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ORGANIZATIONAL CONCEPT AND INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR

PRINCE JUNE CRUZ KITANE, R.N.

OBJECTIVE:
AT THE END OF THE LECTURE WE WILL BE ABLE TO LEARN AND BE AWARE OF THE DIFFERENT

ORGANIZATIONAL CONCEPT AS
WELL AS THE INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR THAT INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING: * Intelligence * Creativity * Theories of Social identity

and Attribution
* Stereotyping * Improving perception And most of all to HAVE FUN

Love Me
Love me in the Springtime, when all is green and new, Love me in the Summer, when the sky is oh so blue, Love me in the Autumn, when the leaves are turning brown, Love me in the Winter, when the snow is falling down. Love me when I'm happy, and even when I'm sad, Love me when I'm good, or when I'm oh so bad, Love me when I'm pretty, or if my face is plain, Love me when I'm feeling good, or when I'm feeling pain. Love me always darlin', in the rain or shining sun, Love me always darlin', after all is said and done, Love me always darlin', until all our life is through, Love me always darlin', for I'll be lovin' you!

Perfection
All I ever wanted was to be part of your heart and for us to be together to never be apart. No one else in the world could even compare, Youre perfect and so is this love we share. We have so much more then I ever thought we would, I love you more then I thought I ever could. I promise to give you all I have to give, Ill do anything for you as long as I live. In your eyes I see our present, future, and past, by the way you look at me I know we will last. I hope that one day you will come to realize, how perfect you are when seen though my eyes.

Organizational Behavior Concepts

The aforementioned emerging trends would understand better by structuring the conceptual framework of organizational behavior. The illustration above showed the five major concepts such as multidisciplinary, scientific method, contingency, multiple levels of analysis and open system. (Mcshane and Glinow, 2000)

Multidisciplinary. The contributing disciplines such as psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, political science; and the emerging areas on ergonomics and information technology have had the greatest impact on the organizational behavior knowledge in particular and industrial/ organizational psychology discipline in general. Organizational behavior is a discipline in social science that deduces knowledge from other disciplines rather than solely dependent on research base

Scientific Method. Describing, understanding, predicting and controlling are the goals in studying human behavior more particularly, behavior of individual in organization. OB researchers must formulate such problems, test their hypotheses, and employ appropriate methods. In this way, researchers will be guided by a set of principles and procedures that help them to collect, organize, analyze and interpret data in a systematic and meaningful way. Research findings are viable for a manager in performing decision roles and leadership ability.

Contingency. The relevance of the goals in studying behavior problems more specifically, understanding, and predicting organizational events is referred to contingency approach. This concept is an idea that a particular action may have different consequences in different situations that no single solution is best in all circumstances. Because the nature, kind and extent of behavioral problems in an organization may vary on a particular situation. Thus, the psychological study and application of knowledge contributed by the different disciplines such as mentioned above it would serve as conceptual bases by the OB researchers in understanding and predicting such unexplained events and conditions.

It is incumbent upon the organizational unit that a manager is responsible to be an effective in applying contingency oriented theories on leadership, workforce, participation, conflict management, etc. that are necessary in various areas of the organizational behavior. Tosi and Slocum (2004) gave major emphasis on the need to understand and diagnose the situation, and select the strategy most considerable unexplained conditions when an organization is beset by a unique and new problem or opportunity.

Multiple Levels of Analysis. In the analysis of the organizational problems, it is effective to employ the systematic application for the purpose of objectivity, simplicity and clarity. Manager and OB researcher must consider the individual, group (team), and the entire organization in hierarchical order. The individual level covers traits, predispositions and responses display by workers. The psychodynamic aspects of personality would provide the innermost dimension of the individuals thought, perception, motivation, emotion, attitudes, and values that are very important to his/ her adjustment and lifework. The group or team level would provide analysis on interaction processes among members of the organizational unit. Group processes, group dynamics team building, communications, leaderships, human relations, politics and conflicts are the major concerns.

As a whole, an analysis of the organizational environment includes the structure, function and interrelationships with a member and/ or group in an organization. Motivation is a behavior of an individual in organization that include his performance, recognition from peers and superior, and job satisfaction in the organization. Job evaluation of an employee or employees is related to organizational structures and processes under Human Resource Management. In this way, organizational analysis levels would provide the manager to have an in depth analysis as regards the content facilitative of behavior problems to the workforce.

Open system. Waring (1997) viewed organization as open systems that consist of interdependent parts that work together to continually monitor and transact with the environment. An organizational system acquires resources from its external environment including raw materials, employees, information, financial support and equipment. Technology like equipment, work methods and information transforms these inputs into various outputs that are exported back to the external environment about the use of these outputs and the availability of future inputs. It also accepts more resources in return for its outputs. This process is cyclical and self sustaining because organization must continue to survive and prosper (McShane and Von Glinow, 2000)

SM as an organization had many interdependent parts called subsystems that must coordinate with each other and the external environment in the process of transforming inputs to outputs. Subsystems are various processes such as communication and reward system, task activities that include production and marketing, and social dynamics concerning informal groups and power dynamics. Tushman and his associates (1997) maintained that organizational decision makers need to monitor the subsystems to ensure that they are aligned with each other with the external environment

Intelligence capacity for goal directed and adaptive behavior and involves the abilities to profit from experience, solves problems, formulate reason and successfully meet the challenges and achieve goals. Mental Ability is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposely, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment. Motivation plays a vital role in intelligence or mental ability because it represents the forces within an individual that affect his/her direction, adaptation, and goal achieving behavior.

INTELLIGENCE

INTELLIGENCE TEST
-organizations resort to intelligence testing as a main requirement supported with other psychological tests such as personality, interest, values, leadership, and other dimensions as bases to identity qualified applicants for recruitment, selection, positions, promotions, identification of ability and other purposes. -predicts ability to learn new things or skills, that intends to reflect actual performance.

Uses of Test in the Industry: To assess applicant or employees capabilities. To guide training and learning. To give feedback to employees and employers. To maintain standards and procedures. To motivate workers. To diagnose workers inadequacies. To evaluate organizational procedure, materials and techniques To instruct.

Qualities of a Good Test Validity it is the extent to which a test measures what it purports or is supposed to measure. Reliability it refers to the accuracy, precision or consistency of a score obtained through test, test is open to errors of measurement. Practicability as a characteristic of a good test, it refers to the ease and feasibility of administering the test. Ex. For large population you cannot conduct essay test for its difficult to score. For individual test of oral language proficiency, while obviously you cant administer it to anywhere for it require special equipments.

TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE TEST


1. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS- R) For employability or employee positions. It consists of 11 kinds of test.
Information general question, how much the individual absorbed from his environment, not necessary how he uses this acquired information. Picture Completion composed of different pictures printed in 20 cards, time limited, and measures ability to identify missing part. Digit span the examinee reproduces orally sets of digits by the examiner. This measures auditory memory. Picture arrangement arrange picture in proper sequence. Measures visual perception. Vocabulary asked to define the words. To classify and conceptualize skills related to his early and later educational performance.

Block design 9 cubes colored red on two sides, and 9 cards with printed designs on two sides, asked to form a design. Measures reasoning ability. Arithmetic. Solving number problems without pen and paper and time bound. Object assembly to test visual analysis. He will be asked to put together given items. Comprehension explain what he read. Measures practical judgment. Digit symbol given a number from 1- 9 and will be ask to write a symbol corresponding to the number. Similarities measures intellectual ability in terms of associative thinking and conceptual judgment.

2. Stanford Binet L-M. to measure the level of intelligence and/or retardation of the person, widely used to diagnose problems and to identify the gifted. Major categories are the following:
General Comprehension ability to conceptualize and integrate components into a meaningful total relationship. Visual Motor Acuity contains items concerned with manual dexterity, eye hand coordination, and perception. It measures the ability to manipulate materials in problem solving situations that requires integration of visual motor skills, visual imagery, and nonverbal reasoning ability.

Arithmetic Reasoning for mental abstractions and to assess the concentration of a person. Memory and Concentration involves auditory and visual memory and a refined attention span. Vocabulary and Verbal Fluency number of words defined, rhymes, comprehension of verbal relations, the level of understanding in verbal concept. Judgment and Reasoning - perception in terms of logic, ability to distinguish, and the ability to analyze and synthesize components measured by the judgment and reasoning subtest.

3. Academic Aptitude Test - Non-verbal test, designed to evaluate the aspect of intelligence related to the aptitude for abstract academic work required in mathematical, engineering, designing and other physical sciences. - There are three subtests that represent the three lines of abstract ability; these are as follows. * Spatial Relations. To test the ability to match forms of different size and shape. *Comprehension or Physical Relations. Test not only the ability to judge and possibly manipulate physical problems, but also includes problems of detecting, visualizing, correcting and reasoning in pictorial and graphic work. *Graphic Relations. Test 3 things. The ability to grasp an abstract problem, the ability to translate the problem, the ability of association and classification.

CREATIVITY is one of the categories presented to the person to determine his/ her capacity to express familiar themes in novel ways. - The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
Five components of creativity: Expertise. A well developed base of knowledge. The mental processes of creativity such as ideas, images, and phrases are used through accumulated learning would produce novel ways. Imaginative Thinking Skills. An ability to perceive things in new ways, to recognize patterns, and to make connections.

Venturesome Personality. Tolerates ambiguity and risk, perseveres in overcoming obstacles and seeks new experiences rather than following the pack. Intrinsic motivation. People became creative when they are motivated particularly by their interest, enjoyment, satisfaction, and challenge of work. Creative Environment. A person who receives supports from people would refine creative ideas.

CONTINUE