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10 N

10 N Bi-ProPellaNt thruster
Reliable contRol of laRge spacecRaft

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10 n bi-propellant thruster

Heritage

The 10 N thruster is a small rocket engine for attitude-, trajectory- and orbit-control of large satellites and deep space probes. It can look back on more than 40 years use in space. Over three thousend units have controlled numerous international scientific and commercial spacecraft to date. The thruster has experienced multiple improvements in the course of its 40 years life and the innovation for product improvement still continues.

The thrusters are equipped with propellant valves from either Astrium or foreign suppliers, depending on customers request. The thruster is an All European Product when equipped with the Astrium valve.

10 n bi-propellant thruster

10 N Thruster in Space

Over 130 spacecraft were eqipped with Astriums 10N thrusters since 1974. The table below starts with the year 1998. For earlier satellites please contact Astrium, Propulsion & Equipment. (* Spacecraft will be launched in the near future)

Spacecraft AFRISTAR AMC-5, GE-5 EUTELSAT W2 HOT BIRD 4 HOT BIRD 5 SINGASAT SINOSAT Arabsat 3A EUTELSAT W3 ORION 2 ASIASTAR ASTRA 2B CLUSTER II CLUSTER II EUTELSAT W4 HISPASAT 1C NILESAT 2 ARTEMIS Atlantic Bird 2 EURASIASAT Eurobird SICRAL ASTRA 1K Atlantic Bird 1 EUTELSAT W5 HOT BIRD 6 HOT BIRD 7 MSG FM1 Stellat Hispasat 1D STENTOR AMOS 2 HELLAS SAT 2 MARS EXPRESS AMC-9, GE-12 Amazonas EUTELSAT W3A Intelsat 10-02 ROSETTA Anik F1R Inmarsat4 FM1 Inmarsat4 FM2 MSG FM2 GEi1 GEi2

Launch 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1999 1999 1999 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2003 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 2004 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005

Spacecraft Syrakus 3A Apstar 6 Venus Express EUROSTAR 2013 EUROSTAR 2014 Hot Bird 8 HB7A, APA2 Syrakus 3B FM2 Koreasat 5 THAICOM 5 Anik F3 Star One C1 Galaxy 17 RC1 Chinasat 6B Skynet 5A Skynet 5B AMOS 3 Astra 1M EUROSTAR 2015 Hot Bird 9 Inmarsat4 FM3 Nimiq-4 Star One C2 Turksat 3A CIEL2 Chinasat 9 Skynet 5C Amazonas-2 Hot Bird 10 MILSAT-A W2A W7 Thor-6 Palapa D SICRAL 1B Arabsat 5A Arabsat 5B Astra 3B COMS KA-SAT MILSAT-B Nilesat 201 RASCOM-2 W3B

Launch 2005 2005 2005 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010

Spacecraft Arabsat 5C Astra 1N Atlantic Bird 7 Ekspress AM4 W3C YAHSAT 1A Alphasat PFM AMERISTAR AMOS 4 ARSAT ARSAT 2 Astra 2E Astra 2F Astra 2G Astra 5B BepiColombo CESASAT DirecTV 15 Ekspress-AM4R Ekspress-AM7 EUROSTAR3007-12 Eutelsat 3B Eutelsat 9B ExoMars Orbiter GAIA INMARSAT2 LISA-Pathfinder MEASAT 3B MSG FM3 MSG FM4 W6A Yamal 402 W3D Sicral2 AthenaFidus Apstar7A Apstar7B SES-6 SK5D SmallGEO TELECOM2 W5A WORLDSTAR 4 YAHSAT 1B

Launch 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

10 n bi-propellant thruster

Design Description

The 10 N bi-propellant thruster uses the storable propellants Monomethylhydrazine MMH as fuel and pure Di-Nitrogen-Tetroxide N2O4, or Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen (MON-1, MON-3) as oxidizer. It is designed for both, long term steady state and pulse mode operation. It operates in a wide pressure range at regulated pressure as well as in system blow down mode.

10 n

Three types of propellant flow control valves may be applied:


thruSter S10-21

with single seat, mono-stable, torque motor valve (foreign supplier)


thruSter S10-18

Combustion chamber and nozzle are made of a Platinum alloy that does not need any surface coating. It allows operational temperatures up to 1,500 C (2,700 F) and thus maximum thruster performance. The un-coated surface is absolutely resistant against oxidization and and thus it is invulnerable to mishandling, to application of test sensors and to millions of pulse cycles. Trimming orifices between valve and injector provide for individual adjustment of the propellant flow, according to the designed system pressure. The application of heaters and thermistors for thermal control is provided on request.

with dual seat valve, consisting of an upstream latch valve and a downstream mono-stable valve (foreign supplier)
thruSter S10-26

with dual seat valve, consisting of an upstream latch valve and a downstream mono-stable valve (Astrium) The thruster performance is identical for all valves.

Thruster Model S 10-21

Thruster Model S 10-18

Thruster Model S 10-26

10 n bi-propellant thruster

Characteristics

characteriSticS Thrust, Nominal Thrust Range Specific Impulse at Nominal Point Flow Rate, Nominal Flow Rate, Range Mixture Ratio, Nominal Mixture Ratio, Range Chamber Pressure, Nominal Inlet Pressure Range Throat Diameter (inner) Nozzle End Diameter (inner) Nozzle Expansion Ratio (by area) Mass, Thruster with single Seat Valve Mass, Thruster with dual Seat Valve Chamber-Nozzle Material Injector Type Cooling Concept Propellants, Fuel Oxidizer Valve, Single Seat Valve, Dual Seat Mounting I/F to S/C Tubing I/F Valve Lead Wires Thruster heater and Thermal Sensor Qualified single burn life Qualified accumulated burn life Qualified cycle life

Metric DiMenSionS 10 N 6.0 12.5 N 291 s 3.50 g/s 2.30 4.20 g/s 1.65 1.20 2.10 9 bar 10 23 bar 2.85 mm 35 mm 150 350 g 650 g Platinum/Rhodium Double Cone Vortex Film & Radiative MMH N2O4, MON-1, MON-3

iMperiaL / uS DiMenSionS 2.2 lb 1.4 2.8 lb

130 psi 145 335 psi 0.11 inch 1.38 inch 0,8 lb 1,5 lb

Bi-propellant torque motor valve, mono-stable a) Two in one bi-propellant torque motor valves b) Two in one bi-propellant dual coil actuator valves Valve flange with 3 through-holes of 6.4 mm (1/4) diameter per SAE AS4395E02 or welded 24 AWG per MIL-W-81381 On request 15 hours 70 hours 1,000,000 cycles

10 n bi-propellant thruster

Launch Vibration Loads

ranDoM anD SinuSoDiaL Vibration

The thrusters are qualified to withstand sinus and random vibration at the shown levels.

These loads represent both, launcher loads and amplification by the spacecraft. The loads are applied at the thruster mounting flange.

ranDoM - SinuSoDiaL

ranDoM - axiaL

ranDoM - LateraL

10 n bi-propellant thruster

Steady State Operation

SteaDy State perforMance 600 thruSterS

thruSter operation range

The average specific impulse of the tested thrusters is 291 sec. The maximum deviation of individual thrusters to this average is 2 %. A min. Isp of 287 sec is contractually guaranteed.

The thruster operates reliably within a propellant pressure range from 10 to 22 bar at the valve inlets. The boundaries are given by stability and temperature limits.

SteaDy State perforMance Specific iMpuLSe

The specific impulse (Isp) is the measure for the thruster-efficiency. The higher the Isp, the better the thruster. Generally, the Isp of a thruster depends on various operational parameters, it is never constant for the entire operation range. The nominal Isp of 291 sec refers to the nominal thrust level of 10 N. The thruster achieves an Isp up to 298 sec when operated at maximum thrust.

Each thruster is individually adapted to the propelllant feed system of its spacecraft. The actual thruster operation point during a mission may shift within the qualified range, depending on the actually occurring tank pressures. The thruster may be operated at both, regulated and blow down pressure mode.

10 n bi-propellant thruster

Pulse Operation

Duty cycLe QuaLification

puLSe MoDe perforMance, iMpuLSe bit

The thruster qualification program includes extensive pulse mode testing at numerous combinations of Valve On and Valve Off times, ranging from milliseconds to seconds.

The single impulse bits are nearly independent on Valve Off times. This is a consequence of the thrusters low dribble volumes and of the totally optimized thruster design.

puLSe MoDe perforMance, Specific iMpuLSe

puLSe MoDe perforMance, iMpuLSe bit repeatabiLity

Full thruster efficiency is achieved for pulse durations over 500 milliseconds. The efficiency is naturally lower as shorter the pulse, since start up and shut off time of the combustion are approaching the total pulse duration.

Impulse bit repeatability is of major importance for an efficient use of the thruster. Even under worst case conditions, namely minimum Valve On and maximum Valve Off times, the thruster shows excellent performance repeatability.

10 n bi-propellant thruster

Structure Interface

thruSter S 10-21

Valve, Single Seat, Torque Motor

Dimensions

Structure Cut Out

thruSter S 10-18

Valve, Dual Seat, Dual Torque Motor

Dimensions

Structure Cut Out

thruSter S 10-26

Valve, Dual Seat, Dual Coil Actuator Dimensions

Structure Cut Out

astrium ProPulsioN & equiPmeNt D 81663 Munich, Germany Phone: +49 (0) 89 607 32480 Fax: +49 (0) 89 607 85480 Hartwig.Ellerbrock@astrium.eads.net www.space-propulsion.com www.astrium.eads.net

Printed in Germany. 2012 Astrium. Photos and Images: Astrium, DLR, ESA.