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HISTORY OF INDONESIA 1.

Pre- Indonesia period Indonesia is believed come to existance during the Pleitocene period which can be traced back about 4 million years BC ago associated with the present Asia mainland. The first hominoids that made the first appearance on this land are called Java man which inhabited the part of the Asia land that now being called as Indonesia. This claim can be proved through the founding of the fossils on the island of Java, that have been believed as the first inhabitant that occupied Indonesia as stated by the founder, Eugence Dubois. The group of island later emerged including the Indonesia archipelago, as the sea level rose cause by the melting ice at the north of Europe and the American continent. During this period (3000- 50 BC), the Sub Mongoloid migrants from Asia believed had come this land and married with the native people. Inter marriage also take place during 1000 BC with Indo- Arians migrants originated from Asian subcontinent of India while the first migrants that come from India came from Gujerat during the first Christian era. The introduction of Sanskrit language take place during the Caka period and the Pallawa script introduced by the Indian Prince Aji Caka at 78 AD. The evidence can be seen at the ancient stone and copper inscriptions which had been unearthed where the Devanagari script been written in Sanskrit language. The language and script were adopted and called the Kawi language and included words and phrases derived from Javanese.

Early trade relations of Indonesia with the South India introduced the new name of several region in Indonesia. Sumatra are being called Swana Dwipa of the island of gold, Java as Java Dwipa or the rice island, and the Srivijayas Hindu kingdom in Sumatra and Nalanda in South Incia perhaps linked with religious and cultural exchange through the developed diplomatic and trade relations.

The hindu religion then gradually spread throughout the land in tune with the influx of Indian settlers during the period from from the first to the seventh century AD. The Hindu teachings was accepted by many of the Javanese people, but limited to the upper classes on the other islands.

2. The period of Hindu kingdoms The Indonesian land which largely adopted the Hindu religion since the pre-indonesian era been the Hindu Kingdom under the rule of Hindu king ever since. This period lasted from ancient times to 16th Century AD. This era also known as the Hindu- Indonesian period. Many system had been adopted from the Indian culture and customs which can be seen in the monarchy system, the ancestry system, the organization of military troops, literature, music and dances, architecture, religious practices and rituals and also the division of laborers into castas or varnas. For the evidence, we still could see the performance of wayang kulit where most of the story based on hindu literature. The story of Mahabrata and Ramayana is one of the popular story that are still being played in many part of Indonesia nowadays. The relationship between Indonesia and China believed were started during this period since the Buddhist teachings spread to China. The Chinese pilgrims may sails to India via the strait of Malacca where most of them may stopped and temporarily stayed in Indonesia. The diplomatic regions between Java- Dwipa and Chine were reported in Chinese chronicles of 132 AD. Recorded in 502 AD, the existence of the Buddhist Kingdom also being mentioned namely Kanto Lim in South Sumatra which presumed as the neighborhood of present- day Palembang. Historical record also mentioned the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, I Tsing that visited Crivijaya in 671 AD to study the Sanskrit language and returned 18 years afterward. Many well known philosophy scholars like Sakyakirti, Dharmapala and Vajabudhi from these region which marked the Crivijaya as the center of Buddhist learning during that time.

Diplomatic relation with south Indian kingdom of Nalanda also being highlighted in history where the Indian will come to Crivijaya to learn the art of molding bronze statues as well as having a greater knowledge on Buddhist philosophy. From Crivijaya, the Buddhist influence reached out many parts of the archipelago.

The Central java also once became a well- known Buddhist kingdom where the famous Buddhist temple, Borobudur being built. Other temple which include Mendut, Kalasan and Pawon temples which nowadays become the preserved tourist objects near the city of Yogyakarta also shown how important this kingdom in Buddhist influence many centuries ago. This kingdom which ruled by the kings of Cailendra Dynasty known for its naval power and commercials as well as its unique arts and culture. For example, Chandra Cha-ana which was known as a guide to team singing had been first written in 778 AD.

This Kingdom as according to one of the Pallawa language- stone inscriptions of 732 AD later been replaced by the king of Mataram. The Crivijaya began to fall at the end of 13th Century resulting from severance by its vassal states and also from the frequent attacks by the kingdom of Chola and Majapahit. Crivijaya then fallen into the hand of Majapahit with the help from King Aditiawarman of the Melayu kingdom. Meanwhile, as the Majapahit expansion had moved along Sumatra, the kingdom of Central Java had vanished from historic record for an unknown reason which believed caused by natural disaster or epidemic.

In the island of Bali, the kingdom was ruled by wise and strong ruler which known as King Airlangga. He had water-works built along the Brantas River that are still in use today. Under the rule of Airlanggas, the literature works were flourished. One of the oldest art works which known as Panji are still being written during these day and taught at the Universities in Thailand, Kampuchea and Malaysia.

The Majapahit kingdom grew to become the most powerful empire during that time were the territories had also grown beyond the borders of Champa in Nort Vietnam, Kampuchea, and also Philippines in 1331- 1365 AD. The whole archipelago then being united with the name of Dwipantra under the rule of King Hayam Wuruk of Gajah Mada. During this era, many literature works had been made known which is for example the work known as Negara Ketagama. Part of the work mentioned the diplomatic and economic relationship[ between Majapahit and other Southeast Asian countries including Myanmar, Thailand, Tonkin, Annam, Kampuchea and even India and China. Many literature work during this era had been translated into European language nowadays for the educational purpose.

During 1135- 1157 AD, the King Jayabaya predict the downfall of Indonesia in his book. He mentioned that the country will be ruled by a white race and followed by yellow race. The prediction turned to be trues as later the Dutch colonial conquered the land followed by the Japanese occupation during World War.

3. Period of Islamic kingdom The influence of Islam believed brought by the Indian and Persian merchant in the 13 th Century through the established trade links between the archipelago and India and Persia. As stated in the historical record by Marco Polo during his visits at North Sumatra at the end of 13 th Century, the first Islamic states were already established. Islamic teachings were propagated along with the trade

particularly along the coastal areas of Java, like Demak. The Islamic teachings spread vastly where at the later stage the Hindu kings also being converted to Islam and through the conversion, the influence of Islamic teaching become even more strong. The Muslim Sultan later spread Islam to the west of Indonesia which are from Cirebon and Banten, and also to the east of Indonesia which range from northern cost of Java to the Kingdom of Gresik. This influence later cause the downfall of once a powerful kingdom of Majapahit (1293- 1520) which slowly losing ground. The Hindus then retreated to Bali, where they remain today. After the fall of Majapahit, various sultanates were established which late converse the rest of the islands into Muslim. The sultanate Kingdom is not only found in Java but various Muslim Sultanates can been found scattered around the archipelago. To name a few, Sultanates of Ternate and Tidore in Maluku, Banjarmasin in Borneo, Sumatra, Palembang, Minangkabau, Pasai and also Periak. Located at the present capital city of Indonesia, Sunda Kelapa was the capital of West Java Kingdom of Pajajaran (1300 AD). Later in 1527, the region was conquered by Falatehan and Islamic troop commander under the rule of sultanate of Demak. Sunda Kelapa then renamed into Jaya Karta after the conquest, which bring the meaning of the great city. The name of the present name Jakarta come from this origin. The Islamic teaching had marked a strong influenced in the Archipelago where as in the presents day, 90% of the Indonesian population are Muslims while the rest could be Hindu, Buddha, Christian and other religion. 4. Portuguese, Dutch and British in Indonesia The Portuguese arrived in Indonesia in 1511 in their search of Spices along with their conquest of the Islamic Kingdom of Malacca of Malay Peninsula. Prized for their flavor, spices such as cloves, nutmeg and mace were also believed to cure everything from the plague to venereal disease, and were literally worth their weight in gold. The propagation of Christianity were not successful in the archipelago other than in Maluku island. Later in 1602, the Dutch started their conquest for Indonesian spices which priced very expensive in the European market. The establishment of Dutch East India Company (VOC) purposely done to ensure more efficient and better organized merchant trade will be developed. To protect the merchants fleet from frequent pirate attacks on the high seas, Dutch warships were ordered to accompany it. After the influence from the Dutch become strong, they build their power and several vital territories were became under their control. The agricultural produce are forced to be surrendered to the Dutch merchant. And during this time of colonialism also marked the change of name of Sunda Kelapa into Batavia. After the captured of Ambon in Moluccas (1605) and Banda Island (1623), the Duth had prominently secured the trade monopoly of trade island. The Dutch then introduced the policy of divide

and rule which paralyzed the trading activities between the inter- island as well as the overseas trade. At the same time, the policy that being called as open- door policy being introduce to the Chinese so that they could be the middleman in their trade with Indonesia.

The uninvited conquest done by the Dutch had sparked war between them and the locals. Sultan Hasanuddin of Goa had strike the Dutch in1666 but been defeated which cause the fall of the region to the hand of Dutch. The other strike also been done by Sultan Agung Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo which is the fierce enemy of the Dutch. In 1629 he sent his troops to attack Batavia, but they were repulsed by the troops of Governor General Jan Pieterszoon Coen. The attack from Prince Trunojoyo of Madura also been defeated and the prince being killed during the war.

In 1740 also marked the bad history where ten thousand Chinese were massacred during the rebellion in Jakarta by dissatisfied Chinese and Indonesians. However, the mismanagement and

corruption lead the VOC into bankruptcy and on 1799, all of the territories in Indonesia owned by VOC had been taken over by Dutch Administration in Batavia.

The rulings of British were started in 1814 when they built Fort York in Bengkulu which later renamed into Fort Marlborough. During the occupation of Napoleon army in Holland, Indonesia fell under the rule of British East India Company (1811- 1816). The appointed Liutenant Governor General, Sir Thomas Stanford Raffles had introduced partial self- government to the Indonesia and also abolished the slave trade where during that time, the slaves were captured and trade by foreigner. The introduction of land-tenure system replaced the improper Dutch forced-agricultural system where the crops were grown and surrendered to the authority. Many temples include Borobudur also being reserved and restored. In a book written by Raffles entitled The History of Java, he described about the Java's high civilization and culture.

After the fall of Napoleon and the French retreat from Holland, the British and Holland signed an agreement which the Dutch Colonial will be returned its previous possession of Indonesia in 1815. However, this situation has led too many revolts and the occupancies of Japanese armies during World War and also the spirit of Nationalism later bring the independence to this country.

5. The relationship of history with the food culture of Indonesia. The history has influence the Indonesian food in many ways. The Buddhist and Hindu religion once developed a food pattern for the locals as they banned the consumptionof beef which considered as sacred creation. The cow in Hindu teaching are thought as created by god Brahma at the same time the human were created. The Hindu teaching also have the high respect for life which made them largely a vegetarians. Thus, for the purpose to gain protein for individuals, fish and soy- base product are largely taken rather than chicken and beef. The recipe that based on vegetables also being developed to satisfy the need for food. The knowledge of transforming soy item into distinguishable new item which adapted from Chinese later made the locals created the originally made soy- based item which known as tempe. Tempe is one of the main source of protein for the locals that embraced the principle of Buddhist/ Hindu diets. The first known tempe were recorded on 1815 in the Serat Centhini as stated in book of Centini. Once Islamic teaching spread into this archipelago, the Islamic dietary law also influenced the locals in many ways. The food that considered as halal only can be consumed by the Muslims. Several basic dietary law can be seen as below: 1. Do not eat the flesh of carrion (animal found dead). 2. Do not consume blood in any form. 3. Stay away from all swine. 4. Do not eat food that has been given as an offerings to idols. 5. Do not drink anything that has power to inebriate (alcohol). As most of the Hindu/ Buddha being converted into Islam, the consumption of beef and chicken had marked the introduction of many recipes from those items. Other than that, the arrivals of Muslim merchant also introduced the usage of different herb and spices as well as the introduction of recipes from their own region. For example, sate are believed originated from the beef kebab introduced by the Arabic merchant that come to the Indonesia. The same also happened for the local cow milk based sauce which originated from the middle east yoghurt. Other than that, the introduction of curry from Indian Merchant later became the prominent recipe in the Indonesia. The trade relation between many countries and also the process of colonialization had also introduced the Indonesian to the usage of many herbs and spices. By 100 A.D., curries (spicy sauces), cucumbers, onions, mangoes, and eggplant were brought over by traders and Hindu missionaries from India. Ginger, cumin, cardamom, coriander, and fennel were also introduced, adding to the wide variety of spices. The Portuguese introduced them with cassava and sweet potatoes into the local diet while the

Dutch introduced Cauliflower, cabbage, and turnips. The Spanish influences also being marked in the contribution of peanuts, tomatoes, corn, and the widely popular chili pepper. While the long relationship with Chinese had also influenced the Indonesian cuisine in many ways. The use of tea, noodles, cabbage, mustard, soybeans, and the method of stir-frying largely related to Chinese. The various recipes of fried rice (nasi goreng) also believed first brought by the Chinese before being adapted to the local usage of ingredients. The conquest of Dutch marked the tradition of Rijstafael which literally defined as Rice table. Rijstafael is the festive where elaborate meal of popular food from many regions will be served in a large table with the purpose to enjoy the wide array of dishes at a single setting and also to impress visitors with the exotic abundance of their colony. Even though the rijstafael culture had been abolished from this country parallel to the Nationalism spirit which give rejection to Dutch colonial culture, the influence still could be seen today as in the Padang restaurants as well as in other expensive Indonesian restaurant.