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DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF UNIVERSAL COUPLING

A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by

PRASHANTH.G (090111701078) SRINIVAS.N.B (090111701105) PRADESH KUMAR.N (090111701177)

In partial fulfilment for the award of degree Of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING In MECHANICAL ENGINEERING CSI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KETTI

ANNA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY CHENNAI


APRIL 2012

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ANNA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, CHENNAI

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF UNIVERSAL COUPLING is the bonafide work of G.PRASHANTH, N.B.SRINIVAS, N.PRADESH KUMAR who carried out the project work under my supervision.

SIGNATURE Mr.R.MAHENDRAN B.E., M.E., SUPERVISOR Lecturer, Mechanical Department C.S.I. College of Engineering, Ketti, The Nilgiris 643215

SIGNATURE Prof.P.THANGAVEL B.E., M.E, P.hD., HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT Professor, Head of Mechanical Department C.S.I. College of Engineering, Ketti, The Nilgiris-643215

---------------------Internal Examiner

---------------------External Examiner

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CERTIFICATE OF EVALUATION

College Name Branch / Semester Subject

: : :

C.S.I. College of Engineering Mechanical Engineering / VI Semester Project Work

S. No

Register Number

Name of the Students

Title of the Project

Name of the Guide with designation

090111701078

G.PRASHANTH

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090111701105 090111701077

N.B.SRINIVAS N.PRADESH KUMAR

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF UNIVERSAL COUPLING

Mr.R.MAHENDRAN B.E.,M.E., Dept of Mechanical Engg.

The report on the project work done by the students during the Sixth semester of the Bachelor of Engineering degree in Mechanical Engineering of Anna University has been confirmed to be the work done by them and then evaluated.

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ABSTRACT

The universal joint is a common mechanism that servers to transmit rotation between non-parallel shafts. Suppose that the starting moment is the worst load situation, when the driven shaft is applied a torque but is still static, ANSYS is used to do the structural static analysis. In this particular project, the smart mesh method improves the element shape and decreases the number of element significantly. The maximum stress, which locates around the hole, changes with the shape of groove and the direction of pressure. The skew pressure that is generated by the constant torque is considered in the optimization procedure. Multiple step optimization is used to get the minimum volume of the driven shaft while the maximum is within the range of material requirement. Compared to the original volume 0.6084 in, the new design decreases the volume of the driven shaft to 0.5046 in.

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CONTENT

S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Contents Acknowledgement Introduction Project description Procedure Applications Design calculation Cost estimation Conclusion Reference Appendix

Page.No 6 7 9 18 20 21 23 24 25 26

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our sincere thanks to our honourable principal Dr.S.J.Jeyapaulan, B.E., M.Sc.,(Engg), Ph.D.,for giving us the opportunity to carry out the project. We are very much grateful to our HODs Prof.B.Sanjay Gandhi B.E., M.E., Ph.D., & Prof.P.Thangavel BE., ME., Ph.D., for his timely suggestion and advice throughout the Project work without which we couldnt have realized this ambition. We express our deep sense of gratitude and thanks to our project guide Mr. R.Mahendran, B.E., M.E., for all support and help given to us during the course of project work. We owe our special thanks to all staff Members, Technical and non-technical Assistants of our department for their kind suggestions and their cooperations, we like to thank all our friends for their suggestion and for their constant encouragement and support. We owe our heartfelt thanks to the almighty for giving the strength, knowledge and courage needed to complete the project.

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INTRODUCTION

A universal joint, universal coupling is a joint or coupling in a rigid rod that allows the rod to bend in any direction, and is commonly used in shafts that transmit rotary motion. It consists of a pair of hinges located close together, oriented at 90 to each other, connected by a cross Shaft. In simple word the universal joint is a mechanism that serves to transmit rotation between non-parallel Shafts. Can be used as a linkage, or transmission, between two intentionally misaligned shafts, rather than just as a flexible coupling (meant to accommodate very small misalignment that inevitably but unintentionally results from tiny mounting errors and thermal growth).

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UNIVRSAL COUPLING

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PROJECT DESCRIPTION

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MATERIAL SELECTION

MILD STEEL
Mild steel is the most common form of steel because its price is relatively low while it provides material properties that are acceptable for many applications. Low carbon steel contains approximately 0.050.15% carbon and mild steel contains 0.160.29% carbon; making it malleable and ductile, but it cannot be hardened by heat treatment. Mild steel has a relatively low tensile strength, but it is cheap and malleable; surface hardness can be increased through carburizing. It is often used when large quantities of steel are needed, for example as structural steel. The density of mild steel is approximately 7.85 g/cm3 (7850 kg/m3 or 0.284 lb/in3) and the Young's modulus is 210 GPa (30,000,000 psi). Low carbon steels suffer from yield-point runout where the material has two yield points. The first yield point (or upper yield point) is higher than the second and the yield drops dramatically after the upper yield point. If a low carbon steel is only stressed to some point between the upper and lower yield point then the surface may develop Lauder bands.

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OPERATIONS CARRIED OUT:


1. Surface grinding 2. Turning & Facing 3. Drilling 4. Milling 5. Shaping

MACHINES USED FOR THE OPERATIONS


1. Center lathe 2. Drilling machine 3. Milling machine 4. Shaping machine 5. Surface grinding machine

TOOLS USED FOR THE OPERATIONS


1. Single point cutting tool( right hand tool)

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CENTER LATHE
The terms '''centre lathe''', '''engine lathe''', and '''bench lathe''' all refer to a basic type of lathe that may be considered the archetypical class of metalworking lathe most often used by the general or machining hobbyist. The name ''bench lathe'' implies a version of this class small enough to be mounted on a workbench fullfeatured, and larger than. The construction of a centre lathe is detailed above, but depending on the year of manufacture, size, price range, or desired features, even these lathes can vary widely between models. ''Engine lathe'' is the name applied to a traditional late-19th-century or 20th-century lathe with automatic feed to the cutting tool, as opposed to early lathes which were used with hand-held tools, or lathes with manual feed only. The usage of "engine" here is in the mechanical-device sense, not the prime-mover sense, as in the standard industrial power source for many years. The works would have one large steam engine which would provide power to all the machines via a system of belts. Therefore early engine lathes were generally 'cone heads', in that the spindle usually had attached to it a multi-step pulley called a ''cone pulley'' designed to accept a flat belt. Different spindle speeds could be obtained by moving the flat belt to different steps on the cone pulley. Cone-head lathes usually had a countershaft (lay shaft) on the back side of the cone which could be engaged to provide a lower set of speeds than was obtainable by direct belt drive. These gears were called ''back gears''. Larger lathes sometimes had two-speed back gears which could be shifted to provide a still lower set of speeds. When electric motors started to become common in the early 20th century, many cone-head lathes were converted to electric power. At the same time the state of the art in and practice was advancing to the point that manufacturers began to make fully geared headstocks, using gearboxes analogous to to obtain various
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spindle speeds and feed rates while transmitting the higher amounts of needed to take full advantage of tools. The inexpensive availability of electronics has again changed the way speed control may be applied by allowing continuously variable motor speed from the maximum down to almost zero RPM.

DRILLING
Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole in solid materials. The drill bit is a multipoint, end cutting tool. It cuts by applying pressure and rotation to the work piece, which forms chips at the cutting edge. A drill is a tool fitted with a cutting tool attachment or driving tool attachment, usually a drill bit or driver bit, used for drilling holes in various materials or fastening various materials together with the use of fasteners. The attachment is gripped by a chuck at one end of the drill and rotated while pressed against the target material. The tip, and sometimes edges, of the cutting tool does the work of cutting into the target material. This may be slicing off thin shavings (twist drills or auger bits), grinding off small particles (oil drilling), crushing and removing pieces of the work piece (SDS masonry drill), countersinking, counter boring, or other operations. Drills are commonly used in woodworking, metalworking, construction and do-it-yourself projects. Specially designed drills are also used in medicine, space missions and other applications. Drills are available with a wide variety of performance characteristics, such as power and capacity.

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MILLING MACHINE
A milling machine is a machine tool used to machine solid materials. Milling machines are often classed in two basic forms, horizontal and vertical, which refers to the orientation of the main spindle. Both types range in size from small, benchmounted devices to room-sized machines. Unlike a drill press, which holds the work piece stationary as the drill moves axially to penetrate the material, milling machines also move the work piece radially against the rotating milling cutter, which cuts on its sides as well as its tip. Work piece and cutter movement are precisely controlled to less than 0.001 in (0.025 mm), usually by means of precision ground slides and lead screws or analogous technology. Milling machines may be manually operated, mechanically automated, or digitally automated via computer numerical control (CNC). Milling machines can perform a vast number of operations, from simple (e.g., slot and keyway cutting, plaining, drilling) to complex (e.g., contouring, die sinking). Cutting fluid is often pumped to the cutting site to cool and lubricate the cut and to wash away the resulting swarf.

SURFACE GRINDING MACHINE


Surface grinding is the most common of the grinding operations. It is a finishing process that uses a rotating abrasive wheel to smooth the flat surface of metallic or nonmetallic materials to give them a more refined look or to attain a desired surface for a functional purpose. The surface grinder is composed of an abrasive wheel, a work holding device known as a chuck, and a reciprocating or rotary table. The chuck holds the material

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in place while it is being worked on. It can do this one of two ways: ferromagnetic pieces are held in place by a magnetic chuck, while non-ferromagnetic and nonmetallic pieces are held in place by vacuum or mechanical means. A machine vise (made from ferromagnetic steel or cast iron) placed on the magnetic chuck can be used to hold non-ferromagnetic work pieces if only a magnetic chuck is available. Factors to consider in surface grinding are the material of the grinding wheel and the material of the piece being worked on. Typical work piece materials include cast iron and mild steel. These two materials don't tend to clog the grinding wheel while being processed. Other materials are aluminum, stainless steel, brass and some plastics. When grinding at high temperatures, the material tends to become weakened and is more inclined to corrode. This can also result in a loss of magnetism in materials where this is applicable. The grinding wheel is not limited to a cylindrical shape and can have a myriad of options that are useful in transferring different geometries to the object being worked on. Straight wheels can be dressed by the operator to produce custom geometries. When surface grinding an object, one must keep in mind that the shape of the wheel will be transferred to the material of the object like a mirror image. Spark out is a term used when precision values are sought and literally means "until the sparks are out (no more)". It involves passing the work piece under the wheel, without resetting the depth of cut, more than once and generally multiple times. This ensures that any inconsistencies in the machine or work piece are eliminated.
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SHAPING MACHINE
A shaper is a type of machine tool that uses linear relative motion between the work piece and a single-point cutting tool to machine a linear tool path. Its cut is analogous to that of a lathe, except that it is (archetypally) linear instead of helical. (Adding axes of motion can yield helical tool paths, as also done in helical planing.) A shaper is analogous to a planer, but smaller, and with the cutter riding a ram that moves above a stationary work piece, rather than the entire work piece moving beneath the cutter. The ram is moved back and forth typically by a crank inside the column; hydraulically actuated shapers also exist. A shaper operates by moving a hardened cutting tool backwards and forwards across the work piece. On the return stroke of the ram the tool is lifted clear of the work piece, reducing the cutting action to one direction only. The work piece mounts on a rigid, box-shaped table in front of the machine. The height of the table can be adjusted to suit this work piece, and the table can traverse sideways underneath the reciprocating tool, which is mounted on the ram. Table motion may be controlled manually, but is usually advanced by an automatic feed mechanism acting on the feed screw. The ram slides back and forth above the work. At the front end of the ram is a vertical tool slide that may be adjusted to either side of the vertical plane along the stroke axis. This tool-slide holds the clapper box and tool post, from which the tool can be positioned to cut a straight, flat surface on the top of the work piece. The tool-slide permits feeding the tool downwards to deepen a cut. This adjustability, coupled with the use of specialized cutters and tool holders, enable the operator to cut internal and external gear tooth profiles, spines, dovetails, and keyways.

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The ram is adjustable for stroke and, due to the geometry of the linkage, it moves faster on the return (non-cutting) stroke than on the forward, cutting stroke. This action is via a slotted link or Whitworth link.

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PROCEDURE CENTER
A rod of 120mm was turned and faced to 80mm & diameter 40mm, the piece was cut into two equal halfs. The center was drilled vertically till the end with diameter of 20mm.ss

FORK
The rectangular block of dimensions 101010 was grinded using grinding machine. The rectangular block then was milled using milling machine. The opposite portion was turned using 4 jaw lathe machine and the part was made circular The milled portion is drilled vertically for diameter of 60mm The front portion of the fork was curved and tapered for the radius of 30 mm The piece was then smoothened using grinder.

ASSEMBLY & WELDING


The center was hammered into the fork. The two centers were welded perpendicularly using arc welding. The Work piece is finished and captured is shown below

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Advantages:
Can accommodate large angular misalignments. Can accommodate extremely large radial misalignments, when used in pairs.

Disadvantages:
Does not transmit rotationhomokinetically (so that the two shafts rotate at exactly the same speed throughout rotation), unless used in pairs, in a specific arrangements.

APPLICATIONS
The universal couplings in the drive shaft, these are needed because the engine is fixed to the vehicles chassis (frame) whereas the wheels ate suspended from the chassis. This means that the wheels able to move relative to the engine and transmission, so there must be a mechanism that accommodates this movement. This is most commonly done with u-joints in the driveshaft on rear-wheel or fourwheel drive. On front-wheel drive, this is often done with CV-joints

. Universal joints are incorporated in the of vehicles transmission system to perform three basic applications : (a) Propeller shaft end joints between longitudinally front mounted gearbox and rear final drive axle. (b) Rear axle drive shaft end joints between the sprung final drive and the unsprung rear wheel stub axle.
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(c) Front axle drive shaft end joints between the sprung front mounted final drive and the unsprung front wheel steered stub axle.

Typical applications of universal joints include aircraft, appliances, control mechanisms, electronics, Instrumentation, medical and optical devices, ordnance, radio, sewing machines, textile machinery and tool drives.

Universal joints are available in steel or in thermoplastic body members. Universal joints made of steel have maximum load-carrying capacity for a given size. Universal joints with thermoplastic body members are used in light industrial applications in which their self-lubricating feature, light weight, negligible backlash, corrosion resistance and capability for high-speed operation are significant advantages.

Universal joints of special construction/n, such as ball-jointed universals are also available. These are used for high-speed operation and for carrying large torques. They are available both in miniature and standard sizes. Lawn and garden equipment, conveyors and material handling equipment, food processing equipment.

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DESIGN CALCULATION
In designing a universal coupling the shaft diameter and the pin diameter is obtained as discussed below. The other dimensions of the coupling are fixed by proportion.

Dimensions:
d = 60mm dp = 35 fs = 60 N/mm2

Formula:
T= fs d

(or) T = 2 (dp)2 fs d

Solution:
T= 60 60

T = 706.85 60 N/mm

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Speed ratio:

N/N1 = 1 cos2 sin2 cos N1 = Ncos 1 cos2 sin2

Maximum speed ratio:


N1 (max) = N/ cos

Minimum speed ratio:


N1 (min) = Ncos

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COST ESTIMATION
The cost required for the fabrication of universal coupling is tabulated as follows:

S.NO

MATERIALS
Mild steel block Fabrication cost Total

COST (Rs.) 500 200 700

1. 2.

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CONCLUSION
The project thus implemented on Design and Fabrication of Universal coupling was successfully done, design of various components was done by using standard calculations. In our project we had carried out certain operations such as drilling welding, milling and machining using lathe

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REFERENCE
o Fundamentals of Engineering Mechanics, L.Levinson, 1965 o Finite Element Analysis from concepts to applications, David S. Burnett, 1987 o Machine design, R.K. Jain, 2001

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APPENDIX

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