.
Aerodynamic methods;
History of aerodynamic testing; Wind tunnel types; low speed and
high speed testing; Open and closed circuit (Eiffel/Goettingen) type
tunnels; Open, closed and slotted/porous working section type
tunnels; Flight testing; Model mounting systems; upwash, buoyancy
and blockage correction methods; Mach similarity; Methods of
increasing Reynolds number; Powered wind tunnel models;
Pressurised, cryogenic, heavy gas and water tunnels; Introduction to
CFD; Description of CFD; Advantages and disadvantages of CFD;
Examples/demonstration of CFD usage.
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 5
Content (3)
Lift augmentation and flow control devices;
The need for high lift; history of high lift; slats, flaps and other high
lift devices; the effects of slots; Coanda effects and blown devices;
powered high lift devices; vortex generators.
Supersonic Flows:
Critical Mach Number; formation of shockwaves; Normal and
oblique shockwaves; Effect of wing thickness and camber; Wave
drag and methods of reducing wave drag (Wing Sweep, Transonic
Area Ruling, Supercritical Aerofoil design, Wing design); Shockwave
control and the Shockinduced separation.
Swept wings:
Swept wing flows; Effect of spanwise and normal velocity
components; qualitative description of 3D boundary layers on swept
wings; Forward, rearward and variable sweep wings; control surface
effects; delta wings and vortical flows; vortex flap; aerodynamics of
aircraft at high incidences.
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 6
Static dynamic and total pressure;
Bernoullis principle; Speed of sound and
mach number; ISA tables.
Fundamentals
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 7
Circulation, lift and downwash; Kutta
condition; KuttaJoukowski theorem;
spanwise lift distribution, loads and
bending moment.
Lift Generation
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 8
Lift generation (1)
Circulation
A term meaning rotation, which in aerodynamics is usually associated
with vorticity.
An commonly seen example is a type of forced circulation called the
Magnus effect
If a cylinder or sphere is made to
rotate as it travels through air,
friction causes:
the air on the forward moving side
to slow down
the air on the rearward moving
side to speed up
a differential pressure (Bernoulli)
and a lift force
The object moves sideways
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 9
A David Beckham
free kick
Lift generation (2)
Slice on a golf ball
Some you might have seen..
A curve ball
Spin on a tennis ball
Purposely ignoring cricket  polishing, seam, boot studs, etc. are all
separation control (dimples on a golf ball).see later.
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 10
An aerofoil is a body that induces the same effect through shape
only.
Consider first inviscid flow (no friction)
Lift generation (3)
The flow around a body produces changes in velocity and thus
changes in pressure
but the pressure variations are symmetrical, i.e. no lift
Note: Pictures from An Album of Fluid Motion (Parabolic
Press)
Dye injection shows the streamlines in water flowing at
1mm/s between glass plates spaced 1mm apart. It is
interesting that the best way of showing the unseparated
patterns of inviscid flow (which would be spoiled by
separation in a real fluid of even the slightest viscosity) is to
go to the extreme of creeping flow in a narrow gap, which is
dominated by viscous forces, i.e. boundary layers.
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 11
So, in inviscid flow, the pressures on the upper and lower surfaces
of an aerofoil are equal and thus so are the velocities:
In real life (air, water) the flow is viscous:
The flow on the lower surface will not traverse the sharp trailing edge
there is a limiting curvature (pressure gradient) round which a viscous
fluid will flow (spoon under a tap)
By not doing so it creates a creates a partial vacuum (low pressure) on
the trailingedge upper surface
This draws the uppersurface flow down to the trailing edge too
Both upper and lowersurface flows leave smoothly at the aerofoil at the
trailingedge
the Kutta Condition (M.Wilhelm Kutta, Germany, 1902)
Lift generation (4)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 12
So, the combination of pressure gradients and the Kutta condition
results in higher velocity air over the upper surface and lower
velocity air over the bottom surface and hence lift
A mathematical way of representing this is to take the inviscid flow
Lift generation (5)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 13
So, the combination of pressure gradients and the Kutta condition
results in higher velocity air over the upper surface and lower
velocity air over the bottom surface and hence lift
and add circulation (rotation, a vortex)
Lift generation (6)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 14
As with the Magnus effect, the result of the circulation (vortex) is lift:
Lift generation (7)
=
This circulation is also known as the bound vortex and forms part of
the horseshoe vortex system (see later)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 15
The vorticity is not just a mathematical device, it is a real effect and
can be seen most obviously when it is shed from a wing tip.
In addition, the velocity gradients in the boundary layer produce
vorticity that is thus distributed along the aerofoil surface.
Lift generation (8)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 16
The circulation (vortex) has a strength (I) and the lift generated by
a 2D aerofoil (or per unit span for a 3D wing) is given by:
(the KuttaJoukowski Theorum)
where is the density of the air and U is the velocity of the aerofoil.
Thus for a given speed and altitude, higher lift means stronger
vorticity.
So, could there be lift without friction?
Lift is a result of the surface pressure distribution
an inviscid phenomenon
But the differential pressure between upper and lower surfaces is a
result of the Kutta condition
a viscous phenomenon
I = U L
Lift generation (9)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 17
For a finite wing, the combination of
bound and shed (free) vorticity is called
the horseshoe vortex system
A simple, finite, rectangular wing can be
represented as a single bound vortex of
constant strength, and a pair of semi
infinite trailing vortices
The bound vortex is located at the
centre of pressure (~c/4)
Lift generation (10)
Anderson Fundamentals of Aerodynamics
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 18
The starting vortex
When an aerofoil starts
moving the flow tried to curl
around the trailing edge
In so doing the flow velocities
there become very large
Consequently a thin region of
very large velocity gradient
(and thus high vorticity) is
formed at the trailing edge
Once the flow is established,
the flow leaves the trailing
edge smoothly (Kutta
condition) and the velocity
gradients disappear
The shed vorticity rolls up into
a starting vortex
Lift generation (11)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 19
Trailing vorticity an aside (#1)
Crow instability
Condensation trails from a B
47 taken at 15s intervals after
its passage
Lift generation (12)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 20
Trailing vorticity an aside (#2)
Wake vorticity and wake
encounters
Especially on descent ( U I)
Lift generation (13)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 21
The bound and trailing vortices are examples of vortex
filaments:
Lines of constant strength (point) vorticity
They can be curved but for current purposes we will consider only
straight filaments
The vortex filament will induce flow around it, depending on its
strength and direction of circulation
E.g. the bound vortex.
.and the trailing vortices too
Lift generation (14)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 22
Based on the BiotSavart Law (see Anderson, Fundamentals of
Aerodynamics Section 5.2), the magnitude of the velocity (V) at a point (P)
that is at a perpendicular distance (h) from a vortex filament of strength is
given by the equation:
The magnitude of the induced velocity decreases with increasing distance
from the vortex
h
V
t 4
I
=
h
V
Lift generation (15)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 23
So from before, with the horseshoe vortex system, the downwash
(w) induced along the span of the wing by the trailing vortices can
be shown as:
Anderson Fundamentals of Aerodynamics
Lift generation (16)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 24
The angle of attack
() between the
chord line and the
free stream (V
) is
the geometric angle
of attack
Lift generation (17)
The downward component of velocity generated by downwash at
the wing is w, producing a local relative wind inclined from the
below V
eff
=
i
The local lift vector is perpendicular to the local relative wind and
thus is now inclined behind the vertical by the angle
i
and thus has
a longitudinal component which contributes to drag, D
i
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 25
But what is wrong with this picture?
Only applicable to rectangular wings
No taper, no twist, no sweep
Not even brilliant for that:
Downwash of infinite value at the wing tip?
Consider the concept of lift distribution
The variation of lift along the span
For the horseshoe vortex system, the bound vortex is of constant
strength and the lift is thus constant across the span
BUT
The equalisation of pressure at the wing tip (bleed between upp an
lower surfaces) means that in reality there is zero lift at the wing tip
Lift generation (18)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 26
The lift distribution of a simple horseshoe vortex system would thus
be draw as:
Whereas it should be:
(The local lift is the local height of the lift distribution and the total lift is the area under the lift distribution curve)
y
Lift generation (19)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 27
To model reality better we introduce a concept called the lifting line
Ludwig Prandtl (Gttingen, 19111918)
What happens if we take a single horseshoe vortex and add
another of smaller span on same chordline?
2
b
2
b
2
Lift generation (20)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 28
By playing games with the number, span and strength of the
horseshoe vortices we can achieve any lift distribution to define any
planform
Still used today for preliminary calculations, bearing in mind its
limitations (inviscid, incompressible)
Lift generation (21)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 29
Wing loading
The mass of an aircraft divided by the area of its wing planform
A useful indicator of an aircrafts handling and performance
&
Takeoff and landing performance
Rearranging the equation for lift coefficient gives
and therefore
So for aircraft with the same lift coefficient at takeoff and landing (and
in the same atmospheric conditions) the aircraft with the bigger wing
will need less speed at takeoff and landing, or less lift coefficient at
the same speed
S V
L
C
L
2
2
1
=
g W
S
Mg
C V
S
L
S L
= = =
2
2
1
C
L
= lift coefficient
= pressure
V = velocity
S = wing area
M = aircraft mass
g = acceleration due to gravity
W
S
= wing loading
L
S
C
W g
V
2
=
S
W V
Lift generation (22)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 30
Initial climb rate
Newtons Second Law; F = Ma
At rotation, the lift generated is greater than that needed to balance the
aircraft weight otherwise the aircraft would not get airborne.
The vertical force due to the difference between the lift generated and
the aircraft weight is thus
Lift Weight = L Mg
=
And the vertical acceleration can then be found from
So for the same lift coefficient the aircraft with the lower wing loading will
have the greater initial climb
Mg C S V
L
2
2
1
C
L
= lift coefficient
= pressure
V = velocity
S = wing area
M = aircraft mass
g = acceleration due to gravity
W
S
= wing loading
a
v
= vertical acceleration
g M C S V a M
L v
=
2
2
1
g C V
W
a
L
S
v
=
2
2
1
Lift generation (23)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 31
Turning performance
An aircraft performing a constantspeed,
constant radius turn obeys the mathematical
rules of circular motion
The velocity (rate of change of position) is the
distance travelled around the circle (the
circumference) divided by the time taken to
complete a rotation. i.e.
The acceleration is rate of change of velocity
divided by the time taken to complete a
rotation. The velocity rotates by 2 in time T.
Rearranging and substituting gives
C
L
= lift coefficient
= pressure
V = velocity
S = wing area
M = aircraft mass
g = acceleration due to gravity
W
S
= wing loading
a
v
= vertical acceleration
a
c
= centripetal acceleration
T
R
V
t 2
=
T
V
a
c
t 2
=
R
V
a
c
2
R
V
a
c
2
=
Lift generation (24)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 32
Turning performance (continued)
The centripetal force is given by
Newtons 2
nd
Law and is equal to
the horizontal component of lift, so
C
L
= lift coefficient
= pressure
V = velocity
S = wing area
M = aircraft mass
g = acceleration due to gravity
W
S
= wing loading
a
v
= vertical acceleration
a
c
= centripetal acceleration
= bank angle
L
u u
u
sin
2
sin
2
sin
2
1
2
2
L
S
L
L
C
W
C S
M
R
S C V
R
V M
= =
=
And thus turn radius (R) is proportional
to wing loading
Lift generation (25)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 33
Gust response
The acceleration due to a gust (a transient
increase or decrease in lift) is, from Newtons 2
nd
Law:
Thus an aircraft with higher wing loading has
better ride quality
C
L
= lift coefficient
= pressure
V = velocity
S = wing area
M = aircraft mass
g = acceleration due to gravity
W
S
= wing loading
a
v
= vertical acceleration
a
c
= centripetal acceleration
= bank angle
S
v
W
L
M
S L
a
A
=
A
=
Lift generation (26)
N.B. These analyses are good indicators of aircraft performance
and handling but should be treated with care as they are
essentially static assessments of what are, in reality, dynamic
manoeuvres
Mean wind direction, turbulence, aircraft pitch, roll, yaw, etc.
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 34
A lot of mathematical analysis, but what does it mean in practice?
Landing and takeoff performance
Airbus aircraft have lower wing loading than Boeing aircraft and thus can
trade this for lower C
L
at takeoff and landing
Simpler and lighter highlift devices (see later)
Lift generation (27)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 35
Initial climb rate
The original A340 is underpowered but gets way with it because of low
wing loading
It can achieve a certifiable climb rate even with relatively small engines
CFM56 on A340200 and 300 (34,000 lb
f
each)
RR Trent 500 on A340500 and 600 (60,000 lb
f
each)
Lift generation (28)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 36
Turning performance
Fighter aircraft
The difference between fighter and interceptor
Lift generation (29)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 37
Turning performance
Fighter aircraft
The Spitfire had much lower
wing loading
BUT
The Bf109 had automatic
leadingedge slats
Higher C
L
Lift generation (30)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 38
Gust response
Airbus (low wing loading)
Lower landing and takeoff speeds, better initial climb
vs
Boeing (high wing loading)
Smoother cruise
Lift generation (31)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 39
Gust response
Lowlevel bomber vs highlevel bomber
Lift generation (32)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 40
Returning to lift distribution
The load resulting from the lift generated by a wing requires a structure
strong enough to sustain it
The lift can be idealised as acting at the centroid of the lift distribution:
So the wing tries to bend upwards when it generates lift
This load must be absorbed by the wing spar
Bending moment is dependent on the magnitude of the lift and how far it acts
from the wing root
Lift generation (33)
Moment arm
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 41
Wing root bending moment
0g to 1g flight
2.5g gust and manoeuvre load
Lift generation (34)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 42
Ways to alleviate wing root bending moment
Engines
Winglets
Lift generation (35)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 43
Contributions to subsonic drag; zerolift
drag, skinfriction; Horseshoe vortex
system; wing planforms in subsonic flow;
induced drag; span efficiency; tip devices;
wing design through twist and camber
including washout and washin.
Subsonic Flows
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 44
Definition; boundary layers; Reynolds
number; velocity profiles; noslip condition;
effect of surface roughness on skin
friction; laminar and turbulent flows; local
and global skin friction calculations;
boundary layer thickness definition;
momentum and displacement thickness;
equivalent body in inviscid flow; transition
and flow separation.
Viscosity
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 45
What is viscosity?
The material property that measures a fluid's resistance to flowing
It concerns the transport of mass, momentum and energy when the
molecules move.
It results in friction between air and any surface over which it flows
Viscosity (1)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 46
Boundary Layers
A thin region of the flow adjacent to a surface, where the flow is retarded
by the influence of friction between a solid surface and the fluid
(Anderson, Fundamentals of Aerodynamics)
Its characteristics (size, composition, etc.) are determined by a variety of
things
viscosity (friction)
Shape (pressure gradient)
Reynolds number (density, velocity)
Extremely difficult to measure
Still not fully understood
Transition mechanisms
The limit on many numerical
methods
Viscosity (2)
y (v)
x (u)
u=U
y=0, u=0, v=0
U
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 47
Boundary Layers
Inviscid vs Viscous
Viscosity (3)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 48
Reynolds number
A nondimensional measure of the ratio of inertia forces (U
2
) to
viscous forces (U/d)
Where = density
U = velocity
d = reference length
= viscosity
Which gives
d U
= Re
Viscosity (4)
One of the most powerful parameters
in fluid dynamics
Helps assess the similarity or
equivalence of differing flow
conditions
Scale effect
High Re flows approach inviscid
conditions (thin boundary layers)
Stokes
Reynolds
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 49
Reynolds number
Viscosity (5)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 50
Reynolds number
Some examples
Viscosity (6)
Gliders
Re <20000
X15
Re = 6 million
A380
Re = 80 million
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 51
Reynolds number
Wind tunnel coverage
(see Aerodynamics Methods)
EWA Wind Tunnel Performance Envelopes
0
5
10
15
20
25
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50
Mach Number
R
e
y
n
o
l
d
s
n
u
m
b
e
r
(
m
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
p
e
r
m
e
t
r
e
)
QinetiQ5m
ONERAS1MA
CIRAIWT
VZLU 3 m
ONERAF1
FOI LT1
DNWLLF
EWA Wind Tunnel Performance Envelopes
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40
Mach Number
R
e
y
n
o
l
d
s
n
u
m
b
e
r
(
m
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
p
e
r
m
e
t
r
e
)
ONERAS2MA
DNWHST
ONERAS1MA
ARATWT
CIRAPT1
VZLU A1
CIRAIWT
FOI T1500
FOI S4
FOI S5
FOI TVM500
EWA Wind Tunnel Performance Envelopes
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00
Mach Number
R
e
y
n
o
l
d
s
n
u
m
b
e
r
(
m
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
p
e
r
m
e
t
r
e
)
ONERAS2MA
DNWSST
FOI T1500
FOI S4
FOI S5
FOI TVM500
Lowspeed w/t
Transonic w/t
Supersonic w/t
European
Wind Tunnels
ETW (Cryogenic)
Viscosity (7)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 52
Velocity profiles
The rate at which the velocity increases from zero at the wall to
freestream velocity at the edge of the boundary layer
The edge of the boundary layer can be difficult to define so a
(sometimes artificial) definition is imposed:
u = 0.99 U
The boundarylayer depth (the distance from the surface where u =
0.99 U
) is defined as
Viscosity (8)
y (v)
x (u)
u=0.99U
y=0, u=0, v=0
U
Boundarylayer
velocity profile
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 53
Viscosity (9)
Shear Stress
The assertion that the velocity at the surface is zero
The action of viscosity tugs at the surface (rubbing hands together)
Generates shear stress (
xy
)
dy
du
dy
du
xy
t =
You can imagine this as two adjacent layers of
fluid, each at different velocities rubbing
against each other
The shear stress is thus related to the
difference in velocity between the two layers
and that is defined by the velocity gradient
(du/dy), so
In reality there is a semiinfinite number of
adjacent layers (solid boundary)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 54
Viscosity (10)
Noslip condition
The noslip condition maintains
that the flow at the surface is
stationary
i.e. that u = 0 at y = 0
This is difficult to justify
theoretically and is
demonstrably not true in many
cases
But it is close enough to the
truth (and the convenience of it
as a boundary condition so
large) that its consequences
are accepted
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 55
Viscosity (11)
Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers
When a boundary layer starts on a surface it is laminar, i.e. smooth with the
stream lines roughly parallel to the surface
At some point a transition occurs (due to roughness, contamination, pressure
gradients, etc.) to a turbulent boundary layer
There is a general mean motion roughly parallel to the surface, but in addition
there are local rapid, random fluctuations in velocity direction and magnitude
These fluctuations provide a powerful mechanism for mixing within the layer
Just as viscosity give rise to shear stress, the turbulent fluctuations give rise to
eddy shear stresses
Consequently there a important differences between the characteristics of
laminar and turbulent boundary layers
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 56
Viscosity (12)
Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers
Boundarylayer profile
Steeper profile
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 57
Viscosity (13)
Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers
Boundary layer on a flat plate
Boundary layers on a wing combine to form the wake (profile drag, C
Do
)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 58
Viscosity (14)
Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers (see also later)
Transition
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 59
Viscosity (15)
Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers
Characteristics which encourage transition
Increased surface roughness
Boundarylayer tripping on wind tunnel models
Dimples on a golf ball
Increased freestream turbulence
Wind tunnel comparisons
Adverse pressure gradients
Amplification of instabilities
Sailplane wing profiles
Heating of the fluid by the surface
Amplification of instabilities
The inverse of all these encourage laminar
boundary layers
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 60
Viscosity (16)
Reynolds Experiment
Classic experiment examining
laminar and turbulent flow in pipes
Flow through a pipe metered by a
stopcock
Dye injection at the centreline of the
tube mouth
Reynolds noted that low speed the
dye filament remained smooth and
narrow
At higher speed the filament broke
up and diffused throughout the
cross section
The speed at which it occurred was
different for pipes of different
diameter
Relationship to U
and d, i.e Re
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 61
Viscosity (17)
Reynolds Experiment
a & b laminar
c  turbulent
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 62
Viscosity (18)
Reynolds Experiment
Results
Recreation at the
University of
Manchester using
Reynolds original
apparatus a century
later
Laminar
Transitional
Turbulent
Turbulent
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 63
Blasius Equation
Uses the boundary layer equations
Reduction of the NavierStokes equations
to simpler forms which apply to boundary
layers
Continuity
x momentum
y momentum
Uses a function to turn a set of partial
differential equations into a single
ordinary differential equation
See Anderson Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, Chapter 18.2
0 2
' ' ' ' '
= + f f f
( )
= =
V
u
f
x
V
y q
u
q
'
Viscosity (19)
0 =
c
c
+
c
c
y
v
x
u
2
2
y
u
y
v
v
x
u
u
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
u
0 =
c
c
y
p
u
Where is the kinematic
viscosity , defined as
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 64
Viscosity (20)
Blasius Equation
The important result is that the solution of the
equation is a velocity profile and that it is a function
of only
This form of the velocity profile is independent of the
distance along a surface (x)
Selfsimilar solutions
If f=u/U
o
,
the b.l. edge is at f=0.99 and =5.0
x
x
x
V
x
V
y
Re
0 . 5
0 . 5
=
= = =
o
u
o
u
q
The reduction of the boundary layer
equations to an ODE is only valid for
certain conditions
E.g. flow on a flat plate
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 65
Viscosity (21)
Local Skin Friction
Remember that shear stress within
the boundary layer was defined as
So shear stress at the wall (skin
friction) is given by
And the local coefficient of skin
friction (c
f
), the skin friction at a point
x along a surface, is given by
And is the local coefficient of drag
due to viscosity
dy
du
xy
t =
0 =


.

\

=
y
w
dy
du
t
2
2
1
=
V
c
w
f
t
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 66
Viscosity (22)
Local Skin Friction
From the boundary layer and Blasius equations
1
it can be shown that
And so the local shear stress is given by
Reference [2] describes a numerical solution of the Blasius equation
and tabulates the results, giving f(0) = 0.4696, so
Where Re
x
is the local Reynolds
number
( ) 0
2
' '
0
f
x
V
V
dy
du
y
u
=
=


.

\

( ) 0
2
2
' '
2 2
2
1
f
x
V
V
V V
c
w
f
u
= =
( )
( )
x
f
f
f
x V
c
Re
0
2
2
0
2
2
' '
' '
= =
x
f
c
Re
664 . 0
=
1 Anderson Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, 3
rd
Edition,
Chapter 18.2
2 Schlichting, Boundary Layer Theory, 8
th
Revised and
Enlarged Edition, Page 158 and Table 6.1
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 67
Viscosity (23)
Global Skin Friction
If the local skin friction drag coefficient is c
f
, the global or total drag due to
friction on that surface (say the chord of a wing, c) is found by integrating
the local skin friction over the length of that surface. i.e.
Substituting the previous expression for local skin friction coefficient gives
And
Where Re
c
is the Reynolds number based on the wing chord
}
=
c
f f
dx c
c
C
0
1
c
f
C
Re
328 . 1
=
= =
}
V
c
c
dx x
V c
C
c
f
328 . 1
) 664 . 0 (
1
0
2
1
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 68
Viscosity (24)
Boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness
Remember we described the boundary layer thickness, , as being the
distance from the surface where u = 0.99U
We now introduce the concept of displacement thickness,
*
y (v)
x (u)
u=0.99U
y=0, u=0, v=0
U
y (v)
x (u)
u=0.99U
u=0.99U
Shaded regions have equal area
*
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 69
Viscosity (25)
Boundary layer displacement thickness
The displacement thickness can be thought of in two ways:
(a) The thickness representing the missing mass flow if it were crammed
into a flow with the free stream characteristics (cf. inviscid)
(b) The boundary layer displaces the flow around an object by acting as
additional volume
y (v)
x (u)
u=0.99U
u=0.99U
Shaded regions have equal area
*
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 70
Viscosity (26)
Boundary layer displacement thickness derivations
(a) Missing mass flow
}
1
0
y
dy u The actual mass flow between y=0 and y=y
1
is
The hypothetical mass flow between y=0 and
y=y
1
if the boundary layer were not present is
The difference between the two is the missing
mass flow
And this can be expressed in terms of
*
}
1
0
y
e e
dy u
( )
}
1
0
y
e e
dy u u
*
o
e e
u
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 71
Viscosity (27)
Boundary layer displacement thickness derivations
(a) Missing mass flow (continued)
So
Or
( )
}
=
1
0
*
y
e e e e
dy u u u o
} 

.

\

=
1
0
*
1
y
e e
dy
u
u
o
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 72
Viscosity (28)
Boundary layer displacement thickness derivations
(b) Displacement of external streamlines
}
=
1
0
.
y
e e
dy u m
} 

.

\

=
1
0
*
1
y
e e
dy
u
u
o
The mass flow at Station 1
At Station 2, the mass flow between
the surface and the same streamline is
Since the surface and the streamline
form the boundaries of a stream tube,
the mass flow must be constant, i.e.
Or
*
0
.
1
o
}
+ =
y
e e
u dy u m
*
0 0
1 1
o
} }
+ =
y
e e
y
e e
u dy u dy u
as before
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 73
Viscosity (29)
Boundary layer displacement thickness
The displacement of external streamlines raises the idea of simulating a
viscous flow using inviscid methods by modelling an effective or
equivalent body
The viscous flow is modelled by expanding the shape by the
displacement thickness
Should be an iterative process!
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 74
Viscosity (30)
Boundary layer momentum thickness
While the displacement thickness accounted for the missing mass flow
another important boundarylayer characteristic accounts for loss of
momentum within the boundary layer
The mass flow across dy (dm) = u dy
Now, momentum flow across dy in the b.l. = dm u = u
2
dy
Momentum across dy if it were in the freestream = dm u
e
= ( u dy)u
e
Therefore, the loss in momentum associated with dm = u(u
e
u)dy
So the total momentum deficit from y=0 to y=y
1
= ( )
}
1
0
y
e
dy u u u
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 75
Viscosity (31)
Boundary layer momentum thickness
We can now introduce a thickness () representing the missing
momentum if it were crammed into a flow with the free stream
characteristics, i.e.
The missing momentum flow =
e
u
e
2
=
And so
This momentum thickness () is the height of a hypothetical
streamtube carrying the missing momentum flow at freestream
conditions
The momentum thickness can be used to generate a similar effective or
equivalent body, this time representing a body exhibiting an equivalent
momentum loss
( )
}
1
0
y
e
dy u u u
} 

.

\

=
1
0
1
y
e e e
dy
u
u
u
u
u
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 76
Viscosity (32)
Methods of measuring boundary layer state
Hot wires
Hot films
Measurement element is one arm of a Wheatstone
bridge
Measure the voltage changes required to keep a
constant current (CCA), or the current changes
require to keep a constant temperature (CTA)
Sublimation/Evapouration
Heat transfer (IR)
All have difficulties
Intrusion, chemicals, temperature gradients, viewing
angle, calibration, interpretation
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 77
Viscosity (33)
Boundary layer transition
From Reynolds pipe flow experiment a critical Reynolds number was
observed, below which the flow was laminar and above which it was
turbulent.
The discovery that transition occurred on surfaces did not come until
much later
Transition on a flat plate
2300 Re =

.

\

=
crit
crit
d u
u
6 5
10 10 5 . 3 Re =

.

\

=
crit
crit x
x U
u
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 78
Viscosity (34)
Factors affecting
transition
Pressure gradient
Positive pressure
gradients suppress
turbulence
Adverse pressure
gradients amplify
them
Flow direction
Disturbances suppressed by positive pressure gradient
Disturbances amplified by negative pressure gradient
Shape of the profile
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 79
Viscosity (35)
Factors affecting transition
Pressure Gradient
On a wing transition generally occurs at or just after C
Pmin
where the
pressure gradient changes from +ve to ve (e.g. laminar separation
bubble): 5% is a rule of thumb
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 80
Viscosity (36)
Factors affecting transition
Pressure Gradient
Turbulent vs Laminar
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 81
Viscosity (37)
Factors affecting transition
Surface roughness
Imperfections or roughness elements
act like little bluff bodies, shedding
eddies which disturb a laminar boundary
layer and can induce transition
It is possible to reduce drag by inducing
transition through roughness
Only if separation is normally of a
laminar boundary layer
A turbulent boundary layer is more
resistant to separation than a laminar
one
Triggering transition before separation
means the boundary layer will separate
later
Golf Ball
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 82
Viscosity (38)
Factors affecting
transition
Surface
roughness
Addition of a trip
wire
Laminar
separation
Transition
at the wire
Turbulent
separation
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 83
Viscosity (39)
Factors affecting transition
Surface roughness
Ice
Liquids (rain & deicing fluid)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 84
Viscosity (40)
Factors affecting transition
Freestream turbulence (and noise)
E.g. on a flat plate, transition starts
with the formation of Tollmien
Schlichting (TS) waves
External excitation (especially of
matching frequencies) can amplify
the waves and hasten transition
3D geometries (e.g. swept wings)
In addition to chordwise
disturbances we now have
spanwise flow and spanwise
disturbance.
Traditional civil aircrafttype wings
are fully turbulent
Attachment line transition
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 85
Viscosity (41)
Boundary layer separation
Once the pressure gradient on a
surface becomes positive the
pressure rises with distance
The effect of which is shown [top
right]
Loss of kinetic energy which is only
partially compensated for by mixing
within the boundary layer
The velocity profile becomes less full
with the inner part of the layer
slowing down w.r.t. the outer
The shear stress at the wall reduces
With a sufficiently large pressure
gradient a point where the shear
stress becomes zero and the flow on
the surface is on the point of
reversing
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 86
Viscosity (42)
Boundary layer separation
The reversed flow forms a large eddy under the outer
part of the boundary layer (wakes)
Open separations are generally unstable and highly
dynamic
Closed separations exist (laminar bubbles) but even
these are unsteady
Classic wind tunnel surface flow visualisation can
indicate these regions
Oil flow (time averaged)
Tufts (point data)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 87
Viscosity (43)
Boundary layer separation
Bluff body separations
E.g. delta vortices
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 88
Viscosity (44)
Boundary layer modelling
It is important to capture the boundary layer with sufficient fidelity in
viscous CFD methods
Concentration of mesh points close to the surface
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 89
History of aerodynamic testing; Wind tunnel types; low
speed and high speed testing; Open and closed circuit
(Eiffel/Goettingen) type tunnels; Open, closed and
slotted/porous working section type tunnels; Flight
testing; Model mounting systems; upwash, buoyancy
and blockage correction methods; Mach similarity;
Methods of increasing Reynolds number; Powered wind
tunnel models; Pressurised, cryogenic, heavy gas and
water tunnels; Introduction to CFD; Description of CFD;
Advantages and disadvantages of CFD;
Examples/demonstration of CFD usage.
Aerodynamic Methods
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 90
The need for high lift; history of high lift;
slats, flaps and other high lift devices; the
effects of slots; Coanda effects and blown
devices; powered high lift devices; vortex
generators.
Lift Augmentation and Flow
Control Devices
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 91
Early (propellordriven) aircraft had low wing loadings and thus
low takeoff and landing speeds
Highlift systems were either not needed or were relatively simple
Leadingedge devices, at least on civil aircraft, were rare
Trailingedge devices were primarily plain or split flaps
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (1)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 92
The advent of the jet engine saw an increase in cruise speed
and wing loading
Highlift systems became necessary for takeoff and landing (improved
C
L
/C
D
and C
Lmax
)
Slotted leadingedge slats and trailingedge flaps became commonplace and
some were extremely complex.
But the technology of slotted devices was born around 1920
A mixture of careful design and pure accident
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (2)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 93
HandleyPage
In 1911 Sir Frederick HandleyPage noted that square wings (AR=1)
maintained lift to a much higher incidence than more conventional
rectangular wings (AR6)
In 1917 he and his aerodynamicist (R.O.Boswell) tried to combine the
low drag characteristics of high aspect ratio with the delayed stall of low
aspect ratio by incorporating chordwise slots in a conventional wing
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (3)
Wind tunnel test results
were disappointing
Despite many variations
in shape, gap and
proportion the idea could
not be made to work
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 94
HandleyPage
At some point someone (whether HandleyPage, Boswell or one of the
carpenters, it is not clear who) had the idea of cutting spanwise slots
Parallel to the leading edge, at about c/4 and sloping upwards and rearwards
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (4)
The initial tests on a RAE15
aerofoil gave a spectacular
25% increase in maximum lift
An improved slot shape in a
RAE6 aerofoil gave a 50%
increase, with only a slight
increase in drag
Various test throughout 1918
and 1920 showed that
chordwise location was
crucial
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 95
Lachmann
Independently, a parallel investigation was being conducted by a
German engineerpilot, Gus Lachmann.
He transferred to the flying corps from the cavalry in 1917 but stalled and
spunin during an early training flight, breaking his jaw
In hospital he pondered the cause of his accident and how stall could be
prevented, concluding that a cascade of small aerofoils within a normal
wing profile might be better
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (4)
He took his idea to the
German patent office in
February 1918 but this was
rejected unless he could
prove experimentally that the
idea would work
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 96
Lachmann
He approached Prof Ludwig Prandtl at Gottingen who agreed to do the
tests for 50
Lachmann had no money and so borrowed it from his mother
The results convinced the patent office to grant his application
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (5)
Lachmann ended up working for
HandleyPage after the end of
WW2

The consensus was that the slot
behaves as a boundarylayer
control device
The jet through the slot
It was not until 1972 (A.M.O.
Smith) that the correct physical
principles underlying its operation
were finally understood
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 97
Types of highlift device  trailing edge
Takeoff
Predominantly Fowler motion
Landing
Fowler motion plus deflection
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (6)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 98
Types of highlift device  leading edge
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (7)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 99
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (8)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 100
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (9)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 101
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (10)
HIGHLIFT SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY
Slat
Cove
Shroud
Fixed leading
edge (Dnose)
Vane
Main flap
Main element
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 102
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (11)
Takeoff
Slat deployment and takeoff flap setting (large Fowler motion and a little
deflection)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 103
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (12)
Landing
Slat deployment, landing flap setting (large Fowler motion and large
deflection) and spoilers (shroud) after weight on wheels
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 104
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (13)
BOEING TRAILINGEDGE SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 105
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (14)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 106
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (15)
So what effects do highlift systems have?
Flaps shift the C
L
 curve
Greater lift at a given incidence and greater C
Lmax
, but
Reduction in maximum
Slats extend the C
L
 curve, increased
max
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 107
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (16)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 108
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (17)
An example of how certification requirements lead to design choices
e.g. Airbus A340
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 109
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (18)
An example of how each design choice affects others
e.g. fuselage length, fuselage shape and undercarriage height
( = climb angle)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 110
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (19)
The National HighLift
Programme (NHLP)
Instigated by the RAE in the
late 1960s in response to a
perceived American lead in
highlift system design
Current UK designs (BAC111,
Trident, VC10) had much
simpler leading and trailing
edge devices than their US
equivalents (707, 727, 737,
747, DC8, DC9, DC10)
It was considered that more
complex meant more powerful
UK industry had been
combined into BAC and HAS
which was contemplating the
next generation civil transport
Boeing 737
HS Trident
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 111
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (20)
The National HighLift
Programme (NHLP)
Lasted through to the late 1970s
and its legacy continues today
Combinations and permutations of 8
different leadingedge devices and
11 different trailingedge devices
Defined the design philosophy for
the Airbus A320 and all subsequent
Airbus aircraft
Flap chord, slat chord, shroud
length, deflections, etc.
Identified Reynolds number (scale
effect) and testing fidelity as
important design parameters
RAE (QinetiQ) 5m Pressurised
Wind Tunnel
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 112
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (21)
So how do highlift systems really work?
A.M.O. Smith (Douglas) illuminated the aerodynamics community in 1972
The lowspeed aerodynamicists equivalent of Darwins Origin of the Species
but nowhere near as easy to read!
Prior to 1972:
Fresh momentum through the
slot
High energy air from lower
surface to upper surface
A.M.O. Smith
LeadingEdge Slat Effect
Circulation Effect
Dumping Velocity
OffSurface Recovery
Fresh Start for the boundary
layer on each element
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 113
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (22)
LeadingEdge Slat Effect
The leadingedge of a downstream
element benefits from the
circulation of an upstream element
The velocity induced by the
upstream element runs counter to
that of the downstream element
Reduction of the pressure peak on
the downstream element and a
resilience to high angle of attack
Works mainly at high angle of
attack when the slat is generating
a lot of lift and where the main
element is highly loaded
The main element has a similar
effect on the flap
Load on the main element is reduced, but
the combination of slat and main element
is positive
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 114
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (23)
Circulation (Flap) Effect
The trailingedge of an upstream element benefits from the circulation
of a downstream element
The velocity induced
by the downstream
element reinforces
that of the
downstream element
Increased resistance
to main element
trailingedge flow
separation and a
resilience to high
angle of attack
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 115
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (24)
Dumping Effect
The circulation effect not only improves the performance of the upstream
element
The increased trailingedge velocity due to the circulation of the
downstream element means that the boundary layer (wake) from the
upstream element is accelerated
Relieves the pressure rise on the trailingedge of the downstream
element and improves its ability to resist flow separation
Off Surface Pressure Recovery
The boundary layer of the upstream
element is dumped at higher
velocity and impinges upon the
boundary layer of the downstream
element
The deceleration of the upstream
wake is thus more efficient than if it
were in contact with a solid
boundary
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 116
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (25)
Fresh Boundary Layer Effect
Each element starts with a fresh boundary layer at the leading edge
Thin boundary layer can withstand stronger adverse pressure gradients
than thick ones
Viscous Effects and Separation
Confluent boundary layers modify pressure gradients and boundary
layer velocity gradients
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 117
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (26)
HighLift Optimisation
All of the above means that each element has an optimum position
relative to its neighbour
That position will change with the position of further upstream or
downstream elements
In practice, for a 3element system (slat, main element, flap) the flap
position is optimised using a (e.g. 9 point) optimisation matrix, then the
slat is optimised in a similar way. The flap is then reoptimised with the
slat in its new position and ditto for the slat
The optimisation of a system with a tripleslotted flap is not trivial!
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 118
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (27)
Coanda Effect
The tendency of a fluid jet to be attracted to a nearby surface
Used to enhance lift usually either by using the engine exhaust or
dedicated blowing of engine bleed air through slots
Blown devices (boundary layer
control)
Counteracts the deceleration and
growth of the boundary layer by
injection of momentum
Over blowing (jet effect) can
produce lift enhancement over and
above potential flow theory
(F104 Starfighter, F4 Phantom, A
5 Vigilante, Buccaneer, TSR.2. etc)
Engine exhaust
(Antonov 72/74, YC, Boeing
Globemaster III)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 119
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (28)
Blown devices (boundary layer control)
Reduces engine performance
Requires internal ducting
Weight
Volume
Maintenance
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 120
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (29)
Flow control
Which for high lift usually means separation control
Entraining or redistributing higher momentum air close to the flap surface
and delay flow separation
Vortex generators
Small blades (rectangular or triangular) that create vortices close to the
surface
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 121
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (30)
Flow control An example of
Aerodynamics Research
Conventional vortex generators can cause a
significant drag penalty
Hence the concept of subboundarylayer vortex
generators (SBVGs)
2D separation control using SBVGs
400 300 200 100 0 100
x (mm)
100
200
300
400
z
(
m
m
)
10mm Wheeler Wedge with 1h gap
x=52h from separation
spacing = 12h
400 300 200 100 0 100
x (mm)
100
200
300
400
z
(
m
m
)
10mm Wheeler Wedge
x = 52h from separation
spacing = 12h
0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.1
x (m)
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
z
(
m
)
5mm wedges
x=104h from separation
spacing = 12h
400 300 200 100 0 100
x (mm)
100
200
300
z
(
m
m
)
10mm wedges
x= 52h fromseparation
spacing = 12h
300 200 100 0 100
x (mm)
50
100
150
200
250
300
z
(
m
m
)
Umean: 5.0 5.0 15.0 25.0 35.0
No VG's
a) Basic flow (no control)
c) Joined Counterrotating vanes
b) Forwards wedges
d) Counterrotating vanes spaced
apart by 1h
a) Basic flow (no control)
b) Forwards wedges
c) Joined Counterrotating vanes
d) Counterrotating vanes spaced apart
by 1h
Regions of constant streamwise velocity above the bump in vertical plane of symmetry.
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 122
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (31)
Extension to 2.75D (sweep and taper)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 123
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (32)
Extension to fully 3D and to high
Reynolds number
340 flap flow separation (AWIATOR)
No VGs
VGs on
A380 in QinetiQ 5m Wind Tunnel
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 124
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (33)
Flow control
Alternative flow control devices
Air jet, Synthetic jets
Thousands of devices
Networked, Sequenced
Rapid response
Manufacturing
Embedding in composite/metal structures
Power supply
Calibration
Maintenance
Robustness
Certification
Consequences of failure
Flow control
Loads control
Performance degradation
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 125
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (34)
Flow control
Also used for as separation
control on:
Pylon/slat junction
Douglas invention
Big effect on C
Lmax
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 126
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (35)
Flow control
Pylon/slat junction
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 127
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (36)
Flow control
Also used for as separation control on:
Flight control devices
Gloster Javelin
Boeing 727
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 128
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (37)
Flow control
Also used for as separation control on:
Afterbody
Rockwell B1 Lancer
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 129
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (38)
Flow control
Also used for as separation control on:
Shock/boundary layer interaction
Boeing 737
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 130
Factors affecting highlift
performance
Surface roughness
Ice
Liquids (rain & deicing fluid)
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (39)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 131
Abnormal use of highlift
devices
British Airways Boeing 777
crash at Heathrow (January
2008)
Glide approach due to loss
of power
Correct selection of takeoff
setting
Maximum L/D
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (40)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 132
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (41)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 133
Critical Mach Number; formation of
shockwaves; Normal and oblique
shockwaves; Effect of wing thickness and
camber; Wave drag and methods of
reducing wave drag (Wing Sweep,
Transonic Area Ruling, Supercritical
Aerofoil design, Wing design); Shockwave
control and the Shockinduced separation.
Supersonic Flows
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 134
Incompressible flow
Most of our analysis so far has assumed that the flow is incompressible
We do this because it allows us to simplify things in two important ways
The density is known and can be treated as a constant in, for example, the
continuity equation
1
u
1
A
1
=
2
u
2
A
2
The interaction between mechanical and thermal energy is weak which permits
use of a simplified version of the energy equation
This assumption does not, however, match reality
All fluids are compressible, even liquids
If the pressure changes in a flow are sufficient to cause significant density
changes we have to abandon the incompressible flow assumption
It is more likely to be of concern in a gas than in a liquid
A pressure change of 500kPa (~72psi) causes a density change of 0.024% in
water but 250% in air
Supersonic flows (1)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 135
Forward influence
In subsonic flow pressure changes are
propagated through the fluid at the
speed of sound through pressure waves
The pressure changes caused by a
body moving through a fluid are thus
transmitted through the fluid
The air ahead of a subsonic aircraft, for
example, therefore knows that it is
coming because the pressure changes
are transmitted forward
The degree to which the flow ahead of
body is altered depends greatly on the
pressure changes on the body itself and
these are dependent on its shape and
speed
This effect is known as forward
influence and can be a very important
consideration
Supersonic flows (2)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 136
Compressible flow
As an aircraft approaches the
speed of sound, the difference
between the speed at which the
pressure waves are transmitted
ahead of it and that of the aircraft
reduces
So the time between the
pressure wave and aircraft
passing through the same point
reduces
When the aircraft reaches the
speed of sound (Mach 1) the air
receives no warning and so has
to react instantly to the presence
of the aircraft
This instantaneous change can
lead to shock waves
Supersonic flows (3)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 137
Compressible flow
An aircraft does not have to be travelling at the speed of sound to
generate shock waves
The wings are designed to accelerate the air to produce lift so shock
waves will form at relatively low Mach number
Supersonic flows (4)
Shock waves can be
a problem even at
landing speed
the acceleration
generated by a slat
can be so severe
as to cause near
sonic flow on its
upper surface as is
a design limit
C
L
for C
p
10
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 138
Critical Mach number
The speed at which sonic flow occurs on a body is called the critical
Mach number
Shock waves cause drag (wave drag) (see later) and so the speed at
which they start to form is important
For example, the economy of a civil aircraft reduces dramatically once
strong shock waves form its wings and the point at which this occurs is
the drag rise Mach number
the wing section must be designed so that the design cruise speed is below
the drag rise Mach number
Supersonic flows (5)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 139
Mach wave
If we imagine a stationary disturbance emitting pressure waves (e.g.
sound) the waves will propagate uniformly from the source
Ripples in the surface of water
The waves will travel at the speed of sound (c) so that after a time interval
(t) the waves will have travelled a distance of ct
Supersonic flows (6)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 140
Mach wave
Now suppose that there is a flow over the disturbance travelling at Mach
0.5, i.e. V = c
In addition to spreading into the fluid, the waves will also be swept
downstream by the flow
As a result the waves bunch up on the upstream side and spread out on
the downstream side and the rate at which the fluid experiences the
disturbances is greater on the upstream side than the downstream
If the disturbance was sound an upstream listener would here a different
frequency to one downstream
Doppler effect
Supersonic flows (7)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 141
Mach wave
Now suppose that the flow past the disturbance is sonic, i.e. at a speed
exactly equal to the speed of sound (M =1, V = c)
In this case the waves are swept downstream at exactly the same speed
at which they spread
The waves cannot propagate upstream and the fluid is not affected by the
disturbance until it arrives at it
Supersonic flows (8)
The upstream waves will sit on
top of each other forming an
envelope
The fluid experiences the total
effect of all of the waves at once
upon crossing the envelope
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 142
Mach wave
Finally suppose that the fluid flows past the disturbance at supersonic
speed, i.e. a speed greater than the speed of sound (M > 1, V > c)
At supersonic speed the disturbances are swept downstream faster than
they can spread
All the waves are confined to a triangular (in 2D) or conical (in 3D)
region extending downstream from the disturbance
The waves form an envelope of half angle
Supersonic flows (9)
Only the fluid inside the
envelope is affected by the
disturbance
If it were sound it would be
silent outside the envelope
The envelope is called the Mach
wave (in 2D) or the Mach cone
(in 3D)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 143
Supersonic flows (10)
Mach angle
The half angle of the envelope can be calculated
So the Mach angle () is given by:
Because the fluid experiences
the combined effects of a
disturbance almost
instantaneously, the fluid
property and velocity variations
may be discontinuous
E.g. density changes
Schlieren technique
M V
c
t V
t c 1
sin = =
A
A
=
M
1
sin
1 
=
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 144
Supersonic flows (11)
Shock waves
A finite strength disturbance (e.g. a sharp wedge or cone) in supersonic
flow creates a finite strength wave which is stationary with respect to the
disturbance
These finite strength disturbances are known as shock waves
They are extremely thin and fluid properties change dramatically across
them
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 145
Supersonic flows (12)
Shock wave on an A320 in cruise
Supercritical wing design (see later)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 146
Supersonic flows (13)
Normal and oblique shock waves
A shock wave that is perpendicular to the upstream flow is a normal
shock
One that is inclined at a constant angle to the upstream flow is an oblique
shock
A curved shock has a varying angle between it and the upstream flow
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 147
Supersonic flows (14)
Normal shock waves
Consider a normal shock wave of zero thickness as shown in the picture
The continuity equation along a streamline is
1
u
1
A
1
=
2
u
2
A
2
For a section of the shock wave, the area before and after the shock will
be equal, i.e. A
1
= A
2
= A, so
1
u
1
=
2
u
2
The ideal gas law is
And we can write the velocity as
So
1
u
1
=
2
u
2
becomes
or
T R
p
=
T R M Mc u = =
2 2
2
2
1 1
1
1
T R M
T R
p
T R M
T R
p
=
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
2 2
1
1 1
T
T
p
p
M
M
T
M p
T
M p
= =
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 148
Supersonic flows (15)
Normal shock waves
Now consider the forces acting across the shock wave
The momentum equation gives
The force is equal to the pressure difference across the shock wave
= pressure x area = p
1
A = p
2
A
Therefore
or
and
A u A u F
x
2
1 1
2
2 2
= E
A u A u A p A p
2
1 1
2
2 2 2 1
=
T R
p
T R M Mc u
=
= =
) 1 (
) 1 (
2
2
2
1
1
2
M
M
p
p
+
+
=
) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
2 2
2
1 1
M p M p + = +
2
1 1
2
2 2 2 1
u u p p =
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 149
Supersonic flows (16)
Normal shock waves
We also need to make use of the energy equation
The state of a gas is defined by several properties including the
temperature, pressure, and the volume which the gas occupies.
From the first law of thermodynamics (conservation of energy) we find
that the internal energy of a gas is also a state variable
That is, a variable which depends only on the state of the gas and not on any
process that produced that state
We are free to define additional state variables which are combinations of
existing state variables
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 150
Supersonic flows (17)
Normal shock waves
The new variables often make the analysis of a system much simpler
For a gas, a useful additional state variable is the enthalpy (H) which is
defined to be the sum of the internal energy E plus the product of the
pressure p and volume V, i.e. H = E + pV
The enthalpy can be made into a specific variable ( ) by dividing by the
mass
Propulsion engineers use the specific enthalpy (or more often the
change in specific enthalpy) in engine analysis more than the enthalpy
itself
h
~
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 151
Supersonic flows (18)
Normal shock waves
How do we use this new variable called enthalpy?
Let's consider the first law of thermodynamics for a gas
For a system with heat transfer Q and work W, the change in internal
energy E from State 1 to State 2 is equal to the difference in the heat
transfer into the system and the work done by the system:
E
2
 E
1
= Q  W
The work and heat transfer depend on the process used to change the
state.
For the special case of a constant pressure process, the work done by the
gas is given as the constant pressure p times the change in volume V. i.e.
W = p (V
2
 V
1
)
Substituting into the first equation, we have:
E
2
 E
1
= Q  p (V
2
 V
1
)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 152
Supersonic flows (19)
Normal shock waves
Let's group the conditions at State 2 and the conditions at State 1 together:
E
2
 E
1
= Q p (V
2
 V
1
)
becomes
(E
2
+ p V
2
)  (E
1
+ p V
1
) = Q
The (E + pV) can be replaced by the enthalpy H
H
2
 H
1
= Q
From the definition of the heat transfer, we can represent Q by some heat
capacity coefficient C
p
times the temperature T
H
2
 H
1
= C
p
(T
2
 T
1
)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 153
Supersonic flows (19)
Normal shock waves
We have previously divided by the mass of gas to produce the specific
enthalpy equation version
The specific heat capacity (c
p
) is called the specific heat at constant
pressure
This final equation is used to determine values of specific enthalpy for a
given temperature
Across shock waves, the total enthalpy of the gas remains a constant
( ) ( )
2 2 1 2 1 2
~ ~ ~
T c h T T c h h
p p
= =
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 154
Supersonic flows (20)
Normal shock waves
The energy equation for this situation is:
where is the heat transfer rate,
is power (rate of work),
is mass flow rate,
and is specific enthalpy.
Work is the energy transfer by the action of a force through a distance
Because we have defined the thickness of the shock wave to be zero, there
can be neither heat transfer or work as they require finite volumes
So the equation reduces to:


.

\

+ =
2 2
~ ~
2
1
2
2
1 2
u u
h h m W Q
s
h
m
W
Q
s
~
2
~
2
~
2
2
2
2
1
1
u
h
u
h + = +
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 155
Supersonic flows (21)
Normal shock waves
So we now have five equations:
Continuity
1
u
1
=
2
u
2
(1)
Momentum (2)
Energy (3)
Enthalpy (4)
Equation of state p
2
=
2
R T (5)
And five unknowns, the flow conditions after the shock wave:
2
, u
2
,
p
2
,
, and T
2
These equations then are sufficient to calculate these unknown conditions
in an ideal gas
2
~
2
~
2
2
2
2
1
1
u
h
u
h + = +
2
1 1
2
2 2 2 1
u u p p =
2 2
~
T c h
p
=
2
~
h
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 156
Supersonic flows (22)
Normal shock waves
Using the continuity and momentum equations
We introduce a characteristic Mach number
where a
*
is the value of the speed of sound at sonic conditions, not the
actual local value, and
2
2 2
2
1
1 1
1
u
u
p
u
u
p
+ = +
1 2
2 2
2
1 1
1
u u
u
p
u
p
=
1 2
2
2
2
1
2
1
u u
u
a
u
a
=
p a =


=
a
u
M
 
= T R a
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 157
Supersonic flows (23)
Normal shock waves
The energy equation we had as
where u
1
and u
2
are velocities at any two points along a 3D streamline
We had that for a perfect gas, , so
Also for a perfect gas, c
p
c
v
= R
Which we can modify by dividing through by c
p
to give
or
2
~
2
~
2
2
2
2
1
1
u
h
u
h + = +
T c h
p
=
~
2 2
2
2
2
2
1
1
u
T c
u
T c
p p
+ = +
c
p
 specific heat at constant pressure
c
v
 specific heat at constant volume
p v
p
p p
p
c
R
c
c
c
R
c
c
= = =
1
1 1 so and
1
=
R
c
p
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 158
Supersonic flows (24)
Normal shock waves
So
remember
so
If we make the Point 2 on the streamline
represent sonic flow, then u = a
*
so that
or
2 1 2 1
becomes
2 2
2
2 2
2
1 1
2
2
2
2
1
1
u T R u T R u
T c
u
T c
p p
+
= +
+ = +
T R a =
2 1 2 1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
u a u a
+
= +
2 1 2 1
2
*
2
* 2 2
a a u a
+
= +
2
*
2 2
( 2
1
a
u a
1) 2 1
+
= +
+
= +
2
2
2
* 2
2
2
1
2
* 2
1
2
1
2
1
and
2
1
2
1
u a a u a a
+
=
+
=
1 2
2
2
2
1
2
1
u u
u
a
u
a
=
1 2 2
2
2
*
1
1
2
*
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
u u u
u
a
u
u
a
=
1 2 1 2
2
*
1 2
2 1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
u u u u a u u
u u
=
+
+
1 2
2
*
2 1
2
1
2
1
u u a
u u
=
+
+
+
= +
2
* 2
1) ( 2
1
2
1
1
) / (


.

\

+
= +
u
a u a
2
1 1
1) ( 2
1
1
) / 1 (
2
*
2

.

\

+
=
M
M
2
2
2
*
2
*
2
( 2
) 1 (
( ) / ) 1 ((
2
M
M
M
M
M
1)
or
1)
+
+
=
+
=
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 162
Supersonic flows (28)
Normal shock waves
We now take the Prandtl relation and incorporate the characteristic Mach
number (M* = u/a*)
a* = u
1
u
2
becomes or
On the previous page we derived the equation
Substituting this into
Gives
And solving for M
2
2
 
=
a
u
a
u
2 1
1
*
1
*
2
*
2
*
1
1
1
M
M M M = =
2
2
2
*
( 2
) 1 (
M
M
M
1) +
+
=
*
1
*
2
1
M
M =
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
) 1 ( 2
) 1 (
) 1 ( 2
) 1 (
(
+
+
=
+
+
M
M
M
M
 
2 / ) 1 (
2 / ) 1 ( 1
2
1
2
1
2
2
+
=
M
M
M
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 163
Supersonic flows (29)
Normal shock waves
The equation is an important result
It shows that the Mach number after a normal shock wave is dependent
only upon the Mach number before it
If M
1
=1, then M
2
=1 and this is an infinitely weak shock wave, or Mach wave
If M
1
>1, then M
2
<1, i.e. the flow after the shock wave will be subsonic
As M
1
increases above 1 the shock wave becomes progressively stronger
and M
2
becomes progressively less than 1
As M
1
, M
2
approaches a finite minimum value
which for air ( = 1.4) is 0.378
 
2 / ) 1 (
2 / ) 1 ( 1
2
1
2
1
2
2
+
=
M
M
M
2 / ) 1 (
2
M
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 164
Supersonic flows (30)
Normal shock waves
Now we have a way of determining the relationship between the Mach
numbers before and after a normal shock wave
We also need to determine the relationships between the other flow
parameters
2
/
1
, p
2
/p
1
, and T
2
/T
1
Using the
continuity equation (
1
u
1
=
2
u
2
) and the Prandtl relation
(a* = u
1
u
2
) we get
Substituting into the above equation
Gives
2
*
1
2
*
2
2 1
2
1
2
1
1
2
M
a
u
u u
u
u
u
= = = =
2
2
2
*
( 2
) 1 (
M
M
M
1) +
+
=
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
( 2
) 1 (
M
M
u
u
1) +
+
= =
\

= = =
1
2
2
1 1 2 1 1 1
2
2 2
2
1 1 1 2
1 ) (
u
u
u u u u u u p p
2
1 1
2
2 2 2 1
u u p p =
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
( 2
) 1 (
M
M
u
u
1) +
+
= =
1 1
2
1 1 1 1
p a p a = = or


.

\

=


.

\

=


.

\

=
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1 1
1
1 2
1 1 1
u
u
M
u
u
a
u
u
u
p
u
p
p p
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 166
Supersonic flows (32)
Normal shock waves
The substitution gives
Which simplifies to
To get the temperature ratio we use the gas equation p = R T, i.e.
Which gives
(
+
+
=
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1 2
) 1 (
( 2
1
M
M
M
p
p p
1)
) 1 (
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
+
+ = M
p
p


.

\



.

\

=
2
1
1
2
1
2
p
p
T
T
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
) 1 (
( 2
) 1 (
1
2
1
M
M
M
h
h
T
T
+
+
(
+
+ = =
1)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 167
Supersonic flows (33)
Normal shock waves
So now we have
) 1 (
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
+
+ = M
p
p
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
) 1 (
( 2
) 1 (
1
2
1
M
M
M
h
h
T
T
+
+
(
+
+ = =
1)
 
2 / ) 1 (
2 / ) 1 ( 1
2
1
2
1
2
2
+
=
M
M
M
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
( 2
) 1 (
M
M
u
u
1) +
+
= =
+
=
= =
=
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1 1
1 1
lim
1
1
lim
lim
2
1
lim
p
p
p
p
M
M M
M M
6
0.378

.

\

+ =
M
p
p
(
(


.

\

=
1
1
2
) 1 (
1
1 , 0 2
1
p
p
M
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 172
Supersonic flows (38)
Measurement of velocity in compressible flow
Using the relationship for Mach number
becomes
So, unlike incompressible flow, a
knowledge of the total and static
pressures is not enough
We also need to know the freestream
speed of sound, a
1
(
(


.

\

=
1
1
2
) 1 (
1
1 , 0 2
1
p
p
M
(
(


.

\

=
1
1
2
) 1 (
1
1 , 0
2
1
2
1
p
p
a
u
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 173
Supersonic flows (39)
Measurement of velocity in compressible flow
Now in supersonic flow the Pitot tube creates a stagnation region and the
flow is brought to rest at the throat
However, because the upstream flow is supersonic and the Pitot tube is an
obstruction, there will be a bow wave ahead of it
The centreline streamline crosses the
normal portion of the bow shock
So the flow is decelerated to subsonic
speed (nonisentropically) through the
shock wave
And then (isentropically) to zero velocity
at the throat
The total pressure measured by the
Pitot tube is (p
0,1
) but of the flow behind
a normal shock wave (p
0,2
)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 174
Supersonic flows (40)
Measurement of velocity in compressible flow
However, knowing the freestream static pressure (p
1
) and the throat total
pressure (p
0,2
) is still enough to calculate the freestream Mach number (M)
Where p
0,2
/p
2
is the ratio of total and
static pressure after the shock and
p
2
/p
1
is the static pressure ratio across
the shock
1
2
2
2 , 0
1
2 , 0
p
p
p
p
p
p
=
) 1 (
2
2
2
2 , 0
2
1
1

.

\

+ =
M
p
p
] 2 / ) 1 [(
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1
2
1
2
1
2
2
+
=
M
M
M
) 1 (
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
+
+ = M
p
p
\

+
=
M
M
M
p
p
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 176
Supersonic flows (42)
Oblique shock waves
Most shock waves form an oblique angle with the upstream flow
Normal shock waves are just a special case of oblique shock wave where
the angle is 90
In addition to oblique compression waves where the pressure increases
discontinuously across the shock wave, there are expansion waves
where the pressure decreases continuously across the shock wave
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 177
Supersonic flows (43)
Oblique shock waves
Consider supersonic flow encountering a concave corner
The wall is turned upwards at an angle
An oblique shock wave will form at the corner where the streamlines before
and after the shock are all parallel, deflected through the angle
The Mach number suddenly
(discontinuously) decreases while
the pressure, density and
temperature all suddenly increase
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 178
Supersonic flows (44)
Oblique shock waves
Now consider the same supersonic flow encountering a convex corner
The wall is turned downwards at an angle
A series oblique shock waves form an expansion fan will form at the
corner
The fan opens continuously away from the corner
Again the streamlines before and after are all parallel, deflected
continuously and smoothly through the expansion angle
The Mach number smoothly
(continuously) increases while the
pressure, density and temperature
all smoothly decrease
In contrast to essentially 1D normal
shock waves, oblique shock and
expansion waves are inherently 2D
i.e. the flow field properties are a
function of x and y
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 179
Supersonic flows (45)
Oblique shock waves
If we return to the oblique compression
wave, this is representative of supersonic
flow past a wedge
The wedge semiangle is now and the
angle of the oblique shock wave is
The relationship between the shock
angle (), the wedge angle () and the
upstream Mach number (M
1
) is given by
(


.

\

+
+
+
=
2
1
2 1
1
1
2
1
1 1
M

 
 u sin
cos sin
tan
(See slides B at the end of the section for derivation if desired)
This is the M relation and it specifies as a unique function of M
1
and
The results from the equation are plotted graphically on the next slide
and the graph is used to solve oblique shock problems
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 180
Supersonic flows (46)
Oblique shock
waves
The wedge angle
() plotted against
shock angle ( )
for varying
upstream Mach
number (M
1
)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 181
Supersonic flows (47)
Oblique shock waves
The graph illustrates a lot of physical
phenomena associated with oblique
shock waves:
For any given upstream Mach number
M
1
, there is a maximum deflection
angle,
max
If the physical geometry is such that
>
max
then no solution exists for a
straight oblique shock wave
Nature establishes a curved shock wave
detached from the corner or the nose of
a body
Note that as the freestream Mach
number increases,
max
also increases
straight oblique shock waves can exist at
higher deflection angles at higher speed
But there is a limit (for gamma = 1.4)
max
45.5 as M
1
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 182
Supersonic flows (48)
Oblique shock waves
For any given less than
max
there are
two straight oblique shock solutions for a
given upstream Mach number
E.g. if M
1
=2.0 and
=15 then can equal
either 45.3 or 79.8
The smaller value is called the weak shock
solution and the larger value is the strong
shock solution
The terms weak and strong derive from
the fact that the for a given upstream Mach
number (M
1
), the larger the wave angle the
larger the normal component of upstream
Mach number (M
n,1
) and thus the larger the
pressure ratio p
2
/p
1
That is, the higherangle shock wave will
compress the air more than the lower
angle shock wave
In nature the weak shock solution usually
prevails
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 183
Supersonic flows (49)
Oblique shock waves
Whenever you see straight, attached oblique
shock waves (as shown in the bottom picture)
they are almost always the weak shock
solution
It is safe to make this assumption unless you
have information to the contrary
Note that the locus of points connecting all the
values of
max
divides the weak and strong
shock solutions
Above the curve the strong shock prevails
Below the curve the weak shock prevails
There is another curve just below this one
This is the dividing line above which the
downstream Mach number is subsonic (M
2
<
1) and below which it is supersonic (M
2
> 1)
For the strong solution the downstream Mach
number is always subsonic
For the majority of weak shock solutions the
downstream Mach number is supersonic
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 184
Supersonic flows (50)
Use of oblique shock waves
Engine inlets
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 185
Supersonic flows (51)
Critical Mach number
We saw before that the
freestream Mach number at
which the flow on an aerofoil
first becomes sonic is the
critical Mach number, M
cr
If we define the static pressure
in the freestream as p
and
that at a point A on an aerofoil
as p
A
, we can use the
isentropic pressure ratio (slide
169) to give us
) 1 (
2
2
0
0
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1


.

\

+
+
= =
A
A A
M
M
p p
p p
p
p
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 186
Supersonic flows (52)
Critical Mach number
Recall that pressure coefficient is given by
where
So
=
q
p p
C
p
2
2
1
= V q
) (
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 2
2
2 2
= =


.

\

=
= =
p a M p
V
p
p
V
p
p
V q


.

\

=
1
2
2
p
p
M
C
p


.

\

+
+
=
1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1 2
) 1 (
2
2
2
,
A
A p
M
M
M
C
(
(


.

\

+
+
=
1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1 2
) 1 (
2
2
,
M
M
C
cr p
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 188
Supersonic flows (54)
Critical pressure coefficient
When the freestream Mach number is
precisely equal to the critical Mach number,
there is only one point on the aerofoil where
M=1, namely point A
In this case M
= M
cr
and
This equation has no connection with aerofoil
shape and is thus a universal relationship
which can be used for all aerofoils
The PrandtlGlauert rule relates the
incompressible pressure coefficient (C
p,0
) to a
compressible one:
(Other approximations exist, but this is the
simplest and most common)
(
(


.

\

+
+
=
1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1 2
) 1 (
2
2
,
cr
cr
cr p
M
M
C
2
0 ,
1
=
M
C
C
p
p
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 189
Supersonic flows (55)
Critical pressure coefficient
To estimate the critical Mach number we need
to:
By some means (either experimental or
theoretical) obtain the lowspeed,
incompressible value of C
p,0
at the minimum
pressure point on the aerofoil
Using a compressibility correction (e.g. Prandtl
Glauert) plot the variation of C
p
with M
(curve
B)
The point where curve B crosses the line
representing
Is the point where sonic flow occurs at the
minimum pressure location on the aerofoil
The value of M


.

\

+
+
=
1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1 2
) 1 (
2
2
,
cr
cr
cr p
M
M
C
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 190
Supersonic flows (56)
Critical pressure coefficient
The graph is not an exact determination of M
cr
The curve for C
p.cr
is exact, but curve B is only an approximation
Hence the value of M
cr
obtained is only approximate
However, such an estimate is useful for preliminary design and the
results are accurate enough for most applications
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 191
Supersonic flows (57)
Effect of thickness
Thicker aerofoils perturb the airflow more and create greater suction on
the top surface than thinner aerofoils
That is, on a thick aerofoil the value of the pressure coefficient at the
minimum pressure location will be a larger negative number than the
equivalent value on a thin aerofoil
Plotting this results
shows immediately that
a thick aerofoil has a
lower critical Mach
number than a thin one
For highspeed aircraft it
is desirable to have a
high value of M
cr
and
this drives the designer
towards a thinner wing
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 192
Supersonic flows (58)
Effect of thickness
For example a Lear Jet has a 9% thick aerofoil, while the Piper Aztec
has one that is 14% thick
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 193
Supersonic flows (59)
Dragdivergence Mach number
As we increase the freestream Mach number (M
), from a to b, for a
given aerofoil the drag remains virtually constant
We then encounter the critical Mach number where the flow on the
aerofoil first becomes sonic, point c
As we increase M
to slightly above M
cr
(to point d) a finite region of
supersonic flow appears on the aerofoil
As we nudge M
still
higher we encounter
point e where the drag
suddenly starts to
increase.
The value of M
where
this sudden increase in
drag starts is called the
dragdivergence Mach
number
Douglas dC
d
/dM > 0.1
Boeing C
d
= 0.002
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 194
Supersonic flows (60)
Dragdivergence Mach number
Beyond the dragdivergence Mach number the drag coefficient can be
very large, typically increasing by a factor of 10 or more
This drag increase is associated with an extensive region of supersonic
flow over the aerofoil terminating in a shock wave
For an aerofoil design for lowspeed application, the local Mach number
can reach 1.2 or higher and the terminating shock can be very strong
These shocks generally cause severe flow separation, with an
attendant increase in drag (wave drag)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 195
Supersonic flows (61)
Drag rise reduction
Research since 1945 has focused on reducing the large drag rise
Instead of a factor of 10 increase in drag at Mach 1, can reduce it to 2
or 3?
Several design ploys have been utilised to achieve this
The first was the use of thin aerofoils
We have already seen that thinner aerofoils have higher critical Mach
numbers than thicker ones
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 196
Supersonic flows (62)
Drag rise reduction
Variation of thicknesstochord ratio for a representative selection of different aircraft
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 197
Supersonic flows (63)
Drag rise reduction
The second design ploy was to use
swept wings
Imagine a straight wing with a
thicknesstochord ratio (t/c) of 0.15
If we sweep the same wing at 45
the flow sees the same physical
thickness but the chord has
extended
and the thicknesstochord ratio
has reduced
Thus by sweeping the wing the flow
behaves as if the aerofoil is thinner
and it has a higher critical Mach
number
c
c
c 1.41
cos
=
O
=
2
North American F86 Sabre
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 198
Supersonic flows (64)
Area rule
Beside using thin, swept
aerofoils to reduce the drag
rise at Mach 1, two other
concepts have been
developed
The first of these is the area
rule
The early jets did not have
enough thrust to overcome
the massive drag rise near
Mach 1
Even the early century
series aircraft designed to
provide the UASF with
supersonic fighters in the
early 1950s (e.g. the
Convair F102 Delta
Dagger) could not at first
penetrate the sound barrier
in level flight
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 199
Supersonic flows (65)
Area rule
The picture shows the area distribution (the variation of crosssectional
area with distance along the aircraft axis) of a typical US aircraft of that
period
Note the discontinuities in the distribution
Ballisticians had known for almost a century that bullets and shells with
smoothly varying crosssections were faster than those with those with
abrupt or discontinuous shape changes
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 200
Supersonic flows (66)
Area rule
The NACA engineer Richard Whitcomb applied this knowledge to the
problem of transonic aircraft
He reasoned that the area distribution should be as smooth as possible
This meant that, in the region of the wing and tail, the fuselage cross
sectional area had to reduce to compensate for the additional area of
these structures
This led to the coke bottle shape and the design philosophy is called
the area rule
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 201
Supersonic flows (67)
Area rule
The F102 was redesigned and rebuilt in 118 days and achieved M1.22
F102
Straightsided fuselage
F102A
Coke bottle fuselage
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 202
Supersonic flows (68)
Area rule
Other ways of area ruling
Boeing 747100
Boeing 747400
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 203
Supersonic flows (69)
Area rule
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 204
Supersonic flows (70)
Area rule
Some aircraft cannot change the fuselage shape so extra volume is
added to smooth the area distribution
Kuchemann carrots
Convair CV990
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 205
Supersonic flows (71)
The supercritical aerofoil
While thinner aerofoils help reduce the drag rise near Mach 1, there is a
practical limit on how thin an aerofoil can be
Spar depths and fuel volume
So is there a way we can delay the drag rise to higher Mach numbers for
an aerofoil of given thickness?
Increasing M
cr
is one
way, but another is to
increase the increment
between the critical
Mach number and the
dragdivergence Mach
number
i.e. increase the gap
between point c and
point e
An aerofoil which does
this is known as a
supercritical aerofoil
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 206
Supersonic flows (72)
The supercritical aerofoil
The shape of a supercritical aerofoil is compared to a common NACA 64
series aerofoil in the picture
The supercritical aerofoil has a relatively flat top leading to a region of
supersonic flow with lower Mach number than the NACA 64series
In turn, the terminating
shock is much weaker
and thus creates less
drag
The picture shows the
NACA section at a
lower Mach number
but the supersonic
region is taller, the
local Mach numbers
higher and the
terminating shock
stronger than the
supercritical aerofoil at
a higher speed
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 207
Supersonic flows (73)
The supercritical aerofoil
The picture shows experimental data from the two aerofoils
The drag divergence Mach number for the NACA 64series aaerofoil is
0.67 and for the supercritical aerofoil is 0.79
The relatively flat upper
surface is achieved
through negative camber
for the forward 60% of
the aerofoil
This lowers the lift which
is compensated by
extreme positive camber
on the rearward 30%
This produces the cusp
like shape of the lower
surface near the trailing
edge
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 208
Supersonic flows (74)
The supercritical aerofoil
Handley Page Victor
Airbus A300
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 209
Supersonic flows (75)
Shockinduced separation
The onset of transonic shockinduced
flow separation is not confined to
large increases in drag
It can also trigger a variety of
aeroelastic instability and response
phenomena including flutter,
oscillations and control surface buzz,
shockinduced oscillations
That is, the shock is not always static
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 210
Supersonic flows (76)
Shockinduced separation
We might wish, therefore, to consider some form of shock wave
control
This will consist of either
Modification of the geometry at the foot of the shock wave to either
smear a single shock into a series of weaker ones or fix its location
(shock bump)
Modification of the boundary layer to withstand the pressure gradient
across the shock (passive or active vortex generators, suction or
blowing)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 211
Supersonic flows (77)
Shockinduced separation
Shock bodies
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 212
Supersonic flows (77)
Shockinduced separation
To maintain their operational
ceiling of 70,000 feet
(21,000 m), the U2A and U2C
flew very near their maximum
speed
However, the aircraft's stall
speed at that altitude is only
10 knots less than its maximum
speed
There was a danger when
turning that the inner wing
stalled because it was going too
slow and the outer wing stalled
because of shock formation and
shockinduced separation
This point of the flight
enveloped was referred to by
the pilots as "coffin corner"
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 213
Supersonic flows (78)
Total aircraft drag
Trim Drag
Wave (Wing) Drag
Parasitic Drag
Nacelle Interaction Drag
Unaccounted Drag
Vortex (Induced) Drag
Profile drag
Drag Breakdown of a Representative 4 Engine Civil
Transport Aircraft
At Design Cruise Mach Number & Lift Coefficient
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 214
Supersonic flows (79)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 215
Supersonic flows (A1)
Isentropic flow (derivations)
The basic equations:
Continuity
1
u
1
A
1
=
2
u
2
A
2
Momentum
Energy
Enthalpy
i.e.
Equation of state
Speed of sound
2
~
2
~
2
2
2
2
1
1
u
h
u
h + = +
0 ) )( (
1 2 2 1 2
1
2 2 1 1 2
2
2 2 1
2
1 1
= + + + A A p p A p A p A u A u
2 2 1 1
~
,
~
T c h T c h
p p
= =
2
2 2
1
2
2
1 2
1
1
u T c u T c
p p
+ = +
2 2
2
1 1
1
T
p
T
p
=
M
u
T c T R
p
a
p
= = = = ) 1 (
+ =
+
p u p u
) 1 (
2
0
2
1
1
+ =
M
p
p
2
2 2
1
2
2
1 2
1
1
u T c u T c
p p
+ = +
1 2 1 2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
+ =
+
a u a u
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 217
Oblique shock angle (derivation)
The basic equations (note the resolution of the velocity vector into
components normal to and tangential to the shock wave):
Continuity
1
V
1n
=
2
V
2n
Momentum (normal to the shock wave)
Momentum (parralel to the shock wave)
i.e. no change in pressure)
Energy (from slide Supersonic flows (25))
(a
*
is the value of the speed of sound at sonic conditions and is constant)
2
1 1
2
2 2 2 1 n n
V V p p =
t n t n
V V V V
1 1 1 2 2 2
0 =
2
*
2 2
1) ( 2
1
2 1
a
u a
+
= +
=

n n
n
t
n
n
t
n
n n
V V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V V
a
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
1
1 2
2
*
2
1 1 1
2
1
=
(


.

\

+


.

\

+
+


.

\

\

+
+
n n
n n
t
n n
V V
V V
V
V V
a
 sin
cos
1 sin
2
1
1
2
2
1
V
V
a
V
n
+
=

Supersonic flows (B4)
(
(


.

\

=



2
2
1
0
0
1
2
1
cos
1 sin V
a
a
a V
V
n
(
+
+
+
=
2
1
2
1
2
1 2 1
M
V
V
n
1
sin
1 sin


Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 221
Supersonic flows (B4)
Oblique shock angle (derivation)
From the picture we can see that V
2n
is related to the wave angle( )and
deflection angle () by
V
2n
= V
t
tan(  ) = V
1
cos tan(  )
Which may be equated to the equation
at the bottom of the previous slide to give
Or


.

\

+
+
+
=
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1 1
) (
M

 
u  sin
cos sin
tan
(


.

\

+
+
+
=
2
1
2 1
1
1
2
1
1 1
M

 
 u sin
cos sin
tan
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 222
Swept wing flows; Effect of spanwise and
normal velocity components; qualitative
description of 3D boundary layers on
swept wings; Forward, rearward and
variable sweep wings; control surface
effects; delta wings and vortical flows;
vortex flap; aerodynamics of aircraft at
high incidences.
Swept Wings
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 223
Why sweep the wings
Weve already seen that wing sweep increases the effective t/c
But it also moves the wings behind the bow shock
Swept wings (1)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 224
Incidence of a shock on a
wing
Sweeping the wing back alters
the onset Mach number, i.e.
that normal to the leading
edge, M
n
If the wing is swept at the
angle of the Mach line
M
n
= M
cos (90)
= M
sin
=1
That is, the normal Mach
number is unity
Sweeping it back further
reduces the normal Mach
number to subsonic
Swept wings (2)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 225
Bell X1 and X2
Swept wings (3)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 226
Effect of sweep on pressure
Recall that the pressure
coefficient is dependent on
onset Mach number only
So the normal pressure
distribution is thus related to
the normal Mach number
And thus varies with sweep
Swept wings (4)


.

\

=
1
2
2
p
p
M
C
p


.

\

=
1
2
2
p
p
M
C
n
pn