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# SECTION 7.

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473

## 35. Prove the formula A

r 2 for the area of a sector of a circle with radius r and central angle . [Hint: Assume 0 2 and place the center of the circle at the origin so it has the equation x 2 y 2 r 2. Then A is the sum of the area of the triangle POQ and the area of the region PQR in the gure.]
y

1 2

## 39. (a) Use trigonometric substitution to verify that

sa 2

t 2 dt

1 2

a 2 sin

x a

1 2

x sa 2

x2

(b) Use the gure to give trigonometric interpretations of both terms on the right side of the equation in part (a).
y a

y= a@-t@
x t

x 0

dx x 4 sx 2

## 40. The parabola y

Graph the integrand and its indenite integral on the same screen and check that your answer is reasonable.

1 2

y2

8 into two

## ; 37. Use a graph to approximate the roots of the equation

x 2 s4 x 2 the curve y

r R

## 38. A charged rod of length L produces an electric eld at point

P a, b given by EP

L a a

b 4
0

x2

b2

3 2

dx

where is the charge density per unit length on the rod and 0 is the free space permittivity (see the gure). Evaluate the integral to determine an expression for the electric eld E P .
y

42. A water storage tank has the shape of a cylinder with diam-

P(a,b)
0 L x

eter 10 ft. It is mounted so that the circular cross-sections are vertical. If the depth of the water is 7 ft, what percentage of the total capacity is being used?
43. A torus is generated by rotating the circle

## x2 y R 2 r 2 about the x-axis. Find the volume enclosed by the torus.

7.4

INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FUNCTIONS BY PARTIAL FRACTIONS In this section we show how to integrate any rational function (a ratio of polynomials) by expressing it as a sum of simpler fractions, called partial fractions, that we already know how to integrate. To illustrate the method, observe that by taking the fractions 2 x 1 and 1 x 2 to a common denominator we obtain 2 x 1 x 1 2 2x x 2 x 1 1 x 2 x x2 x 5 2

If we now reverse the procedure, we see how to integrate the function on the right side of

474

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## CHAPTER 7 TECHNIQUES OF INTEGRATION

this equation:

yx

x
2

5 x 2

dx

2 x 1 1 x

1 2 ln x

dx 2 C

2 ln x

To see how the method of partial fractions works in general, lets consider a rational function Px f x Qx where P and Q are polynomials. Its possible to express f as a sum of simpler fractions provided that the degree of P is less than the degree of Q. Such a rational function is called proper. Recall that if Px an x n an 1x n
1

a1 x

a0

where a n 0, then the degree of P is n and we write deg P n. If f is improper, that is, deg P deg Q , then we must take the preliminary step of dividing Q into P (by long division) until a remainder R x is obtained such that deg R deg Q . The division statement is
1

f x

Px Qx

Sx

Rx Qx

where S and R are also polynomials. As the following example illustrates, sometimes this preliminary step is all that is required.
V EXAMPLE 1

Find y

x3 x

x dx. 1

+x +2 x-1 ) +x - +x -x 2x 2x-2 2

SOLUTION Since the degree of the numerator is greater than the degree of the denominator,

## we rst perform the long division. This enables us to write

x3 x

x dx 1

y
x3 3

x2 x2 2

2 2x

2 x 1

dx 1 C
M

2 ln x

The next step is to factor the denominator Q x as far as possible. It can be shown that any polynomial Q can be factored as a product of linear factors (of the form ax b) and irreducible quadratic factors (of the form ax 2 bx c, where b 2 4ac 0). For instance, if Q x x 4 16, we could factor it as Qx x2 4 x2 4 x 2 x 2 x2 4

The third step is to express the proper rational function R x Q x (from Equation 1) as a sum of partial fractions of the form A ax b
i

or

Ax ax 2 bx

B c
j

## SECTION 7.4 INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FUNCTIONS BY PARTIAL FRACTIONS

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475

A theorem in algebra guarantees that it is always possible to do this. We explain the details for the four cases that occur.
CASE I
N

## This means that we can write Qx a1 x b1 a 2 x b2 ak x bk

where no factor is repeated (and no factor is a constant multiple of another). In this case the partial fraction theorem states that there exist constants A1, A2 , . . . , Ak such that
2

Rx Qx

A1 a 1 x b1

A2 a2 x b2

Ak a k x bk

## These constants can be determined as in the following example.

V EXAMPLE 2

Evaluate y

x2 2x 3

2x 3x 2

1 dx. 2x

SOLUTION Since the degree of the numerator is less than the degree of the denominator, we

## dont need to divide. We factor the denominator as 2x 3 3x 2 2x x 2x 2 3x 2 x 2x 1 x 2

Since the denominator has three distinct linear factors, the partial fraction decomposition of the integrand (2) has the form
3

x2 x 2x

2x 1 1 x 2

A x

B 2x 1 x

C 2

Another method for nding A, B, and C is given in the note after this example.

To determine the values of A, B, and C, we multiply both sides of this equation by the product of the denominators, x 2x 1 x 2 , obtaining
4

x2

2x

A 2x

1 x

Bx x

Cx 2x

Expanding the right side of Equation 4 and writing it in the standard form for polynomials, we get
5

x2

2x

2A

2C x 2

3A

2B

C x

2A

The polynomials in Equation 5 are identical, so their coefcients must be equal. The coefcient of x 2 on the right side, 2A B 2C, must equal the coefcient of x 2 on the left sidenamely, 1. Likewise, the coefcients of x are equal and the constant terms are equal. This gives the following system of equations for A, B, and C: 2A 3A 2A B 2B 2B 2C C 2C 1 2 1

476

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## CHAPTER 7 TECHNIQUES OF INTEGRATION

1 2 1 5 1 10

Solving, we get A
N

,B

, and C

, and so 1 1 5 2x 1
1 10

We could check our work by taking the terms to a common denominator and adding them.
N

x2 2x 3

2x 3x 2

1 dx 2x

y
1 2

1 1 2 x

1 1 10 x 2 1
1 10

dx 2 2x K 1, which
M

Figure 1 shows the graphs of the integrand in Example 2 and its indenite integral (with K 0). Which is which? 2

ln x

ln 2x

ln x

In integrating the middle term we have made the mental substitution u gives du 2 dx and dx du 2.

_3

_2

FIGURE 1

NOTE We can use an alternative method to nd the coefcients A, B, and C in Example 2. Equation 4 is an identity; it is true for every value of x. Lets choose values of x that simplify the equation. If we put x 0 in Equation 4, then the second and third terms on the right side vanish and the equation then becomes 2A 1, or A 1 . Likewise, 2 1 x 1 gives 5B 4 1 and x 2 gives 10C 1, so B 1 and C 2 4 5 10 . (You may object that Equation 3 is not valid for x 0, 1 , or 2, so why should Equation 4 be valid for those 2 values? In fact, Equation 4 is true for all values of x, even x 0, 1 , and 2. See Exercise 69 2 for the reason.)

EXAMPLE 3 Find

yx

dx
2

a2

, where a

0.

## SOLUTION The method of partial fractions gives

1 x2 and therefore a2 x Ax

1 a x a

A a Bx a x a 1 x

B a

Using the method of the preceding note, we put x a in this equation and get A 2a 1, so A 1 2a . If we put x a, we get B 2a 1, so B 1 2a . Thus

dx x2 a2

1 2a

1 x a a x

1 a

dx a

1 (ln x 2a Since ln x ln y

ln x

dx x2 a2

1 x ln 2a x

a a

C
M

CASE 11
N

## Q(x) is a product of linear factors, some of which are repeated.

Suppose the rst linear factor a 1 x b1 is repeated r times; that is, a 1 x b1 r occurs in the factorization of Q x . Then instead of the single term A1 a 1 x b1 in Equation 2, we

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477

would use
7

A1 a 1 x b1

A2 a1 x b1
2

Ar a1 x b1
r

2

E x 1
3

EXAMPLE 4 Find

x 4 2x 2 x3 x2

4x 1 dx. x 1

## SOLUTION The rst step is to divide. The result of long division is

x 4 2x 2 x3 x2

4x 1 x 1

4x x
3

x x

1 1. Since Q 1 1 x 1 0,

The second step is to factor the denominator Q x we know that x 1 is a factor and we obtain x3 x2 x 1 x x Since the linear factor x x 1 x2 1
2

x3 x

x2 1 x

1 1

## 1 occurs twice, the partial fraction decomposition is 4x 12x A 1 x 1 x 1 1

2

B 1 x
2

C x 1 1 , we get Cx A B 1
2

## Multiplying by the least common denominator, x

8

4x

Ax A

1 x C x2

1 B

Bx 2C x

Another method for nding the coefcients: Put x 1 in (8): B 2. Put x 1: C 1. Put x 0: A B C 1.

2

0 4 0

x 4 2x 2 x3 x2

4x 1 dx x 1

y
x2 2 x2 2

1 x ln x K 1 1

dx K
M

478

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CASE III

## Q(x) contains irreducible quadratic factors, none of which is repeated.

If Q x has the factor ax 2 b x c, where b 2 4ac 0, then, in addition to the partial fractions in Equations 2 and 7, the expression for R x Q x will have a term of the form
9

Ax B ax 2 bx c

where A and B are constants to be determined. For instance, the function given by f x x x 2 x 2 1 x 2 4 has a partial fraction decomposition of the form x x 2 x
2

A 1 x
2

Bx x2

C 1

Dx x2

E 4

The term given in (9) can be integrated by completing the square and using the formula

10

yx
Evaluate y 4x 2x 2 x3 x x2

dx
2

a2

1 tan a

x a

V EXAMPLE 5

## x 4 dx. 4x 4 cant be factored further, we write

2

SOLUTION Since x 3

A x

Bx x2

C 4

4 B x2

Bx Cx

C x 4A

4A

2x 2 x3

y
x 4

1 x

x x2

1 4

dx

## In order to integrate the second term we split it into two parts:

yx

x
2

1 dx 4

x2

dx

yx

1
2

dx 2x dx.

We make the substitution u x 2 4 in the rst of these integrals so that du We evaluate the second integral by means of Formula 10 with a 2:

2x 2 x 4 dx x x2 4

1 dx x
1 2

x x
2

4 4

dx
1 2

y
tan

1 x
2

4 x 2

dx K
M

ln x

ln x 2

## SECTION 7.4 INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FUNCTIONS BY PARTIAL FRACTIONS

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479

EXAMPLE 6 Evaluate

4x 2 4x 2

3x 4x

2 dx. 3

SOLUTION Since the degree of the numerator is not less than the degree of the denominator,

## we rst divide and obtain 4x 2 4x 2 3x 4x 2 3 1 x 4x 2 1 4x

Notice that the quadratic 4x 2 4x 3 is irreducible because its discriminant is b 2 4ac 32 0. This means it cant be factored, so we dont need to use the partial fraction technique. To integrate the given function we complete the square in the denominator: 4x 2 4x 3 2x 2x 1
2

2 2 dx and

1. Then, du

4x 2 4x 2

3x 4x

2 dx 3

y
x x x x

1
1 2

x 4x 2

1 4x 1 1 2

3 du
1 4

dx x 1
2 1 4

y y

1 2

u u2 u

yu

u
2

1 du 2

1 4

u2

2 2

du 1 4 4x

yu
1

2 tan

du
1

1 8

ln u 2 ln 4x 2

u s2
1

s2 3

C 2x s2 1 C
M

1 8

1 tan 4 s2

NOTE

2

## the form B bx c where b 2 4ac 0

We complete the square in the denominator and then make a substitution that brings the integral into the form

y
CASE IV
N

Cu u2

D du a2

Cy

u u2 a2

du

Dy

1 u2 a2

du

Then the rst integral is a logarithm and the second is expressed in terms of tan 1.
Q(x) contains a repeated irreducible quadratic factor.

## If Q x has the factor ax 2 partial fraction (9), the sum

11

bx

c r, where b 2 A2 x B2 bx c
2

4ac

## 0, then instead of the single Ar x ax

2

A1 x B1 ax 2 bx c

Br bx c
r

ax

480

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## CHAPTER 7 TECHNIQUES OF INTEGRATION

occurs in the partial fraction decomposition of R x Q x . Each of the terms in (11) can be integrated by rst completing the square.
N

It would be extremely tedious to work out by hand the numerical values of the coefcients in Example 7. Most computer algebra systems, however, can nd the numerical values very quickly. For instance, the Maple command convert f, parfrac, x or the Mathematica command Apart[f] gives the following values: A E 1,
15 8

EXAMPLE 7 Write out the form of the partial fraction decomposition of the function

x x
SOLUTION

x3 1 x2

x2 x

1 1 x2

B F I
1 2

1 8

x x
C , J G
1 2

x3 1 x2 A x

x2 x x

1 1 x2 B 1

1 x
2

,
1 8

D H

1,
3 4

Cx x

D 1 x3
2

Ex x2

F 1

Gx x2

H 12

Ix x2

J 13

EXAMPLE 8 Evaluate

x 2x 2 x x2 1

dx.

## SOLUTION The form of the partial fraction decomposition is

x 2x 2 x x2 1

x3
2

A x

Bx x2

C 1

Dx x2

E 12

Multiplying by x x 2 x3 2x 2 x 1

1 2, we have A x2 A x4 A 1
2

Bx 1 Cx 3

C x x2 B x4 2A x2 B

Dx C x3 D x2 x C

E x Dx 2 Ex A Ex

2x 2 B x4

## If we equate coefcients, we get the system A B 0 C 1 1, B dx 2A B D 1, D 1 1 x

2

C 1, and E x x2 1
2

## which has the solution A

1, C 1 x dx x x x2

0. Thus dx

x 2x 2 x x2 1

x3
2

y
y

yx
1 2

dx 1

yx

dx
2

y
1 2 x2

x dx x2 1 1

## In the second and fourth terms we made the mental substitution u x 2 1.

ln x

ln x 2

tan 1x

We note that sometimes partial fractions can be avoided when integrating a rational function. For instance, although the integral

x2 x x2

1 dx 3

## SECTION 7.4 INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FUNCTIONS BY PARTIAL FRACTIONS

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481

could be evaluated by the method of Case III, its much easier to observe that if u x x2 3 x 3 3x, then du 3x 2 3 dx and so

yx

x2 x2

1 dx 3

1 3

ln x 3

3x

RATIONALIZING SUBSTITUTIONS

Some nonrational functions can be changed into rational functions by means of appropriate substitutions. In particular, when an integrand contains an expression of the form n n st x , then the substitution u st x may be effective. Other instances appear in the exercises.
EXAMPLE 9 Evaluate

sx

4 x

dx. x 4, so x u
2

SOLUTION Let u

Therefore

sx

4 . Then u 2 sx 4 x

u2

4 and dx 2y u2 u
2

2u du.

dx

yu
2

4 1

2u du 4 u2 4

du

du 2 u 2 and using

We can evaluate this integral either by factoring u 2 partial fractions or by using Formula 6 with a 2:

4 as u

sx

4 x

dx

2 y du 2u 2sx 8 4

8y

du u2 4 2 2 4 4 C 2 2 C
M

1 u ln 2 2 u 2 ln sx sx

7.4

EXERCISES
5. (a)

## 16 Write out the form of the partial fraction decomposition of the

x4 x
4

function (as in Example 7). Do not determine the numerical values of the coefcients.
1. (a) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (a)

1
3

(b) (b)

t4 t
2

t2 1 t2 x3

1 4

x x2 x x5 x
2 4

2x 3 3x x x 1 4x 3 x3 4x 3 2

1 2x 2 x2 x 1 9
2

6. (a)

x 2

x4 x x2

1 x6

x2 x2 x

yx y
x

x 6

dx dx

8.

yr y
t

r2 4

dr dt

2x 1 1 3 x2

9.

x 9 5 x

10.

1 4 t

482

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## CHAPTER 7 TECHNIQUES OF INTEGRATION

11. 13. 15. 17. 19. 21. 23. 25. 27. 29. 31. 33. 35. 37.

1 x2 ax
2

1 bx
3

dx dx

12. 14. 16. 18. 20. 22. 24. 26. 28. 30. 32. 34. 36.

y y y y y

x x2 x 3x

1 2 b 1 a x

dx dx

ye y

2x

e 2x 3e x

dx

yx y y y y y y y
4 3 2

## cos x dx sin 2x sin x

2

x3

2x 2 4 dx x 2x 2 7y 12 dy 2 y 3 1 5
2

x 3 4x x2 x x2 x x2 2x ds
2 2 3

10 dx 6 1 dx dx

y tan t y
e
x

sec 2 t 3 tan t ex 2 e 2x 1

dt

4y 2 y y x x x2 5x
2 3

2x x

dx

dx

5x 16 1 x 2 1 x 3x
2

## 5152 Use integration by parts, together with the techniques of this

4 dx 4 x3 3x 2 dx 2x 2 10 1 x2 9 dx

ys y y y
x

## section, to evaluate the integral.

51.

y ln x
x02 f

2 dx

52.

y x tan

x dx

x3

dx

x2 x 1 dx x2 1 2 x2 x 3x 2
4

## ; 53. Use a graph of f x

x 3 x 2 2x 1 dx x2 1 x2 2 x
2

2x 1 dx x2 1 4 dx 2 13 dx

1 x 2 2x 3 to decide whether x dx is positive or negative. Use the graph to give a rough estimate of the value of the integral and then use partial fractions to nd the exact value. 1 x3 2x 2 and an antiderivative on the same screen.

yx yx y
1 0

4 2x 5

dx

yx y
1 0

x 3x 2 x 4x 1 dx

## 5556 Evaluate the integral by completing the square and using

Formula 6.
55.

1
3

1 x3

dx

x2 x3
3

yx

dx
2

2x

56.

y 4x

2x
2

1 12x

dx

x4
2

2x dx 4x 2 3 4 3x 4x
2

yx yx y

## 57. The German mathematician Karl Weierstrass (18151897)

yxx y
x2 x2

dx 7 dx 62

x4
5

3x 2 5x 3 x2

1 dx 5x 2
2

38.

x3

2x 2 3x 2x 2

dx

noticed that the substitution t tan x 2 will convert any rational function of sin x and cos x into an ordinary rational function of t. x (a) If t tan x 2 , , sketch a right triangle or use trigonometric identities to show that cos x 2 1 s1 1 1 t2 t2 t2 and sin x 2 2t 1 t2 t s1 t2

39. 41. 43. 45.

y y
9

1 x sx
16

1 4

dx

y y y
1 0 3

dx 2 sx 3 1 1 sx
3

x dx

x
3

sx x
2 3

dx dx dx

y sx y sx y
s1

1 1

1 3

sx dx x2 x sx .]
6

## grand into a rational function of t and then evaluate the integral.

58. 59.

3 sx

[Hint: Substitute u

y3

dx 5 sin x 1 4 cos x dx
60.

46.

sx

dx

y 3 sin x

2 3

1 sin x

cos x

dx