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473

r 2 for the area of a sector of a circle with radius r and central angle . [Hint: Assume 0 2 and place the center of the circle at the origin so it has the equation x 2 y 2 r 2. Then A is the sum of the area of the triangle POQ and the area of the region PQR in the gure.]

y

1 2

sa 2

t 2 dt

1 2

a 2 sin

x a

1 2

x sa 2

x2

(b) Use the gure to give trigonometric interpretations of both terms on the right side of the equation in part (a).

y a

y= a@-t@

x t

x 0

dx x 4 sx 2

Graph the integrand and its indenite integral on the same screen and check that your answer is reasonable.

1 2

y2

8 into two

x 2 s4 x 2 the curve y

r R

P a, b given by EP

L a a

b 4

0

x2

b2

3 2

dx

where is the charge density per unit length on the rod and 0 is the free space permittivity (see the gure). Evaluate the integral to determine an expression for the electric eld E P .

y

42. A water storage tank has the shape of a cylinder with diam-

P(a,b)

0 L x

eter 10 ft. It is mounted so that the circular cross-sections are vertical. If the depth of the water is 7 ft, what percentage of the total capacity is being used?

43. A torus is generated by rotating the circle

7.4

INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FUNCTIONS BY PARTIAL FRACTIONS In this section we show how to integrate any rational function (a ratio of polynomials) by expressing it as a sum of simpler fractions, called partial fractions, that we already know how to integrate. To illustrate the method, observe that by taking the fractions 2 x 1 and 1 x 2 to a common denominator we obtain 2 x 1 x 1 2 2x x 2 x 1 1 x 2 x x2 x 5 2

If we now reverse the procedure, we see how to integrate the function on the right side of

474

||||

this equation:

yx

x

2

5 x 2

dx

2 x 1 1 x

1 2 ln x

dx 2 C

2 ln x

To see how the method of partial fractions works in general, lets consider a rational function Px f x Qx where P and Q are polynomials. Its possible to express f as a sum of simpler fractions provided that the degree of P is less than the degree of Q. Such a rational function is called proper. Recall that if Px an x n an 1x n

1

a1 x

a0

where a n 0, then the degree of P is n and we write deg P n. If f is improper, that is, deg P deg Q , then we must take the preliminary step of dividing Q into P (by long division) until a remainder R x is obtained such that deg R deg Q . The division statement is

1

f x

Px Qx

Sx

Rx Qx

where S and R are also polynomials. As the following example illustrates, sometimes this preliminary step is all that is required.

V EXAMPLE 1

Find y

x3 x

x dx. 1

+x +2 x-1 ) +x - +x -x 2x 2x-2 2

SOLUTION Since the degree of the numerator is greater than the degree of the denominator,

x3 x

x dx 1

y

x3 3

x2 x2 2

2 2x

2 x 1

dx 1 C

M

2 ln x

The next step is to factor the denominator Q x as far as possible. It can be shown that any polynomial Q can be factored as a product of linear factors (of the form ax b) and irreducible quadratic factors (of the form ax 2 bx c, where b 2 4ac 0). For instance, if Q x x 4 16, we could factor it as Qx x2 4 x2 4 x 2 x 2 x2 4

The third step is to express the proper rational function R x Q x (from Equation 1) as a sum of partial fractions of the form A ax b

i

or

Ax ax 2 bx

B c

j

||||

475

A theorem in algebra guarantees that it is always possible to do this. We explain the details for the four cases that occur.

CASE I

N

where no factor is repeated (and no factor is a constant multiple of another). In this case the partial fraction theorem states that there exist constants A1, A2 , . . . , Ak such that

2

Rx Qx

A1 a 1 x b1

A2 a2 x b2

Ak a k x bk

V EXAMPLE 2

Evaluate y

x2 2x 3

2x 3x 2

1 dx. 2x

SOLUTION Since the degree of the numerator is less than the degree of the denominator, we

Since the denominator has three distinct linear factors, the partial fraction decomposition of the integrand (2) has the form

3

x2 x 2x

2x 1 1 x 2

A x

B 2x 1 x

C 2

Another method for nding A, B, and C is given in the note after this example.

To determine the values of A, B, and C, we multiply both sides of this equation by the product of the denominators, x 2x 1 x 2 , obtaining

4

x2

2x

A 2x

1 x

Bx x

Cx 2x

Expanding the right side of Equation 4 and writing it in the standard form for polynomials, we get

5

x2

2x

2A

2C x 2

3A

2B

C x

2A

The polynomials in Equation 5 are identical, so their coefcients must be equal. The coefcient of x 2 on the right side, 2A B 2C, must equal the coefcient of x 2 on the left sidenamely, 1. Likewise, the coefcients of x are equal and the constant terms are equal. This gives the following system of equations for A, B, and C: 2A 3A 2A B 2B 2B 2C C 2C 1 2 1

476

||||

1 2 1 5 1 10

Solving, we get A

N

,B

, and C

, and so 1 1 5 2x 1

1 10

We could check our work by taking the terms to a common denominator and adding them.

N

x2 2x 3

2x 3x 2

1 dx 2x

y

1 2

1 1 2 x

1 1 10 x 2 1

1 10

dx 2 2x K 1, which

M

Figure 1 shows the graphs of the integrand in Example 2 and its indenite integral (with K 0). Which is which? 2

ln x

ln 2x

ln x

In integrating the middle term we have made the mental substitution u gives du 2 dx and dx du 2.

_3

_2

FIGURE 1

NOTE We can use an alternative method to nd the coefcients A, B, and C in Example 2. Equation 4 is an identity; it is true for every value of x. Lets choose values of x that simplify the equation. If we put x 0 in Equation 4, then the second and third terms on the right side vanish and the equation then becomes 2A 1, or A 1 . Likewise, 2 1 x 1 gives 5B 4 1 and x 2 gives 10C 1, so B 1 and C 2 4 5 10 . (You may object that Equation 3 is not valid for x 0, 1 , or 2, so why should Equation 4 be valid for those 2 values? In fact, Equation 4 is true for all values of x, even x 0, 1 , and 2. See Exercise 69 2 for the reason.)

EXAMPLE 3 Find

yx

dx

2

a2

, where a

0.

1 x2 and therefore a2 x Ax

1 a x a

A a Bx a x a 1 x

B a

Using the method of the preceding note, we put x a in this equation and get A 2a 1, so A 1 2a . If we put x a, we get B 2a 1, so B 1 2a . Thus

dx x2 a2

1 2a

1 x a a x

1 a

dx a

1 (ln x 2a Since ln x ln y

ln x

dx x2 a2

1 x ln 2a x

a a

C

M

CASE 11

N

Suppose the rst linear factor a 1 x b1 is repeated r times; that is, a 1 x b1 r occurs in the factorization of Q x . Then instead of the single term A1 a 1 x b1 in Equation 2, we

||||

477

would use

7

A1 a 1 x b1

A2 a1 x b1

2

Ar a1 x b1

r

2

E x 1

3

EXAMPLE 4 Find

x 4 2x 2 x3 x2

4x 1 dx. x 1

x 4 2x 2 x3 x2

4x 1 x 1

4x x

3

x x

1 1. Since Q 1 1 x 1 0,

The second step is to factor the denominator Q x we know that x 1 is a factor and we obtain x3 x2 x 1 x x Since the linear factor x x 1 x2 1

2

x3 x

x2 1 x

1 1

2

B 1 x

2

C x 1 1 , we get Cx A B 1

2

8

4x

Ax A

1 x C x2

1 B

Bx 2C x

Another method for nding the coefcients: Put x 1 in (8): B 2. Put x 1: C 1. Put x 0: A B C 1.

2

0 4 0

x 4 2x 2 x3 x2

4x 1 dx x 1

y

x2 2 x2 2

1 x ln x K 1 1

dx K

M

478

||||

CASE III

If Q x has the factor ax 2 b x c, where b 2 4ac 0, then, in addition to the partial fractions in Equations 2 and 7, the expression for R x Q x will have a term of the form

9

Ax B ax 2 bx c

where A and B are constants to be determined. For instance, the function given by f x x x 2 x 2 1 x 2 4 has a partial fraction decomposition of the form x x 2 x

2

A 1 x

2

Bx x2

C 1

Dx x2

E 4

The term given in (9) can be integrated by completing the square and using the formula

10

yx

Evaluate y 4x 2x 2 x3 x x2

dx

2

a2

1 tan a

x a

V EXAMPLE 5

2

SOLUTION Since x 3

A x

Bx x2

C 4

4 B x2

Bx Cx

C x 4A

4A

2x 2 x3

y

x 4

1 x

x x2

1 4

dx

yx

x

2

1 dx 4

x2

dx

yx

1

2

dx 2x dx.

We make the substitution u x 2 4 in the rst of these integrals so that du We evaluate the second integral by means of Formula 10 with a 2:

2x 2 x 4 dx x x2 4

1 dx x

1 2

x x

2

4 4

dx

1 2

y

tan

1 x

2

4 x 2

dx K

M

ln x

ln x 2

||||

479

EXAMPLE 6 Evaluate

4x 2 4x 2

3x 4x

2 dx. 3

SOLUTION Since the degree of the numerator is not less than the degree of the denominator,

Notice that the quadratic 4x 2 4x 3 is irreducible because its discriminant is b 2 4ac 32 0. This means it cant be factored, so we dont need to use the partial fraction technique. To integrate the given function we complete the square in the denominator: 4x 2 4x 3 2x 2x 1

2

2 2 dx and

1. Then, du

4x 2 4x 2

3x 4x

2 dx 3

y

x x x x

1

1 2

x 4x 2

1 4x 1 1 2

3 du

1 4

dx x 1

2 1 4

y y

1 2

u u2 u

yu

u

2

1 du 2

1 4

u2

2 2

du 1 4 4x

yu

1

2 tan

du

1

1 8

ln u 2 ln 4x 2

u s2

1

s2 3

C 2x s2 1 C

M

1 8

1 tan 4 s2

NOTE

2

We complete the square in the denominator and then make a substitution that brings the integral into the form

y

CASE IV

N

Cu u2

D du a2

Cy

u u2 a2

du

Dy

1 u2 a2

du

Then the rst integral is a logarithm and the second is expressed in terms of tan 1.

Q(x) contains a repeated irreducible quadratic factor.

11

bx

c r, where b 2 A2 x B2 bx c

2

4ac

2

A1 x B1 ax 2 bx c

Br bx c

r

ax

480

||||

occurs in the partial fraction decomposition of R x Q x . Each of the terms in (11) can be integrated by rst completing the square.

N

It would be extremely tedious to work out by hand the numerical values of the coefcients in Example 7. Most computer algebra systems, however, can nd the numerical values very quickly. For instance, the Maple command convert f, parfrac, x or the Mathematica command Apart[f] gives the following values: A E 1,

15 8

EXAMPLE 7 Write out the form of the partial fraction decomposition of the function

x x

SOLUTION

x3 1 x2

x2 x

1 1 x2

B F I

1 2

1 8

x x

C , J G

1 2

x3 1 x2 A x

x2 x x

1 1 x2 B 1

1 x

2

,

1 8

D H

1,

3 4

Cx x

D 1 x3

2

Ex x2

F 1

Gx x2

H 12

Ix x2

J 13

EXAMPLE 8 Evaluate

x 2x 2 x x2 1

dx.

x 2x 2 x x2 1

x3

2

A x

Bx x2

C 1

Dx x2

E 12

Multiplying by x x 2 x3 2x 2 x 1

1 2, we have A x2 A x4 A 1

2

Bx 1 Cx 3

C x x2 B x4 2A x2 B

Dx C x3 D x2 x C

E x Dx 2 Ex A Ex

2x 2 B x4

2

C 1, and E x x2 1

2

1, C 1 x dx x x x2

0. Thus dx

x 2x 2 x x2 1

x3

2

y

y

yx

1 2

dx 1

yx

dx

2

y

1 2 x2

x dx x2 1 1

ln x

ln x 2

tan 1x

We note that sometimes partial fractions can be avoided when integrating a rational function. For instance, although the integral

x2 x x2

1 dx 3

||||

481

could be evaluated by the method of Case III, its much easier to observe that if u x x2 3 x 3 3x, then du 3x 2 3 dx and so

yx

x2 x2

1 dx 3

1 3

ln x 3

3x

RATIONALIZING SUBSTITUTIONS

Some nonrational functions can be changed into rational functions by means of appropriate substitutions. In particular, when an integrand contains an expression of the form n n st x , then the substitution u st x may be effective. Other instances appear in the exercises.

EXAMPLE 9 Evaluate

sx

4 x

dx. x 4, so x u

2

SOLUTION Let u

Therefore

sx

4 . Then u 2 sx 4 x

u2

4 and dx 2y u2 u

2

2u du.

dx

yu

2

4 1

2u du 4 u2 4

du

du 2 u 2 and using

We can evaluate this integral either by factoring u 2 partial fractions or by using Formula 6 with a 2:

4 as u

sx

4 x

dx

2 y du 2u 2sx 8 4

8y

du u2 4 2 2 4 4 C 2 2 C

M

1 u ln 2 2 u 2 ln sx sx

7.4

EXERCISES

5. (a)

x4 x

4

function (as in Example 7). Do not determine the numerical values of the coefcients.

1. (a) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (a)

1

3

(b) (b)

t4 t

2

t2 1 t2 x3

1 4

x x2 x x5 x

2 4

2x 3 3x x x 1 4x 3 x3 4x 3 2

1 2x 2 x2 x 1 9

2

6. (a)

x 2

x4 x x2

1 x6

x2 x2 x

yx y

x

x 6

dx dx

8.

yr y

t

r2 4

dr dt

2x 1 1 3 x2

9.

x 9 5 x

10.

1 4 t

482

||||

11. 13. 15. 17. 19. 21. 23. 25. 27. 29. 31. 33. 35. 37.

1 x2 ax

2

1 bx

3

dx dx

12. 14. 16. 18. 20. 22. 24. 26. 28. 30. 32. 34. 36.

y y y y y

x x2 x 3x

1 2 b 1 a x

dx dx

ye y

2x

e 2x 3e x

dx

yx y y y y y y y

4 3 2

2

x3

2x 2 4 dx x 2x 2 7y 12 dy 2 y 3 1 5

2

x 3 4x x2 x x2 x x2 2x ds

2 2 3

10 dx 6 1 dx dx

y tan t y

e

x

sec 2 t 3 tan t ex 2 e 2x 1

dt

4y 2 y y x x x2 5x

2 3

2x x

dx

dx

5x 16 1 x 2 1 x 3x

2

4 dx 4 x3 3x 2 dx 2x 2 10 1 x2 9 dx

ys y y y

x

51.

y ln x

x02 f

2 dx

52.

y x tan

x dx

x3

dx

x2 x 1 dx x2 1 2 x2 x 3x 2

4

x 3 x 2 2x 1 dx x2 1 x2 2 x

2

2x 1 dx x2 1 4 dx 2 13 dx

1 x 2 2x 3 to decide whether x dx is positive or negative. Use the graph to give a rough estimate of the value of the integral and then use partial fractions to nd the exact value. 1 x3 2x 2 and an antiderivative on the same screen.

yx yx y

1 0

4 2x 5

dx

yx y

1 0

x 3x 2 x 4x 1 dx

Formula 6.

55.

1

3

1 x3

dx

x2 x3

3

yx

dx

2

2x

56.

y 4x

2x

2

1 12x

dx

x4

2

2x dx 4x 2 3 4 3x 4x

2

yx yx y

yxx y

x2 x2

dx 7 dx 62

x4

5

3x 2 5x 3 x2

1 dx 5x 2

2

38.

x3

2x 2 3x 2x 2

dx

noticed that the substitution t tan x 2 will convert any rational function of sin x and cos x into an ordinary rational function of t. x (a) If t tan x 2 , , sketch a right triangle or use trigonometric identities to show that cos x 2 1 s1 1 1 t2 t2 t2 and sin x 2 2t 1 t2 t s1 t2

39. 41. 43. 45.

y y

9

1 x sx

16

1 4

dx

y y y

1 0 3

dx 2 sx 3 1 1 sx

3

x dx

x

3

sx x

2 3

dx dx dx

y sx y sx y

s1

1 1

1 3

sx dx x2 x sx .]

6

58. 59.

3 sx

[Hint: Substitute u

y3

dx 5 sin x 1 4 cos x dx

60.

46.

sx

dx

y 3 sin x

2 3

1 sin x

cos x

dx

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