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References tendon

1. 2. ^ eMedicine/Stedman Medical Dictionary Lookup! ^


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Jozsa, L., and Kannus, P., Human Tendons: Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology. Human Kinetics:

Champaign, IL, 1997. 3. ^ Lin, T. W.; Cardenas, L.; Soslowsky, L. J., (2004). "Biomechanics of tendon injury and repair.". Journal of Biomechanics 37 (6): 865877. doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2003.11.005. PMID 15111074. 4. ^ Fukuta, S.; Oyama, M.; Kavalkovich, K.; Fu, F. H.; Niyibizi, C., (1998). "Identification of types II, IX and X collagens at the insertion site of the bovine achilles tendon.". Matrix Biology 17 (1): 65 73.doi:10.1016/S0945-053X(98)90125-1. PMID 9628253. 5. ^ Fratzl, P. (2003). "Cellulose and collagen: from fibres to tissues.".Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 8 (1): 3239.doi:10.1016/S1359-0294(03)00011-6. 6. ^ Zhang, G. E., Y.; Chervoneva, I.; Robinson, P. S.; Beason, D. P.; Carine, E. T.; Soslowsky, L. J.; Iozzo, R. V.; Birk, D. E., (2006). "Decorin regulates assembly of collagen fibrils and acquisition of biomechanical properties during tendon development.". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 98 (6): 1436 1449. doi:10.1002/jcb.20776.PMID 16518859. 7. ^ Raspanti, M.; Congiu, T.; Guizzardi, S., (2002). "Structural Aspects of the Extracellular Matrix of the Tendon : An Atomic Force and Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.". Archives of Histology and Cytology 65 (1): 3743. doi:10.1679/aohc.65.37.PMID 12002609. 8. ^ Scott, J. E. O., C. R.; Hughes, E. W., (1981). "Proteoglycan-collagen arrangements in developing rat tail tendon. An electron microscopical and biochemical investigation.". Biochemical Journal 195 (3): 573 581. PMC 1162928. PMID 6459082. 9. ^ Scott, J. E., (2003). "Elasticity in extracellular matrix 'shape modules' of tendon, cartilage, etc. A sliding proteoglycan-filament model.". Journal of Physiology 553 (2): 335 343.doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2003.050179. PMC 2343561.PMID 12923209. 10. ^ McNeilly, C. M.; Banes, A. J.; Benjamin, M.; Ralphs, J. R., (1996). "Tendon cells in vivo form a three dimensional network of cell processes linked by gap junctions.". Journal of Anatomy 189: 593 600. PMC 1167702. PMID 8982835. 11. ^ "Having a short Achilles tendon may be an athlete's Achilles heel". Retrieved 2007-10-26. 12. ^ Michael Young. "A Review on Postural Realignment and its Muscular and Neural Components". 13. ^ Hulmes, D. J. S., (2002). "Building Collagen Molecules, Fibrils, and Suprafibrillar Structures.". Journal of Structural Biology 137 (1-2): 210. doi:10.1006/jsbi.2002.4450. PMID 12064927. 14. ^ Silver, F. H.; Freeman, J. W.; Seehra, G. P., (2003). "Collagen self-assembly and the development of tendon mechanical properties.". Journal of Biomechanics 36 (10): 15291553.doi:10.1016/S00219290(03)00135-0. PMID 14499302.

15. ^ Ker, R. F., (2002). "The implications of the adaptable fatigue quality of tendons for their construction, repair and function.".Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 133 (4): 9871000. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(02)00171-X. PMID 12485688. 16. ^ Puxkandl, R.; Zizak, I.; Paris, O.; Keckes, J.; Tesch, W.; Bernstorff, S.; Purslow, P.; Fratzl, P., (2002). "Viscoelastic properties of collagen: synchrotron radiation investigations and structural model.". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 357 (1418): 191197.doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.1033. PMC 1692933.PMID 11911776. 17. ^ Cribb, A. M.; Scott, J. E. In Tendon response to tensile-stress - an ultrastructural investigation of collagen - proteoglycan interactions in stressed tendon, 1995; Cambridge Univ Press: 1995; pp 423-428. 18. ^
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Sharma, P. M., N., (2006). "Biology of tendon injury: healing, modeling and remodeling.". Journal of

Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions 6 (2): 181190. PMID 16849830. 19. ^ Astrom, M.; Rausing, A., (1995). "Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy - A survey of Surgical and Histopathologic findings.". Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 316 (316): 151164.PMID 7634699. 20. ^
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Sharma, P.; Maffulli, N., (2005). "Tendon injury and tendinopathy: Healing and repair.". Journal of

Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 87A (1): 187202.doi:10.2106/JBJS.D.01850. PMID 15634833. 21. ^
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Riley, G., (2004). "The pathogenesis of tendinopathy. A molecular perspective.". Rheumatology 43 (2):

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Wang, J. H. C., (2006). "Mechanobiology of tendon.".Journal of Biomechanics 39 (9): 1563

1582.doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.05.011. PMID 16000201. 23. ^ Riley, G. P.; Curry, V.; DeGroot, J.; van El, B.; Verzijl, N.; Hazleman, B. L.; Bank, R. A., (2002). "Matrix metalloproteinase activities and their relationship with collagen remodelling in tendon pathology.".Matrix Biology 21 (2): 185195. doi:10.1016/S0945-053X(01)00196-2. PMID 11852234. 24. ^ Moulin, V.; Tam, B. Y. Y.; Castilloux, G.; Auger, F. A.; O'Connor-McCourt, M. D.; Philip, A.; Germain, L., (2001). "Fetal and adult human skin fibroblasts display intrinsic differences in contractile capacity.". Journal of Cellular Physiology 188 (2): 211222.doi:10.1002/jcp.1110. PMID 11424088. 25. ^ Boyer, M. I. W., J. T.; Lou, J.; Manske, P. R.; Gelberman, R. H.; Cai, S. R., (2001). "Quantitative variation in vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression during early flexor tendon healing: an investigation in a canine model.". Journal of Orthopaedic Research19 (5): 869872. doi:10.1016/S0736-0266(01)000171.PMID 11562135. 26. ^ Berge, James C. Vanden; Storer, Robert W. (1995). "Intratendinous ossification in birds: A review". Journal of Morphology 226: 47. doi:10.1002/jmor.1052260105. 27. ^ Organ, Chris L. (2006). "Biomechanics of ossified tendons in ornithopod dinosaurs". Paleobiology 32: 652.doi:10.1666/05039.1.

Muscle

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1. 2. ^ Definition and origin of the word 'muscle' ^
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Basic Concepts in Embryology: A Student's Survival Guide (Paperback) Lauren Sweeney.

1997. McGraw-Hill Professional, 1st edition 3. ^ Marieb, Elaine; Katja Hoehn (2007). Human Anatomy & Physiology (7th ed.). Pearson Benjamin Cummings. p. 317.ISBN 0805353879. 4. ^ Larsson, L; Edstrm, L; Lindegren, B; Gorza, L; Schiaffino, S (July 1991). "MHC composition and enzyme-histochemical and physiological properties of a novel fast-twitch motor unit type".The American Journal of Physiology 261 (1 pt 1): C93101.PMID 1858863. Retrieved 2006-06-11. 5. ^ Smerdu, V; Karsch-Mizrachi, I; Campione, M; Leinwand, L; Schiaffino, S (December 1994). "Type IIx myosin heavy chain transcripts are expressed in type IIb fibers of human skeletal muscle". The American Journal of Physiology 267 (6 pt 1): C17231728. PMID 7545970. Retrieved 2006-06-11. Note: Access to full text requires subscription; abstract freely available 6. ^ Robergs R, Ghiasvand F, Parker D (2004). "Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis.". Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287 (3): R50216.doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00114.2004. PMID 15308499. 7. ^ 'Muscle noise' could reveal diseases' progression 18 May 2007, NewScientist.com news service, Belle Dum 8. 9. ^ http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/110504447/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 ^ Roy, R. R., Baldwin, K. M., and Edgerton, V. R. (1996) Response of the neuromuscular unit to spaceflight: What has been learned from the rat model. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 24, 399425 10. ^ "NASA Muscle Atrophy Research (MARES) Website" 11. ^
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Fuster G, Busquets S, Almendro V, Lpez-Soriano FJ, Argils JM (2007). "Antiproteolytic effects of

plasma from hibernating bears: a new approach for muscle wasting therapy?". Clin Nutr26 (5): 658 61. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2007.07.003.PMID 17904252. 12. ^
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Lohuis TD, Harlow HJ, Beck TD (2007). "Hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) experience

skeletal muscle protein balance during winter anorexia". Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. 147 (1): 208.doi:10.1016/j.cbpb.2006.12.020. PMID 17307375. 13. ^ Carey HV, Andrews MT, Martin SL (2003). "Mammalian hibernation: cellular and molecular responses to depressed metabolism and low temperature". Physiol. Rev. 83 (4): 1153 81. doi:10.1152/physrev.00008.2003 (inactive 2008-06-24).PMID 14506303. 14. ^
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Harlow, H.J. (2004). "Body Surface Temperature Of Hibernating Black Bears May Be Related To

Periodic Muscle Activity". Journal of Mammalogy 85 (3): 414419.doi:10.1644/1545-1542(2004)085< (inactive 2008-06-24). 15. ^ Concept II Rowing Ergometer, user manual. (1993)

16. ^ Urbancheka M, Pickenb E, Kaliainenc L, Kuzon W (2001). "Specific Force Deficit in Skeletal Muscles of Old Rats Is Partially Explained by the Existence of Denervated Muscle Fibers". The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 56:B191-B197. 17. ^ Farvid, MS; Ng, TW; Chan, DC; Barrett, PH; Watts, GF (2005). "Association of adiponectin and resistin with adipose tissue compartments, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia". Diabetes, obesity & metabolism 7 (4): 40613. doi:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2004.00410.x. PMID 15955127. 18. ^ http://ajpendo.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/282/1/E132 19. ^ Evolution of muscle fibers

Footnotes
1. ^ Steele, D. Gentry; Claud A. Bramblett (1988). The Anatomy and Biology of the Human Skeleton. Texas A&M University Press. p. 4.ISBN 0890963002. 2. ^ Schmiedeler, Edgar; Mary Rosa McDonough (1934). Parent and Child: An Introductory Study of Parent Education. D. Appleton-Century. p. 31. 3. ^ Lee, Na Kyung; et al. (10 August 2007). "Endocrine Regulation of Energy Metabolism by the Skeleton". Cell 130 (3): 456469.doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.05.047. PMC 2013746.PMID 17693256. Retrieved 2008-03-15. 4. ^ Schmidt-Nielsen, Knut (1984). Scaling: Why is animal size so important?. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-521-319870-0 5. ^ Turner, C.H.; Wang, T.; Burr, D.B. (2001). "Shear Strength and Fatigue Properties of Human Cortical Bone Determined from Pure Shear Tests". Calcified Tissue International 69 (6): 373 378.doi:10.1007/s00223-001-1006-1. PMID 11800235. 6. 7. ^ ^
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Hall, Susan. (2007) Basic Biomechanics. Fifth Edition. p. 88ISBN 0071260412 Legros, R; Balmain, N; Bonel, G (1987). "Age-related changes in mineral of rat and bovine cortical

bone". Calcified tissue international 41 (3): 13744. PMID 3117340. 8. ^ Field, RA; Riley, ML; Mello, FC; Corbridge, MH; Kotula, AW (1974). "Bone composition in cattle, pigs, sheep and poultry". Journal of animal science 39 (3): 4939. PMID 4412232. 9. ^
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Bertazzo, S. & Bertran, C. A. (2006). "Morphological and dimensional characteristics of bone mineral

crystals". Bioceramics309311 (Pt. 1, 2): 310. 10. ^ Bertazzo, S.; Bertran, C.A.; Camilli, J.A. (2006). "Morphological Characterization of Femur and Parietal Bone Mineral of Rats at Different Ages". Key Engineering Materials 309-311: 11 14.doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.309-311.11.

11. ^ Salentijn, L. Biology of Mineralized Tissues: Cartilage and Bone,Columbia University College of Dental Medicine post-graduate dental lecture series, 2007 12. ^ Netter, pp. 187189, A scholarly review of the subject. 13. ^
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Boulpaep, Emile L.; Boron, Walter F. (2005). Medical physiology: a cellular and molecular approach.

Philadelphia: Saunders. pp. 10891091. ISBN 1416023283. 14. ^ WHO (1994). "Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Report of a WHO Study Group". World Health Organization technical report series843: 1 129. PMID 7941614. 15. ^ Hans J. Rolf; Alfred Enderle (1999). "Hard fallow deer antler: a living bone till antler casting?". The Anatomical Record 255 (1): 6977. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0185(19990501)255:1<69::AID-AR8>3.0.CO;2R. PMID 10321994. Retrieved 2008-08-20.

[edit]Referencesbone

Katja Hoehn; Marieb, Elaine Nicpon (2007). Human Anatomy & Physiology (7th Edition). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.ISBN 0805359095.

Netter, Frank H. (1987). Musculoskeletal system: anatomy, physiology, and metabolic disorders. New Jersey, Summit: Ciba-Geigy Corporation. ISBN 0-914168-88-6

Bryan H. Derrickson; Tortora, Gerard J. (2005). Principles of anatomy and physiology. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0471689343.