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EDU552 Teaching Methods Lecture Click to edit Master subtitle style6

Topic 5 Teaching & Learning Strategies


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Lecture Outline
1. Teaching Strategies

1. Learning Strategies

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1. Teaching Strategies
Do not train a child to learn by force or harshness; but direct them to it by what amuses their minds, so that you may be better able to discover with accuracy the peculiar bent of the genius of each. Plato (BC 427-BC 347) Greek philosopher. The best teacher is the one who suggests rather than dogmatizes, and inspires his listener with the wish to teach himself. Edward G. Bulwer-Lytton (1803-1873) British politician, poet and critic.
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Source:

Effective teaching is not a set of generic practices, but instead is a set of context-driven decisions about teaching. Effective teachers do not use the same set of practices for every lesson . . . Instead, what effective teachers do is constantly reflect about their work, observe whether students are learning or not, and, then adjust their practice accordingly Source: (Glickman, 1991, p. 6). http://teachinglearningresources.pbworks.com/w/page/199
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Guiding Principles for the selection of a teaching strategy


One should always ask himself/ herself if the strategy selected is suited to:
The background of the students, The learning objectives, and The subject matter Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, 8/20/12 by Barry & King, 1993.

Teacher-directed and Student-centred lesson Continuum

Teacher Directed Strategy (T)

Student Centred Strategy (S)

Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, 8/20/12 by Barry & King, 1993.

Characteristics of Teacher-Directed Lesson


1.

2.

All planning, teaching and evaluation controlled & directed by teacher. Students sitting passively while the teacher directed, Introduction, Development and Conclusion.

Example: Television, Radio Broadcast or an Exposition lesson


Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, 8/20/12 by Barry & King, 1993.

Characteristics of Student-Centred Lesson


1.

All learning was directed by the students. Students would have planned the learning activity, been responsible for all learning and evaluated their learning after the activity.

2.

Example: Development of an Interest Based Project


Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, 8/20/12 by Barry & King, 1993.

Procedure Introducti on Developm ent Conclusio n

Continuum Teacher & Student Involvement in IDC with teaching strategies


T T T T T T T T T T T T S

T/S

T/S

T/S

T/S

T/S

T/S

T/S

T/S

T/S

GD

GD

OD

IBR

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Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, by Barry & King, 1993.

Broa Drill Exp Dem Con Sim Stru Guid Coo Ima Ope dcas ositi onst cept ulati ctur ed pera gina n t on ratio on ed Disc tive tive Disc n Grp. over Grp. ussi Disc y Lng on .

Lear Inte ning rest Cent Base res d Res.

A Broadcast Strategy
Our approach to a broadcast (Radio, TV, Video) strategy consists of the following three major steps:
Setting the Scene The Broadcast Follow-up activity Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, 8/20/12 by Barry & King, 1993.

Principles for an effective Broadcast Lesson


q You check the teachers guide or preview the

video or film to ascertain that the programme is appropriate to the age, ability, interests and needs of the students;

q The presentation matches your learning

objectives;
q The students are given specific tasks to carry

out during and after the presentation; and


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Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, by Barry & King, 1993.

A Drill Strategy
Our approach to a drill lesson consists of 6 major steps:
Setting the Scene Checking meaning and understanding Emphasizing key learning points Drill Written test Marking and recording Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, 8/20/12 by Barry & King, 1993.

Principles in presenting an effective Drill strategy lesson


The material must be understood by the

students;
Drills should be held in short, brisk, regular

bursts;
Drills should have practical application; Drills should be interesting; There should be a high success rate; Reinforcement strengthens retention; Drills should be basedTeaching;need and Source: Beginning upon a 2nd edition, 8/20/12
by Barry & King, 1993.

An Exposition Strategy
Our approach to an exposition strategy consists of four major steps:
Setting the scene Presenting the material Students activity Checking understanding/ transferring

material to real life

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Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, by Barry & King, 1993.

Guiding principles for an effective Exposition lesson


The strategy be appropriate to the age, ability,

interests and needs of the students;


You go from the known to the unknown; Subject matter should be presented in small

steps;

It should be limited at most covering 2 to 3

main ideas;

The presentation is brisk, interesting, lively and

enthusiastic;
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Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, be involved as much as possible by Barry & King, 1993.

A Demonstration Strategy
Our approach to a demonstration strategy consists of 4 major steps:
Setting the scene Explaining and demonstrating the skill/

content

Student practice with teacher feedback Applying/ transferring skill/ content in

another context

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Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, by Barry & King, 1993.

Guiding principles for an effective Demonstration lesson


The activity be appropriate to the age, ability,

interests and needs of the students;

The task be clearly explained; Demonstration in different forms be used; All students can see and hear the explanation

and demonstration;

There be as much student involvement and self-

evaluation as possible
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Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, by Barry & King, 1993.

A Concept Strategy
Our approach to a Concept strategy consists of four major steps:
Setting the scene Identifying items that are relevant to a

problem
Grouping these items according to similarity Labelling the groups Application and closure Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, 8/20/12
by Barry & King, 1993.

Guiding principles for an effective Concept lesson


The concept must be worth teaching it must

be a significant one;
It must have clear characteristics; Students have concrete examples/ experiences

to relate to before dealing with the more abstract form of the concept; shown/ discussed;

Examples and non-examples of the concept be There be active student involvement.


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Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, by Barry & King, 1993.

A Simulation Game Strategy


A simulation lesson consists of 4 major steps:
Setting the scene Preparing to play the simulation Playing the simulation Discussion and summary

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Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, by Barry & King, 1993.

Guiding principles for an effective Simulation Game lesson


They are suited to the age, ability level and

interests of the students;

Groups be thoughtfully arranged; The teacher is thoroughly familiar with the rules

and procedures;

The game be explained clearly; The teacher monitor the class carefully for

disputes, misunderstandings;
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All students be actively involved;

Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, The teacher structures the post-game by Barry & King, 1993.

A Structured Group Discussion Strategy


Our approach to a structured group discussion strategy consists of 4 major steps:
Organizing the group Setting the task Discussion Presentation of findings
Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, by Barry & King, 1993.

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Guiding principles for an effective structured Group Discussion lesson


The class can be familiar with group

organization and routines;


The topic is appropriate to the age, ability and

interests of the students and lends itself to group discussion;


The class climate is cooperative and relaxed; Each group has a specific task to do in a set

time;
The task be clear and carefully structured;
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Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, monitors & King, levels and progress; by Barry noise 1993.

A Guided Discovery Strategy


Our approach to a guided discovery (inquiry) lesson consists of 3 major steps:

The teacher sets a problem The students explore the problem Teacher and students discuss the problem

and formulate conclusions

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Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, by Barry & King, 1993.

The strategy be appropriate to the age, ability

Guiding principles for an effective Guided Discovery lesson

and interests and needs of the students;

The strategy fits class routines; The teacher understands the subject matter and

the process of discovery;

All materials be carefully prepared; The problem and the task be clearly explained; Students are fully involved and guided through

the lesson;
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Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, findings be& King, 1993. summarized. by Barry

Our approach to a small group cooperative learning lesson consists of 3 major steps:

Small Group Cooperative Learning Strategy

Teacher organizes class into small groups Teacher presents new content to the whole

class

Teacher provides problems to groups and

students to apply the Learning together approach in addressing the problem


Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, by Barry & King, 1993.

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Clarifying the purposes for using the teaching

Guiding principles for an effective Small Group Cooperative learning lesson

strategy;

Ensuring that the learning objectives of the

lesson are best served by choosing the teaching strategy; appropriate to the teaching strategy;

Developing curriculum materials and tasks Sequencing the development of the particular

learning's through a series of group work tasks;


Organizing a Beginning Teaching; series of group Source: time plan for the 2nd edition, 8/20/12
by Barry & King, 1993.

Open Discussion strategy


Our approach to an Open Discussion lesson consists of 4 major steps:

Teacher organizes materials for the class Teacher presents new content to the whole

class

Teachers must know how to allow the

students to take control of the discussion in how to haveBarry & King, 1993. by meaningful discussion

Teachers toBeginning Teaching; 2nd edition, Source: direct and instruct the students
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Guiding principles for an effective Open Discussion lesson


Teachers must take an overt stance, allowing

the students free range in their discussion, but with focus on the topic at hand; the teacher and students, is an assumed component of classroom discussion;

Interactions among students, and also between

The teacher must, at times, provide input that

fosters and promotes deeper, focused thinking, which in turn enhances any discussion.
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Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, by Barry & King, 1993.

An Imaginative Strategy
Our approach to an Imaginative lesson consists of 5 major steps:

Setting the scene for the lesson Explaining and setting the task Pausing for visualization Involving the students in an open-ended
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activity Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition,


by Barry & King, 1993.

Guiding principles for an effective Imaginative lesson


The activity be appropriate to the age, ability,

interests and needs of the students;

The class climate be relaxed. The teacher

should motivate, guide and encourage students throughout the lesson;

The task is carefully explained; Process rather than end product emphasized; The teacher understand the limits of students

creative development.
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Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, by Barry & King, 1993.

Learning centres in the classroom


Our approach to a Learning centre in the classroom consists of the following:
Stimulate new ideas Clarify and organize existing ideas Foster aesthetic appreciation Name, describe, and classify materials Develop listening skills Verbally express feelings Build positive self-image Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition,
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by Barry & King, 1993.

Guiding principles for an effective Learning Centre in the classroom


teachers to meet the individual needs of

students;

Teachers to encourage students to do an

activity for a maximum period of time with minimum interference; smell, and feel the environment in the room;

Teachers to invite children to see, taste, touch, Allow children to relax and enjoy their learning

experience creating a more absorbent mind for learning to take place.


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Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, by Barry & King, 1993.

An Interest Based Research Strategy


Our approach to a an Interest Based Research lesson consists of 3 major steps:

Students select the topic Students conduct the research Students to present the findings (optional)
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Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, by Barry & King, 1993.

Guiding principles for an effective Interest Based Research Lesson


Teachers to provide students needs (requests); Teachers to closely monitor students progress; Teachers to be familiar with students chosen

topic;

Provide information on the topics as a form of

assistance and cue; levels;

Challenge all students to perform at advanced Determine which students should be given
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Source: Beginning Teaching; 2nd edition, opportunities,King, 1993. and by Barry & resources,

2. Learning Strategies Learning is a treasure that will follow its owner everywhere.
Chinese proverb

It is what we learn after we think we know it all, that counts.


Unknown Source
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Source:

Key Points - Learning Strategies


A learning strategy is a person's approach to

learning and using information.


Learning strategies are used by students to

help them understand information and solve problems. learning strategies often learn passively and ultimately fail in school.

Students who do not know or use good

Learning strategy instruction focuses on

making the students more active learners by teaching them how to learn and how to use Source: what they have learned to solve problems and 8/20/12 http://www.kucrl.org/sim/strategies.shtml be successful.

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STRATEGIES RELATED TO READING


Fundamentals of Paraphrasing and

Summarizing

The Fundamentals of Paraphrasing and Summarizing is designed to teach the fundamental skills students need to be able to identify and paraphrase main ideas and details.
Inference Strategy

The Inference Strategy is a set of procedures readers can use to comprehend written passages and answer inferential questions

8/20/12 Source: The University of Kansas Centre for Research

STRATEGIES RELATED TO READING


Paraphrasing Strategy

The Paraphrasing Strategy is designed to help students focus on the most important information in a passage.
Self-Questioning Strategy

The Self-Questioning Strategy helps students create their own motivation for reading. Students create questions in their minds, predict The Universityto those questions, Research 8/20/12 Source: the answers of Kansas Centre for search for the answers to those questions as they read,

STRATEGIES RELATED TO READING


Visual Imagery Strategy

The Visual Imagery Strategy is a reading comprehension strategy for creating mental movies of narrative passages. Students visualize the scenery, characters, and action and describe the scenes to themselves.
Word Identification Strategy The Word Identification Strategy provides a

functional and efficient strategy to help challenged readers successfully decode and identify unknown words in their reading 8/20/12 Source: The University of Kansas Centre for Research materials.

Reading Programs
STRUCTURE YOUR READING

STRUCTURE Your Reading is a strategic reading approach that begins as a teaching routine and develops into a strategy. Students learn what they need to do before, during, and after reading to improve their reading comprehension. The program is designed for a variety of implementation scenarios, including collaboration among reading and content teachers and among general and special educators. University of Kansas Centre for Research 8/20/12 Source: The

STRATEGIES RELATED TO STORING & REMEMBERING INFORMATION


First-Letter Mnemonic Strategy

The FIRST-Letter Mnemonic Strategy is a strategy for independently studying large bodies of information that need to be mastered.
LINCS Vocabulary Strategy

The LINCS Vocabulary Strategy helps students learn the meaning of new vocabulary words using powerful memory-enhancement Research 8/20/12 Source: The University of Kansas Centre for

STRATEGIES RELATED TO STORING & REMEMBERING INFORMATION


Paired Associates Strategy

The Paired Associates Strategy is designed to help students learn pairs of informational items, such as names and events, places and events, or names and accomplishments.
Word Mapping Strategy

The Word Mapping Strategy involves breaking words into their morphemic parts (prefix, suffix, root); attaching meaning to each word part; making a prediction about the meaning of the unknownThe Universityupon the meaning of each 8/20/12 Source: word based of Kansas Centre for Research

STRATEGIES RELATED TO EXPRESSING INFORMATION


ERROR MONITORING STRATEGY

Students use the Error Monitoring Strategy to independently detect and correct errors in their written work to increase the overall quality of their final product.
INSPECT STRATEGY

Students use the InSPECT Strategy to detect and correct spelling errors in their documents either 8/20/12 Source: a computerized spellchecker or a handby usingThe University of Kansas Centre for Research

STRATEGIES RELATED TO EXPRESSING INFORMATION


Sentence Writing Strategy

The Sentence Writing Strategy program comprises two parts: Fundamentals in the Sentence Writing Strategy and Proficiency in the Sentence Writing Strategy.
Paragraph Writing Strategy

The Paragraph Writing Strategy is a strategy for organizing ideas related to a topic, planning the point of view and verb tense to be used in the paragraph, planning the sequence in which ideas will be expressed, and writing a variety of topic, 8/20/12 Source: The University of Kansas Centre for Research detail, and clincher sentences.

STRATEGIES RELATED TO EXPRESSING INFORMATION

Theme Writing Strategy

The Theme Writing Strategy focuses on the fundamental skills associated with writing themes and provides learning sheets to accompany instruction.
8/20/12 Source: The University of Kansas Centre for Research

STRATEGIES RELATED TO DEMONSTRATING COMPETENCE


Assignment Completion Strategy

The Assignment Completion Strategy is designed to enable students to complete and hand in assignments on time.
Essay Test-Taking Strategy

The Essay Test-Taking Strategy is designed to help students deal effectively with the complex testtaking demands of courses in school as well as the essay test-taking demands associated with state competency tests, including high-stakes tests, and college entrance exams. Kansas Centre for Research 8/20/12 Source: The University of

STRATEGIES RELATED TO DEMONSTRATING COMPETENCE


Strategic Tutoring

Strategic Tutoring describes a new vision of the tutoring process in which the tutor not only helps the student complete and understand the immediate assignment but also teaches the student the strategies required to complete similar tasks independently in the future.
Test-Taking Strategy

The Test-Taking Strategy is designed to be used while taking classroom tests.


8/20/12 Source: The University of Kansas Centre for Research

SLANT: A Starter Strategy for Class

STRATEGIES RELATED TO SOCIAL INTERACTION

Participation SLANT: A Starter Strategy for Class Participation is a simple, easy-to-teach strategy designed to help students learn how to use appropriate posture, track the talker, activate their thinking, and contribute information.

8/20/12 Source: The University of Kansas Centre for Research

Hardcore Army "ARMY Statement Today I am not a racer, competitor or contestant. Today I am being tested, challenged and pushed. Today Pain and fear will find ME and I will overcome. Today I am here to be challenged! Today I am here to claim my right! Today I am no longer I or me! Today I will become US and WE! Today WE will become members of the 8/20/12

THINK Strategy

Cooperative Thinking Strategies

Students working together in teams use the THINK Strategy to systematically solve problems.
Learn Strategy

The LEARN Strategy was designed to enable students to work in teams to learn together.
Build Strategy

Students use the BUILD Strategy to work together to resolve a controversial issue.
8/20/12 Source: The University of Kansas Centre for Research

Cooperative Thinking Strategies


Score Skills

SCORE Skills: Social Skills for Cooperative Groups describes a set of social skills that are fundamental to effective groups.
Teamwork Strategy

The Teamwork Strategy provides a framework for organizing and completing tasks in small groups.
8/20/12 Source: The University of Kansas Centre for Research

Community Building Series


Focusing Together

Focusing Together is an instructional program that promotes self-management skills in association with a set of classroom expectations that defines responsible work habits, respect, and emotional and physical safety.
Following Instructions Together

Following Instructions Together is designed to teach students concepts and strategies associated with following instructions effectively.
8/20/12 Source: The University of Kansas Centre for Research

Community Building Series


Organizing Together

Organizing Together can be used to provide instruction in basic strategies associated with keeping notebooks, schedules/ calendars, desks, lockers/cubbies, and backpacks organized.
Taking Notes Together

Taking Notes Together is a program that can be used to teach students a simple strategy for taking notes in response to a variety of stimuli, including lectures, demonstrations, movies/videotapes, and reading assignments. of Kansas Centre for Research 8/20/12 Source: The University

Community Building Series


Talking Together

Talking Together is an instructional program designed for introducing the concept of learning community to students and for teaching them how to participate respectfully in class discussions.

8/20/12 Source: The University of Kansas Centre for Research

STRATEGIES RELATED TO MOTIVATION


Self-Advocacy Strategy

Students use the Self-Advocacy Strategy when preparing for and participating in any type of conference, including education and transition planning conferences
Possible Selves

Possible Selves is designed to increase student motivation by having students examine their futures and think about goals that are important to them. Students think about and describe their hoped-for possible selves, expected possible 8/20/12 Source: The University of Kansas Centre for Research

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STRATEGIES RELATED TO MATH


Strategic Math Series

The Strategic Math Series focuses on how to teach basic math facts and operations to students of any age. Content is built upon the concreterepresentational-abstract method of instruction.
8/20/12 Source: The University of Kansas Centre for Research

"Ideal teachers are those who use themselves as bridges over which they invite their students to cross, then having facilitated their crossing, joyfully collapse, encouraging them to create bridges of their own." -- Nikos Kazantzakis
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The End