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INTRODUCTION

Sakthi Soyas is a well equipped and only one Soyabean processing industry in South India. It is a division of Sakthi Sugars Limited.,. This company was started in the year 1987. The products produced from Sakthi Soyas are Soyabean Oil, Soyaflour, Texturised vegetable protein and some other by-product. Total daily consumption of Soyabean is around 300 tons and oil production is around 60 tons. Soyabean is legume crop gaining importance as a source of protein and edible oil. Botanical name of Soyabean is Glycine Max. Oil Extracted from Soyabean is rich in protein. It is important in diet, in India, the major Soyabean producing states are Madhapradesh, Uttrapradesh, USA, China Brasil and Argentina are the important Soyabean producing countries. Soyabean Oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. There is much of demand for Soyabean in may Asian countries. In south India Soyabean production is very less when compared to North India Madhyapradesh contributes around 71% and remaining 29% from other states out of these Tamilnadu contributes 4000 metric tonns.

Soyabean contains around 40% of protein this Soyabean protein is used as an ingredient for many food industries like bakery industries etc. This is also used for animal feed, eg: Grounded Soya hulls, Soya meals are used for cattle feed and swine and poulthy production.

ORGANIZATION CHART

Vice Chairman and Managing Director

Vice president

General manager

Am personnel

ManagerAtcs

Manager

Deputy Asst Manager

Asst manager alert inst Chief technician TVP

Security office

Personal Asst Atcs officer staff

Store Keeper Stores asst

Staff in charge QC lab

Shift in charge plant operation

Shift in charge electrical Electrician

Shift in charger TVP

Helpers Qc lab Shift in charge Drivers A/c staff chaser security service Plant operatorsMint workers

Operator

Helpers Helpers Plant helpers

Security guard

SAKTHI GROUP OF COMPANIES SAKTHI THE POWER OF ACTION A simple bullock cart winding its way along a village path Thus began the Sakthi success story. The late P.NACHIMUTHU GOUNDER of Pollachi was just the owner of a bullock cart. The income from the single bullock cart enabled into a strong a bullock carts. In 1921, Division of P.NACHIMUTHU switched over from bullock power to hore power, from cart to car. And a pioneering taxi service was born switching from taxis to buses in 1927, was the next logical step. With in a few years the Anamallai Bus transport network expanded to cover the whole of south India. Bus transport was only a lapping store for manufacturing and marketing product ranging from to synthetic gums. SAKTHI AMUL-FACETED GROUP TO DAY At this juncture N.MAHALINGAM son of P.NACHIMUTHU walled into the business his entry infused frets blood and a new dynamism into the enterprise group come into being and graduate grow in size gaining new commercial industrial and financial facts. Today, the group combos directly or indirectly to more than 13,000 persons and plays a significant role in major industries.

Sakthi is a rapidly expanding group with its eye on pastures. At the same time, it constantly because in mind its social responsibilities and discharges than with dedication. It has set up educational and charitable contributed institutions, to rural hospitals, religious by center etc., any and has

development

providing

document

opportunities to thousands with in the spun of a few decades Sakthi has also become a revered name in south Indian business circles. SAKTHI GROUP OF COMPANIES SAKTHI SUGAR LIMITED It has following four divisions: SUGAR DIVISION Unit I Sakthi Nagar unit Unit II Sivagunga unit Unit III Dheakanal unit Unit IV Badamba unit DISTILLERY DIVISION Unit I Sakthi Nagar unit Unit II Dhenkanal unit Foundry Division Soya Division Textile Division Sri Sakthi Textiles limited Sri Bagavathi Textiles limited 5

TRANSPORT AND ALLIED UNITS The Anamallais Bus Transport Private limited The Gounderd Company The Annamalais Retreading company Anamalais Engineering Sakthi Automobiles N.Mahalingam of company Sunthetic Gems Division Pharamaceutical Division ESTATES Sri Bagavathi Tea Estates limited Sakthi Estates FOUNDRY AND RESEARCH CENTRE Sakthi Foundry Annamalais Foundary Private Limited. FINANCE Sakthi Finance limited BOTTLING PLACES Chennai Botting Company limited Sakthi Soft Driaks limited

SAKTHI-FRIEND PROTECTOR Nachimuthu Industrial Association (NIA) Nachimuthu Gounder Mahaligam College Nachimuthu Polytechnic Kumaraguru College of Technology Sakthi Foundation Sakthi Institute of Technology V.M. Kailasam Hospital Rural Industries Centre Ramalingar Mission SOYA DIVISION Sakthi sugars limited Soya division which is Located near Meenakshipuram is Pollachi Taluk. The organisations lead office is located at racecourse Coimbatore. It has a good turnover is all seasons. By rapid growth its turnover is being increased day by day. It has a wide Business area Network all over India. This Organisational is yet another symbol of excellence.

SAKTHI GROUP Sakthi Soyas Division limited is started by the famous leadings industrialist Arutselver Dr.N.Mahalingam Sakthi groups in 1987 voice chairman and Managing Director of Sakthi Soyas is Mr.Manickam, Excutive manager of Sakthi Soyas is Mr.Palaniyappan, General Manager, personal officer, Deputy manager, Assistant manager, Senior Engineers, plant Engineers, Operators and workers and working in this organisation. The executives are working in general shifts 9 AM to 5.30 PM, supervisors, operators and workers are working in three different sifts timings. The timings for 1st sifts is 6 Am to 2 Pm. II sift 2 Pm to 10 Pm, and III sift 10Pm to 6 Am. The management gives training programme to their executives.

HIERARCHY OF ORGANISATION

Chairman Vice Chairman Chief Executives General Manager Personnel Manager Deputy Manager Assistant Manager Supervisors Operators Workers

PRODUCTION
SOYABEAN VARIETIES CO1, CO 2, KM 1, ADT 1, JS 335, AGS 65, MACS 57, MACS 58, MACS 124, MAUS 2, MACS 450 and MONATO are some of the Soyabean varieties commonly cultivated in India. These varieties are cultivated based on soil type, water availability, climate and duration period etc. CO1 CO 1 is the commonly cultivated variety in TamilNadu. This variety was released by TamilNadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore in the year 1985. This variety can be cultivated at any part of TamilNadu. Duration period of CO 1 is 85-90 days. Average yield of Soyabean in wetland is 800-1000 kg/acre. CO 2 It is also released by TamilNadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. This hybrid variety is obtained from the JS 335 and UGM 21 combination. This variety gives a maximum yield of 1341 kg/acre. The height of this variety is comparatively lesser than the CO 1 variety. KM 1 This variety was released by the Kudimianmalai research institute. It can also be cultivated at any part of Tamil Nadu. Duration of this crop is 90-100 days. It can grow upto 40-45 cm height. Almost this variety

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cannot be affected by insects and diseases. Maximum yield in wet land is 1100 kg/acre. ADT 1 This variety was released by the Aduthurai research institute in the year 1990. This variety is specially cultivated in January February season. Duration of this crop is 85-90 days. Maximum yield in wetland is 1275 kg/acre. This variety contains 30% protein and 29% fat. Soyabean obtained from this variety is tastier one. JS 335 This variety was released by Japalpur research institute. Duration of this crop is 75-85 days. Average is 1000 kg/acre. This variety is cultivated in North India. MACS 450 This variety is commonly cultivated in Maharastra. Average yield of this variety in dryland is 400-600 kg/acre. MONATO Monato is a big size variety compare to other varieties, but the germination is poor one.

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SEED PREPARATION PLANT


INTRODUCTION In the seed preparation plant Soyabeans are prepared to ready for the solvent extraction process. Here two major sections are involved. They are 1. Seed cleaning section. 2. Seed conditioning section. 1. SEED CLEANING SECTION The first step in the commercial processing of Soyabeans is cleaning. Its function is to remove foreign materials such as sticks, stems, leaves, other seeds, sand and dirt. The cleaning should be done carefully, so that the resultant oil will not contaminate with foreign materials. Seed cleaning is the important operation in the preparation of oil bearing materials for extraction. Proper seed cleaning will increased capacity and reduce maintenance in addition to improving oil and meal quality.

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2. SEED CONDITIONING SECTION After the raw material is cleaned, it should be necessary to condition the seed. There are several reasons for doing so. That seed coat contains little or no oil; hence its inclusion would make extraction less efficient. If the hulls are not removed prior to the extraction, they will reduce the total yield of oil by absorbing and retaining oil in the press cake. In addition, their inclusion will reduce the capacity of the extraction plant. Raw oil-bearing materials are usually not used whole, because oil extraction is much more efficient if the starting material is in small particles. So that they go for change the size of the Soyabean. Flakes form of beans is suitable for easy extraction. When seed is flaked, the seed coat is fractured and many oil cells are ruptured, increasing the overall surface/volume ratio enormously. Heating (cooking) is also necessary to combat enzymes in the plant tissues that would have a detrimental effect on the oil quality. If the oilseed cake is to be used for feed or food, controlled, heating may be useful in increasing protein availability in the resultant meal fraction.

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FLOW CHART FOR SEED PREPARATION PLANT


3 Storage (Sylos tank) Weighing Scale Cleaning Seperator Magnetic Seperator 1 Dry Stoner Silo Seperator Classifier Silo

Weighing Scale Cracking Roll Mill 7 Feed Double hull seperator Aspiration Channel Cooker 4 Flaker Foll Mill 5 To solvent extraction plant To packing Cyclone 6

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SOLVENT EXTRACTION PLANT


INTRODUCTION Solvent extraction process is used for low oil content materials like Soyabeans (18-20% oil). Normally hexane is used as a solvent. It is most efficient technique for oil recovery. Oil produced by this method is of high quality, because very little heat treatment is required (boiling point of hexane is around 60C). In addition the resultant meal fraction contains protein that has encountered a minimal amount of deterioration from heat damage. However, there are several disadvantages related to the solvent extraction process: The equipment is more expensive compared to other extraction systems. There is increased danger of fire and explosion unless nonflammable solvents can be used. The risk of dust explosions is higher, since low oil content meal tends to be dusty.

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The direct extraction of raw unheated flakes may contain material that is toxic to nonruminants.

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PLANT PROCESS


(1) EXTRACTOR (OR) CORRUSSEL EXTRACTOR The flakes from the conditioning section are dumped into the extractor which is circular in cross section. It is conveyed by a chain conveyor. There are 18 compartments which are rotated around a central shaft. A hydraulic drive is used to rotate the compartments. This drive is used to vary the speed of rotation. Here the 18 th compartment is an open compartment. The oiled cake will enter in through the first compartment there are 8 pumps to circulate the miscella. Every pump should be preheated to 56-58 C. Thus the oil can be extracted by hexane easily. 8th will be besides the first compartment pump and the 1st pump will be besides the 18th compartment. As the inner shell rotates, each compartment gets filled to 3/4th of its level. The movement of flakes and hexane is sprayed. Fresh hexane is passed to the first pump. The output of the first pump is sucked and given to the inlet of the 2 nd pump. The weak miscella from 7th pump is taken by 8th pump and is sprayed on the oiled cake in the first compartment. The weak miscella absorbs the oil from the cake and comes down. The compartment now moves very slowly and makes contact with the 7th pump which sprays

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the weak miscella taken from the delivery of the 6th pump. The 7th and 8th pump has more amount of oil content and is called as rich mescella.

DTDC The deoiled cake is taken to DTDC. The DTDC comprises of a desolventiser, toaster, drier and cooler. i) DESOL VENTISER Initially the deoiled cake enters into the desolventiser section. The section is maintained at 100C. Due to this high temperature, the hexane gets vapourized from the cake. The evaporated gas enters in to the hexane gas condenser. There is a central shaft which rotates slowly. An arm is attached to the central shaft to mix the meal equally. Desolvenstion is done for 15 minutes using live and jacketed steam. Where 80% of hexane from that is removed. The meal is then sent to the toaster section. ii) TOASTER The toaster does two functions 1. It will separate hexane vapour from the deoiled cake.

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2. It will control unease activity. 3. The chamber is maintained at 100 C, so as to get the desired toasting. The time also plays an important factor to get the desired colour. iii) DRIER AND COOLER The mean is heated to 130 to 150 C by using a heater. Reducing the moisture in the meal. Now the meal is at a high temperature and cannot be packed. So, we use a cooler to reduce the meal temperature. Atmospheric air is supplied to reduce the meal temperature. It is then sent to the packing section.

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FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS The solvent extraction process can be affected by some factors. The factors are, (i) (ii) (iii) Contract time Extractor temperature Material preparation

(i) Contact Time Contact time is the time with in the extractor that the particle of material is actually in contact with the miscella or solvent. Sufficient Contact time is required between the particle of material and each stage of miscella to allow the miscella with in the particle to come into equilibrium with the miscella outside the particle. Contact time is affected by extractor size. Extractor design and material drainage rate. (ii) Extractor temperature The rate at which the solvent and miscella soak into the particle of material and come into equilibrium with the surrounding miscella increases with temperature. Ideally, one would extract just below the initial boiling point of the solvent. Due to the potential safety hazard of rapid vapourization and pressurization within the extractor, the 19

extraction temperature is held safely below the initial boiling point of the solvent. The industry standard extraction temperature is 60C (140 F) for commercial hexane. (iii) Material Preparation The thinner the cross section of the material particle, the faster the solvent and miscella can soak into the particle and come into equilibrium with the surrounding miscella. Also, the more oil cells that are actually ruptured, the more free oil is available to go rapidly into solution with the solvent. Both reducing the cross section of the particle and rupturing oil cells require significant energy consumption in the material preparation process, thus the extraction benefits of these parameters must be carefully balance with energy costs. Another important facet of material preparation is to create particle shapes that stack up in a material bed in such a manner as to allow the solvent to pass through at an adequate rate. The rate is determined by the extractor design and the time and also drainage rate. For example, 0.25mm (0.010) in Soyabean flakes has a maximum miscella flow rate of 1.2 lit/min/m2.

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OIL REFINERY PLANT


INTRODUCTION Vegetable oils are refined in order to remove the impurities that are present in the crude oil. Some of these impurities are naturally present in the seeds, some of the impurities are also formed during harvesting and storage of the seeds, or during extraction of crude oil and subsequently, during its refining. Oil refining processes for vegetable oils are designed to remove these impurities from the crude oil or reduce them to a level. Fats and oils are trimesters of fatty acids and glycerol, commonly called triglycerides. They are insoluble in water but soluble in most organic solvents. The fats and oil had 95% of triglycerides and the rest 5% is non-glyceride components. These non-glyceride components are called as impurities, so that these non-glyceride components should be removed. Effect of gums, phosphatides and mucilaginous substances refined oil. be affected. These would affect the self life of deodorized oil. 21 Act as poison to the catalyst, so hydrogenation reaction will Act as emulsifier, increasing loss of oil. Decompose at high temperature, increasing colour of the

FLOW DIAGRAM FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION PLANT

Flake s fro m S S P C hain conv e yo rs S olve nt E xtra cto r

Flake sD eoiled a ke ( C

M iscella

C h ainC on ve vor D eso lventie ser Flash d eso lven tiser

M isc ella

V a cum re evap o rator p T o aster M eal sep era tion c yclo ne Su per H e ate r V ecu um ost E vap o ra tor p D rie r H e xn e V ap ou r C o ole r Fin es H e x an e gas T w o stage u uom vac Strip ping colu m n s

V ap o ur scrub ber H e x ne V ap ou r

M ea l

C rud e oil

P rocessing C on d en se r C o nd en ser R efin ery p lan t C o n denso r S ilo s

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EFFECT OF FATTY ACIDS soap. REFINING OPERATIONS The object of refining process is to remove the above It increases the foaming character. It decreases the keeping properties of oil. It erodes metals and forms metal soaps. It interferes with hydrogenation process by forming nickel

objectionable impurities with the least possible damage to the natural oil and minimum loss of oil during processing. The following important unit operations are involved in refining process. Degumming Bleaching Filtration Deodorization In Sakthi Soyas the refinery plant has three important sections. They are, (i) (ii) Neutralization Bleaching

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(iii)

Deodorization

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(i) Neutralization Section The crude Soya oil contains phospholipids also known as phosphatides or simply says as gums. These phosphatides are excellent emulsifying agents and hence increase the losses during chemical refining process. We already stated these gums are responsible for lower stability and colour stability in deodorized edible oil. There are two types of gums present in the crude Soya oil. They are (a) Hydratable phosphatides (or) gums (b) Non Hydratable phosphatides (or) gums (ii) Bleaching Section Basic idea of bleaching process is removal of coloured materials present in the degummed oil. Carotenoids and Chlorophy II are the two important colouring materials present in the vegetable Soya oils. Carotenoids have the colour range between yellow to deep red colour. Chlorophy II is the green colouring matter for plants which plays an essential part in the photosynthesis processes. The levels of most of these colouring matter are reduced during the normal bleaching process of oils to give them accessible colour and stability.

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Bleaching process is very important because it affect the expensive of oil, also anyone can judge the quality of oil based on that colour of oil. So the unwanted colour should be removed. Normally activated bleaching earth is used to remove the colour of the Soya oil. (iii) Deodorization Section Deodorization is the final processing stop in the refining of any edible oil. Basically it is a vacuum-steam distillation at elevated temperature during which free fatty acids and volatile odoriferous components are removed in order to obtain a bland and odorless oil. Additionally, certain carotenoids pigments are destroyed resulting in a heat bleaching effect. The flavour and oxidative stability of the oil are increased by removal of dour and flavour compounds and by tharmal decomposition of peroxides. Deodorization is essentially a steam distillation process and steam is used as a carrier due to following reasons.

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EDIBLE FLOUR PLANT


PROCESS In the edible flour plant the deoiled flakes are grinded into fine particles. The deoiled flakes from toaster are conveyed into 4 silos. From the soil flakes are taken to Hammer mill for grinding. Hammer mill rotates at a speed of 2890 rpm. The deoiled flakes are grinded in to fine flour. The grinded flours are taken to shifter through up cyclones with rotary lock and blower assembly. In the shifter sieves of suitable mesh size are placed. With the help of sieves fines and course are separated. The separated fine particles are taken to packing ails. While particle are recycled to hammer mill. In spite of hammer mill air classifier mill (ACM) can also be utilized. It mainly used for high PDI flakes. The ACM consists of main motor, fed rod motor, classified motor and jet filter with blower assemble. The flakes from silo are grinded by main motor and fines are separated by classifier motor. The fine particles are discharged at bottom of jet filter for packing with the help of air lock. Grinding can also be carried out in roller mill. Main purpose of roller mill is to separate out the hulls. There are many as six roller mill with different breaks. Flakes from silo are taken to roller mill where they are grinded into different granules. The grinded flour are passed to shifter. The fines are taken to packing silo and sent for pack and course are sent for further grinding.

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TVP PLANT
INTRODUCTION TVP means Texturised Vegetable Protein. It is rich in protein and also a cheaper source of protein. It has the characteristics same like as meat. Its purely a vegetarian food. So, vegetarians like so much of this food. Also it is easily digestable. PROCESS This high protein dispersibility index (HPDI) flour from edible flour plant is stored in silo. Its capacity is about 2 tones. Then it is passed to mixer where lemon yellow powder of 0.50% is added and mixed well. Then it is conveyed to spreader through screw conveyor and passes through extruder where 30% of water is added to the flour. Extrusion cooking is the unit operation involved in the extruder. Extruded foods have their own texture. The texture is primarily controlled by the moisture content left in the product during the extrusion process. The flavour of extruded products can be controlled and new flavours are easily developed using heat stable flavours or seasonings. Extrusion of foods aids in making the extruded food more digestible, as the starch granule is completely ruptured and gelatinized by combination of moisture, heat, pressure and mechanical shear. Due 28

to high temperature used in estruding, the TVP food is completely sterilized, cooked and ready for consumption. PACKING In the packing section pouch packing machine is used to pack the finished products. Here two types of products are packed. One is Texturised Soya Chunk for this chunks packing only, the machine is used. in the machine they pack 200 gms quantity packs as 16 numbers per minute. For 2kg packs, they go for manual packing. The another product is TVS flakes. It means sliced Soya chunks. These sliced chunks are manually packed. This TVP flakes are exported to Malaysia around 40 tones. Also both the two products are exported to France and Singapore.

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BY PRODUCTS FROM SOYAEAN


Soya hulls, lecithin, acid oil are the main by products obtained from Soyabean processing industries. There by products are havings good market value. 1. SOYA HULLS Soya hulls are the by-products obtained from seed preparation plant. Soya beans have 5 6% of hulls. There Soya hulls are grounded according to our requirement and it is gone for marketing. In food industries, Soyabean hulls are seed as a rich source of highly bio available dietary iron for bread enrichment and supplement and also serve as a good dietary fibre source. Also these hulls are mainly used for cattle feed, poultry and swine production. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF SOYA HULLS Soyabean hulls are having around 67% fibre (cellulose and hemicellulose). It has 12.2% crude protein Highly digestible in rumen, because of low lignin content.

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2. LECITHIN Lecithin is a product that collectively refers to all the water-soluble materials or gums that are separated from Soya crude oil by the degumming process and are retained after the gums are dried. The water-soluble gums collected having 35% initial moisture content, are dried in a thin film vaccum drier. Vaccum maintained in this thin film vaccum drier 600mm Hg. One agitator is provided for uniform drying. The gums are dried up to 2% as the final moisture content. To reduce the colour, lecithin is reacted with hydrogen perodide. APPLICATIONS OF LECITHIN Lecithin is used in chocolate to reduce viscosity during tempering to improve the coating and filling properties of chocolate. Lecithin is used in margarines and spreads to improve the dispersion of water in fat. Because of lecithin s emulsification properties, lecithin can reduce the surface tension between the water phase and oil phase when they are added together during the production of margarine and spread. 1% lecithin in backing shortenings can effectively enhance the emulsifying and aeration properties.

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Lecithin is commonly used in anti stick sprays that are applied to backing pans, trays or belts to reduce the backed products for sticking to the metal. Lecithin is used to disperse pigments and reduce paint viscosity. 3. ACID OIL Soap stock is a by product obtained form caustic refining process in refinery. This soap stock is used to produce acid oil. The collected soap stock is heated up to 900C by using steam. Then sulphuric acid is added to neutralize the soap stock. After the addition it will be allowed for settling. The remaining water is drained out. The acid oil has the final moisture content of 2% APPLICATIONS Soap stock is a good source of non edible fatty acids which can be used to supplement animal feed. Soap stock can support microbial growth and will ferment The dried soap stock/ acid oil is a good source for industrial fatty acids in soap industries

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dried one.

There is no microbial activity in the acid oil, because it is a

OTHER BY PRODUCTS Free fatty acids, sterols, tecopherols and tocotrienols are the by products obtained from the decolourisation process in the refinery. There are commonly called as deodouriser distillates. Also these distillates are having greater commercial value. Isolation of these components is needs lot of money to install the equipments. In Sakthi Soyas there is no equipments to isolate these components.

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MOTIVATION
The term motivation can be traced to the Latin word Movere, which means to More. Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological behaviour or psychological or a deficiency drive or need that activates is aimed

that

at a goal or incentive. - Fred Luthans The process that account for an individuals intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal P.Robbins Motivation Process Stephen

Needs

Drives

Incentives

Needs set up drives aimed at incentives. Motivation consists of these three interacting and interdependent elements. Needs

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Needs

are

created

whenever

there

is

physiological

or

psychological in balance. An unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates driver with in the individuals. These drives generate a search behavior to find particular goals if attained, will satisfy the need and lead to the reduction of tension. Drives With a few exception, drives or motives are setup to alleviate needs. A physiological drive can be simply defined as a deficiency with direction physiological and psychological drives are action oriented. Incentives An incentive is defined as anything that will alleviate need and reduce a drive. Thus, attaining an incentive will tend to restore physiological or physiological balance and will reduce tension. A MOTIVATIING SITUATION

MOTIVE (hunger) BEHAVIOUR GOAL (Food)

GOAL DIRECTED (preparing good)

GOAL ACTIVITY (Eating good)

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FACTORS INFLUENCING INDIVIDUAL MOTIVATION


ATTITUDES

GOALS MOTIVATION

BELIEFS

NEEDS

VALUS

THEARIES OF MOTIVATION Maslows Need Hierachy Theory Herzbergs Motivation Hygiene Theory Or Two Factor Theory Alderfors Erg Theory Mc clellands need theory Vrooms expenctancy theory of motivation Attribation Theory J.stacy adams equity theory Reinforcement Theory Theory x and Theory y Goal setting Theory

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HERZBERGS TWO FACTOR THEORY Herzberg extended the work of maslow and developed a specific content theory of work motivation. He concluded a widely reported motivational study on about 200 accountants and engineers. The professional subjects in the study were assentially asked 2 questions. 1. When did you feel particularly good about your job? What turned you on? 2. when did you feel exceptionally bad about your job? What turned you off? Respondents obtained from this critical incident method were fairly consistent. Reported good feelings were generally associated with job experiences and job content. Reported bad feelings on the other hand were generally associated with the surrounding aspects of the job context. Tabulating these reported good and bad feelings, Herzberg concluded that job satisfies are related to job content and dissatisfiers are related to job context. Herzberg labled the satisfiers motivators and he called the dissatisfiers Hygiene factors they become together known as herzberg two factory theory.

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There are Ten Hygine and Six Motivational Factors

S.N Hygiene Factors (or) Dissatisfiers o. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Company policy and administration Technical Supervisors Inter personal relationship with supervisors Interpersonal relationship with peers Interpersonal relationship with subordinates Salary Job security Personal Eye Working Conditions Status

Motivators (or) Satisfiers 1. Achievement 2. Recognition 3. Advancement 4. Work itself 6. Responsibility

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Motivation energies the behaviour of the people, while behaviour of the people activates action. It is not merely enough to attract exployees to an organization, but it is also important that managers motivates their employees to perform well and keep them interested in remaining in the organization and motivate them to contribute beyond their routine performance. Motivation tools are things, which includes an individual to all, perform and behave in a way the motivator wants.

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OBJECTIVES
1) To study and understand the motivational pattern among the employees. 2) To determine the number of employees motivated by job content. 3) To study and understand the relationship if any between motivational pattern and age group, monthly Income, educational qualification, marital status and gender etc. 4) To offer suggestions to management to improve the level of motivation among the employees of Sakthi Sugars Limited., (Soya Division)

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology is a careful investigation or inquiry through search for new facts in the any branch of knowledge. It is way to solve research problem systematically. Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organising and evaluating data, making deduction and research conclusion and at last carefully testing the conclusion to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. 1. Aim of the project work The aim of the work is to study the employees motivation level in Sakthi Sugars Limited., (Soya division) 2. Data Collection In the survey in order to meet the objectives of the study data is being collected either in form of internal or external data. Internal data are generated by marketing, accounting and production department and external are two types. Clifford Woody

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a. Primary data primary data are those collected specifically by the users. As the original data from each respondent are available they can be tabulated or re-analysed in different ways. In this research primary data is collected by survey method. Structured questionnaires were used to collect the data from the respondents. b. Secondary Data Secondary data consists of information that has been collected by someone other than the researcher. Researchers usually start the investigation by examining secondary data which provides a starting point for researcher. In this research study the secondary data is collected from the discussions with concerned members in the organisation and from various forms of company projects, text books etc., 3. Research Design Research design is the frame work or plan which helps in the collection, measurement and analysis of data, research design helps in the smooth sailing of research operations by making the efficiency.

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a. Sample Size The sample size taken for the survey is 100, simple random sampling method is used. b. sample unit: Among the 100 respondents the survey is being conducted in various departments of the company (such as purchase, storage, packing, cleaning, etc). c. Sampling Technique There are two types of sampling techniques. i. Probability Sampling Probability sampling is also known as random sampling or chance sampling. Under this sampling design, every item of the universe has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample. ii. Non Probability Non probability sampling is the sampling procedure which does not afford any basis for estimating the probability that each item in the population has of being included in the sample.

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In this research study the probability sampling is used. The sampling method is used for the survey is simple random sample. 4. Sampling tools The chi-square test and Anova two way classifications are used as a statistical tools to analyse the data

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LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The following are the some of the Limitations of the Study 1. The study was taken only in Sakthi Sugars Limited., (Soya Division). Hence the findings of the study will be applicable to

Sakthi Sugars Limited., (Soya Division) only. 2. Due to time constraints the survey has been made among 100 respondents only. 3. The findings of the study are purely based on the opinion of the respondents so, it may be biased. 4. The study was conducted only at employees level and it is not covered the employers.

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TABLE - 1 RESPONDENTS BASED ON AGE GROUP

S.N o 1 2 3 4 5

Age group

No. of Respondent s 3 15 23 27 22 100

% of respondents 3 15 23 27 22 100 Sample

Below 30 31 35 36 40 41 45 Above 45 Total

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is founded that 27% of the respondents belongs to the age group between 41 - 45, 23% of the respondents belongs to the age group between 36 - 40, 22% of the respondents belongs to the age of above 45, 15% of the respondents belongs to the age group between 31 - 35, and 3% of the respondents belongs to the age below 30.

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TABLE - 2 RESPONDENTS BASED ON GENDER

S.N o 1 2

Gender

No. of Respondent s 100 0 100

% of respondents 100 0 100 Sample

Male Female Total

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is founded that 100% of the respondents are male and there is no female respondents.

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TABLE - 3 MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS

S.N o 1 2

Marital Status Married Unmarried Total

No. of Respondents 78 22 100

% of respondents 78 22 100 Sample size

Source : Primary data : 100 Inference

It is traced out from the above table, 78% of the respondents are married and 22% of respondents are unmarried.

48

TABLE - 4 MONTHLY INCOME OF THE RESPONDENTS

S.N o 1 2 3 4 5

Monthly Income Below 10000 10001 - 20000 20001 - 30000 30001 - 40000 Above 40000 Total

No. of Respondent s 5 24 39 22 10 100

% of respondents 5 24 39 22 10 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is traced out that 39% of the respondents are earning income of Rs. 20001 - 30000, 24% of the respondents are earning income of Rs. 10001 - 20000, 22% of the respondents are earning the income of

Rs. 30001 40000, 10% of the respondents are earning the income of

49

above 40000 and 5% of the respondents are earning the income below 10000.

50

TABLE - 5 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS

S.N o 1 2 3

Educational Qualification Diploma Graduation Post graduation Total

No. of Respondent s 19 34 47 100

% of respondents 19 34 47 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is traced out that 47% of the respondents are post graduates, 34% of the respondents are graduates and 19% of the respondents are diploma holders.

51

TABLE - 6 MONTHLY SALARY OF THE RESPONDENTS

S.N o 1 2 3 4

Monthly Salary Below 2000 2001 - 4000 4001 - 8000 Above 8000 Total

No. of Respondent s 12 24 36 28 100

% of respondents 12 24 36 28 100

Source : Primary data Sample size : 100 Inference : From the above table, It is traced out that 36% of the respondents are earning salary of Rs. 4001 - 8000, 28% of the respondents are earning the salary of above 8000, 24% of the respondents are earning the salary of Rs. 2001 - 4000 and 12% of the respondents are earning the salary below 2000.

52

TABLE - 7 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT THEIR JOB

S.N o 1 2 3 4

Opinion Highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Total

No. of Respondent s 36 42 22 0 100

% of respondents 36 42 22 0 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, It is traced out that 42% of the respondents are satisfied with their job, 36% of the respondents are highly satisfied with their job, 22% of the respondents are dissatisfied with their job and no one else are highly dissatisfied with their job.

53

TABLE - 8 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT PROMOTIONS OBTAINED

S.N o 1 2

Promotions Obtained Yes No Total

No. of Respondent s 67 33 100

% of respondents 67 33 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is traced out that 67% of the respondents have obtained promotions and remaining 33% of the respondents have not obtained any promotions.

54

CHART 1 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT PROMOTIONS OBTAINED

33%

67%
Yes No

55

TABLE 9 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT JOB INSECURITY

S.N o 1 2 3

Opinion Most of the time Some time Occasionally Total

No. of Respondent s 19 39 42 100

% of respondents 19 39 42 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

It is traced out from the above table, 42% of the respondents feel they lose their job security occasionally, 39% of the respondents feel they lose their job security in sometimes and 19% of the respondents feel that they lose their job security in most of the times.

56

TABLE - 10 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT INCENTIVE SYSTEM IN A COMPANY

S.N o 1 2 3 4

Incentive system Excellent Good Fair Poor Total

No. of Respondent s 37 28 19 16 100

% of respondents 37 28 19 16 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is traced out that 37% of the respondents have an excellent opinion about Incentive system, 28% of the respondents have good opinion about incentive system, 19% of the respondents have fair opinion about incentive system and 16% of the respondents have poor opinion about incentive system.

57

TABLE -11 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT SALARY

S.N o 1 2

Salary Satisfied Dissatisfied Total

No. of Respondent s 32 68 100

% of respondents 32 68 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is traced out that 68% of the respondents are dissatisfied with their salary and remaining 32% of the respondents are satisfied with their salary.

58

CHART - 2 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT SALARY

80 Percentage of the Respondents 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Satisfied Opinion Dissatisfied 32 68

59

TABLE - 12 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT FINANCIAL REWARDS FOR THEIR EXCELLENT PERFORMANCE

S.N o 1 2

Financial Rewards Yes No Total

No. of Respondent s 34 66 100

% of respondents 34 66 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is traced out that 66% of the respondents never get any financial rewards for their performance and 34% of the respondents have got financial rewards for their excellent performance.

60

TABLE - 13 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT BONUS RECEIVED IN A COMPANY

S.N o 1 2

Bonus received Yes No Total

No. of Respondent s 100 0 100

% of respondents 100 0 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100

Inference : From the above table, it is traced out that 100% of respondents have received bonus in a company.

61

TABLE - 14 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT LOANS PROVIDED BY THE COMPANY

S.N o 1 2

Loans provided Yes No Total

No. of Respondent s 39 61 100

% of respondents 39 61 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is traced out that 61% of the respondents have not received loan and 39% of the respondents have received loan.

62

TABLE - 15 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT COMPANY PERFORMANCE EVALUATION SYSTEM

S.N o 1 2

Evaluation system Satisfied Dissatisfied Total

No. of Respondent s 48 52 100

% of respondents 48 52 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is inferred that 52% of the respondents are dissatisfied with their evaluation system and 48% of the respondents are satisfied with their evaluation system.

63

TABLE - 16 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT EMPLOYEES RECOGNITION

S.N o 1 2

Opinion Satisfied Dissatisfied Total

No. of Respondent s 76 24 100

% of respondents 76 24 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is traced out that 76% of the respondents are satisfied with the employees recognition, remaining 24% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the employees recognition.

64

CHART 3 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT EMPLOYEES RECOGNITION

80 Percentage of the Respondents 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

76

24

Satisfied Opinion

Dissatisfied

65

TABLE - 17 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT INCREMENTS AND PROVIDENDFUND PROVIDED BY THE COMPANY

S.N o 1 2 3 4

Opinion Excellent Good Fair Poor Total

No. of Respondent s 14 29 47 10 100

% of respondents 14 29 47 10 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is traced out that 47% of the respondents have fair opinion about Increments and providend fund, 29% of the respondents have good opinion about increments and providend fund, 14% of the respondents have an excellent opinion about increments and providend fund and 10% of the respondents have poor opinion about increments and providend fund provided. 66

TABLE 18 JOB EXPECTATION OF THE RESPONDENTS

S.N o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Job expectations Good salary Job Security Allowances Challenging work Good working condition Future supervision Good supervision Participation in management Total

No. of Respondent s 23 15 11 7 11 5 12 16 100

% of respondents 23 15 11 7 11 5 12 16 100

Source : Primary data Sample size : 100 Inference : From the above table, 23% of the respondents expecting good salary, 16% of the respondents expecting participation in management, 15% of the respondents expecting job security, 12% of the respondents expecting good supervision, 11% the respondents expecting good working condition, 11% of the respondents expecting allowances, 7% of

67

the respondents expecting challenging work and 5% of the respondents expecting future supervision.

TABLE - 19 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKERS AND MANAGEMENTS

S.N o 1 2 3 4

Opinion Excellent Good Fair Poor Total

No. of Respondent s 48 32 14 6 100

% of respondents 48 32 14 6 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is shown that 48% of the respondents have an excellent opinion about the relationship between workers and management, 32% of the respondents have good opinion about the

68

relationship between works and management, 14% of the respondents have fair opinion about the relationship between works and

management and 6% of the respondents have poor opinion about the relationship between works and management.

CHART 4 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKERS AND MANAGEMENT

48 50 Percentage of the Respondents 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Excellent Good Opinion Fair Poor 6 14 32

69

TABLE - 20 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT WORKING CONDITION

S.N o 1 2 3 4

Opinion Highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Total

No. of Respondent s 26 42 19 13

% of respondents 26 42 19 13

100

100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is traced out that 42% of the respondents are satisfied with their working condition, 26% of the respondents are highly satisfied with their working condition, 19% of the respondents are dissatisfied with their working condition and 13% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied with their working condition.

70

TABLE - 21 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT SATISFACTION OF COMPANY SUPERVISION

S.N o 1 2 3 4

Company supervisi on Excellent Good Fair Poor Total

No. of Respondent s 16 27 38 19 100

% of respondents 16 27 38 19 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is traced out that 38% of the respondents have fair opinion about company supervision, 27% of the respondents have good opinion about company supervision, 19% of the respondents have poor opinion about company supervision and 16% of the respondents have an excellent opinion about company supervision.

71

TABLE 22 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT KINDS OF SUPERVISION

S.N o 1 2 3

Supervision Autocratic leader Participative leader Free - rien leader Total

No. of Respondents 12 47 41 100

% of respondents 12 47 41 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is traced out that 47% of the respondents prefer participative leader, 41% of the respondents prefer Free - rien leader and 41% of the respondents prefer autocratic leader.

72

TABLE - 23 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT COMPANY POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION

S.N o 1 2 3 4

Policy and administr ation Excellent Good Fair Poor Total

No. of Respondent s 32 47 21 0 100

% of respondents 32 47 21 0 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is traced out that 47% of the respondents have good opinion about policy and administration, 32% of the respondents have an excellent opinion about policy and administration, 21% of the respondents have fair opinion about policy and

administration and no one else have poor opinion about policy and administration.

73

TABLE - 24 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT RELATIONSHIP WITH CO - WORKERS

S.N o 1 2 3 4

Opinion Highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Total

No. of Respondents 44 31 23 2

% of respondents 44 31 23 2

100

100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 Inference :

From the above table, it is traced out that 44% of the respondents are highly satisfied with their co - workers relationship, 31% of the respondents are satisfied with their co-workers relationship, 23% of the respondents are dissatisfied with their co-workers relationship and 2% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied with their co-workers

relationship.

74

TABLE -25 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS

S.N o. 1 2 3

Motivational Factor Monetary Non Monetary Both Total

No. of Respondents 28 32 40 100

% of Respondents 28 32 40 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100

Inference : From the above table, it is traced out that 40% of the respondents need both monetary (Such as equal wage rates, pension plan, bonus) and nonmonetary (Such as promotion, pleasant job, job security), 32%of the respondents need nonmonetary and 28% of the respondents need monetary

75

CHART 5 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS

45 Percentage of the respondents 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Monetary Non Monetary Opinion Both


28 32 40

76

TABLE -26 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT WORKERS PARTICIPATION IN MANAGEMENT

S.N o. 1 2 3 4

Opinion Excellent Good Fair Poor Total

No. of Respondents 27 39 23 11 100

% of Respondents 27 39 23 11 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100

Inference : From the above table, it is traced out that 39% of the respondents have good opinion about participation in management, 27% of the respondents have an excellent opinion about participation in

management, 23% of the respondents have fair opinion about participation in management and 11% of the respondents have poor opinion about participation in management.

77

TABLE 27 CHI SQUARE TEST RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SALARY AND AGE GROUP Salary Age Below 30 31 - 35 36 - 40 41 - 45 Above 46 Total 100 (Oij - Eij )2 ----------------Eij Row total x column total -------------------------------------------Grand total Observed frequency Expected frequency Satisfied 0 4 9 13 6 26 Not satisfi ed 3 11 14 24 16 42 3 15 23 37 22 13 Sample size : Total

Source : Primary data

x2

Expected Frequency = Where O E Ho group =

There is no significant relationship between salary and age

78

Ha group

There is a significant relationship between salary and age

O 7 11 9 14 13 24 6 16

E 7.8 10.20 7.36 15.64 11.84 25.16 7.04 14.96

(O E) -0.8 0.8 1.64 -1.64 1.16 -1.16 -1.04 1.04 = = =

(O -E)2 (O -E)2/E 0.64 0.0820 0.64 0.627 2.69 0.654 2.69 0.1719 1.35 0.1136 1.35 0.0536 1.08 0.1536 1.08 0.0721 2 (O- E) /E = 1.0749 (n - 1) = 7 14.067 1.0749 1.0749< 14.067

Degree of freedom V Table value at 5% significant level Calculated value

Inference: Calculated value is less than the table value so H0 accepted we concluded that there is no significant relationship between salary and age group.

79

TABLE 28 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT THE COMPANY SUPERVISION AND EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION

Company Supervision Educational Qualification Diploma Graduation Post Graduation Total Source : Primary data size : 100 (Oij - Eij )2 -----------------Eij Row total x column total -------------------------------------------Grand total Observed frequency Expected frequency Excelle nt Goo Fair Poo r Tot al

0 9 7 16

1 7 19 27

17 3 18 38

1 15 3 19

19 34 47 100

Sample

x2

Expected Frequency = Where O E

80

Ho Ha

= =

There is no significant relationship between company supervision and educational qualification There is a significant relationship between company supervision and educational qualification

O 18 10 10 15 7 19 21

E 15.39 9.05 22.1 6.46 7.52 12.69 26.79

(O -E) 2.61 0.95 -12.1 8.54 -0.52 6.31 -5.79 22.8163

(O -E)2 6.81 0.90 146.41 72.93 0.270 39.81 33.52

(O -E)2/E 0.3783 0.994 6.6249 11.2895 0.0359 3.1371 1.2512

(O- E)2/E =

Degree of freedom V Table value at 5% significant level Calculated value

= = =

(n - 1)= 6 12.592 22.8163 22.8163 > 12.592

Inference: Calculated value is greater than the table value so Ha the accepted we concluded that there is a significant relationship between company supervision and educational qualification.

81

TABLE 29 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROMOTIONS OBTAINED AND AGE GROUP

Promotions Obt ained Age Group Below 30 31 35 36 40 41 - 45 Above 46 Total Source : Primary data 100 x
2

Yes

No

Total

2 11 17 23 14 67

1 4 6 14 8 33

3 15 23 37 22 100 Sample size :

(Oij - Eij )2 -----------------Eij Row total x column total -------------------------------------------Grand total Observed frequency Expected frequency

Expected Frequency = Where O E Ho = obtained

There is no significant relationship between promotions and age group 82

Ha = obtained

There is a significant relationship between promotions and age group O 14 21 6 23 14 14 8 E 13.05 20.36 7.59 24.8 12.21 14.74 7.26 (O -E) 0.95 -5.36 -1.59 -1.8 1.79 -0.74 0.74 (O -E)2 0.9025 28.7296 2.5281 3.24 3.2041 0.5476 0.5476 (O- E)2/E Degree of freedom V = = = (n - 1) = 6 12.592 2.316 2.316< 12.592 (O -E)2/E 0.06916 1.4111 0.3308 0.1306 0.2624 0.0372 0.0754 = 2.316

Table value at 5% significant level Calculated value

Inference: Calculated value is less than the table value so H0 accepted we concluded that there is no significant relationship between promotions obtained and age group.

83

TABLE 30 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKING CONDITION AND AGE GROUP Working condition Age group Below 30 31 35 36 40 41 - 45 Above 46 Total Highly satisfi ed 0 2 9 11 4 26 Satisfi e d 3 7 3 13 16 42 Dissatisfi ed Highly dissatisfi ed 0 5 3 4 1 13 Total

0 1 8 9 10 19

3 15 23 37 22 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 x


2

(Oij - Eij )2 ----------------Eij Row total x column total -------------------------------------------Grand total Observed frequency Expected frequency

Expected Frequency = Where O E

84

Ho = There is no significant relationship between working condition and age group. Ha and = There is a significant relationship between working condition age group. E 6.9 6.30 4.8 5.98 14.03 12.61 15.54 7.03 10.53 16.28 (O -E) -1.9 0.7 1.2 3.02 -3.03 1.39 -2.54 1.97 -2.53 1.72 (O -E)2 3.61 0.49 1.44 9.12 9.18 1.932 6.452 3.881 6.401 2.958 (O -E)2/E 0.5231 0.778 0.3 1.5251 0.6544 0.1532 0.4152 0.5521 0.6079 0.1817

O 5 7 6 9 11 14 13 9 8 18

(O- E)2/E = 4.9905 Degree of freedom V Table value at 5% significant level Calculated value Inference: Calculated value is less than the table value so H0 the accepted we concluded that there is no significant relationship between working condition and age group. = = = (n 1) 16.919 4.9905 4.9905 < 16.919 =9

85

TABLE 31 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKERS AND MANAGEMENT BASED ON SALARY

Opinion Salary Below 2000 2000 - 4000 4000 - 8000 Above 8000 Total

Excellen t 1 8 29 10 48

Good 0 16 1 15 32

Fair 7 0 5 2 14

Poor 4 0 1 1 6

Total 12 24 36 28 100 Sample

Source : Primary data size : 100 (Oij - Eij )2 -----------------Eij Row total x column total -------------------------------------------Grand total Observed frequency Expected frequency

x2

Expected Frequency = Where O E

86

Ho Ha

= =

There is no significant relationship between workers and management based on salary. There is a significant relationship between workers and management based on salary.

O 8 12 16 29 7 10 18

E 11.28 12.24 7.68 22.08 18.72 13.44 14.56

(O -E) -3.28 -0.24 8.32 6.92 -11.72 -3.44 3.44 21.1713

(O -E)2 10.7584 0.0576 69.2244 47.8864 137.3584 11.8336 11.8336

(O -E)2/E 0.9538 0.0047 9.01333 2.1688 7.3375 0.8805 0.8127

(O- E)2/E=

Degree of freedom V Table value at 5% significant level

= =

(n - 1) = 6 12.592 21.1713 21.1713 > 12.592

Calculated value =

Inference: Calculated value is greater than the table value so Ha accepted we concluded that there is a significant relationship between workers and management based on salary.

87

TABLE - 32 RESPONDENTS OPINION ABOUT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB AND SALARY Job Salary Below 2000 2000 - 4000 4000 - 8000 Above 8000 Total Highly satisfi ed 2 4 13 17 36 9 18 4 11 42 Satisfi e d Highly dissatisfi ed 0 0 0 0 0 12 24 36 28 100 Total

Dissatisfi ed 1 2 19 0 22

Source : Primary data Sample size : 100 x2 = (Oij - Eij)2 ------------------Eij Row total x column total -------------------------------------------Grand total Observed frequency Expected frequency

Expected Frequency = Where O E

88

Ho Ha

= =

There is no significant relationship between job and salary There is a significant relationship between job and salary

O 11 5 18 15 23 17 11

E 9.36 11.28 10.08 18.24 25.04 10.08 17.92

(O -E) 1.64 -6.28 7.92 -3.24 -0.04 6.92 -6.92

(O -E)2 2.6896 39.4384 62.7264 10.4976 0.0016 45.8104 47.8864 (O- E)2/E

(O -E)2/E 0.2874 3.4993 6.2229 0.5755 0.00006 4.5447 2.6722 = 17.7991

Degree of freedom V Table value at 5% significant level Calculated value

= = =

(n - 1) = 6 12.592 17.7991 17.7991 >12.592

Inference: Calculated value is greater than the table value so Ha accepted we concluded that there is a significant relationship between job and salary.

89

TABLE - 33 TABLE SHOWS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OPINION OF WORK AND AGE GROUP Opinion of work Age group Below 30 31 35 36 40 41 45 Above 46 Total Excellen t 0 3 7 12 14 36 Good 2 8 11 18 3 42 Fair 1 2 4 7 2 16 Poor 0 2 1 0 3 6 Total 3 15 23 37 22 100

Source : Primary data Sample size : 100 (Oij - Eij )2 --------------------Eij Row total x column total ------------------------------------------Grand total Observed frequency Expected frequency

x2

Expected Frequency = Where O E

90

Ho and Ha and

= =

There is no significant relationship between opinion of work age group There is a significant relationship between opinion of work age group O 6 10 9 11 5 12 18 7 14 8 E 8.4 8.7 9.18 9.66 5.06 13.32 15.54 8.14 7.92 14.08 (O -E) -2.4 1.3 -0.18 1.34 -0.06 -1.32 2.46 -1.14 6.08 -6.08 (O -E)2 5.76 1.69 0.0324 1.7956 0.0036 1.7424 6.0516 1.2996 36.9664 36.9664 (O- E)2/E = Degree of freedom V = = = (n - 1) = 9 16.919 9.043 9.043 < 16.919 (O -E)2/E 0.6857 0.1943 0.0035 0.1859 0.0007 0.1308 0.3894 0.1597 4.6675 2.6255 9.043

Table value at 5% significant level Calculated value

Inference : Calculated value is less than the table value so H0 accepted we concluded that there is no significant relationship between opinion of work and age group.

91

TABLE 34 ANOVA TWO WAY CLASSIFICATION TABLE SHOWS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OPINION OF WORK AND INCOME LEVEL Ho : There is no significant relationship between opinion of work and level.

Income Ha :

There is a significant relationship between opinion of work and level.

Income

Opinion of work Income Level Below 10000 10000-20000 20000-30000 30000-40000 Above 40000 Total

Excelle nt

Good

Fair

Poor

Total

4 11 13 12 0 36
2

3 8 26 3 2 42

2 4 0 7 3 16

0 1 0 0 5 6

5 24 39 22 10 100

T Step 1 : Correction factor = -------n T = 100 n=20 T2 Step 2 : xij2 = -------- = 500 n Total SS =(0 + 9+ 4 + 0 + 121+ 64 + 16 + 1 + 169 + 676 + 144 + 9 + 49 + 4 + 9 + 25) - 500 = 800

92

Step 3: SS between Columns = ---- = 183.2 36 x 36 --------5 42x42 + -------5 5 16x16 6x6 T2 + ---------- + ---------- 5 n

Step 4 : SS between row 5x5 24x24 39x39 22x22 10x10 ----------- + ----------- + ------------ + -------- + --------4 4 4 4 4 n T2 - -------

= = 176.75

Step 5 : SS residual or error Total SS (SS between columns + SS between rows) = 800 (183.2 + 176.75) = 440.45 Source of Variation Between Columns Degree of freedom (C-1) = 3 5% F-limit (or the table value) F (3,12) = 3.49

SS 183. 2

MS 183.2/3 = 61.066

F-ratio 61.066/36.7 04 = 1.6637 44.187/36.7 04

Between Rows

176. 75

(r-1) = 4

176.75/ 4

F (4,12) = 3.26

=44.187 = 1.2038 Residual error 440. 45 (c-1) x (r-1) 440.45/ = 12 12 =36.704

93

Total Inference:

800

19

Between calculated value of F is 1.6637 which is less than the table value of 3.49at 5% significant level with degree of freedom being V1 = 3 and V2 = 12, so the analysis support the null hypothesis. Between calculated value of F is 1.2038 which is less than the table value of 3.26 at 5% significant level with degree of freedom being V1 = 4 and V2 = 12 so the analysis support null hypothesis. We conclude that there is no significant relationship between opinion of work and income level.

94

FINDINGS
An attempt is made to study the motivation among the employees of Sakthi Sugars Ltd (Soya Division). The survey had been conducted among the hundred respondents in the Sakthi Sugars Ltd (Soya Division) company, from that it is observed that twenty seven percentage of the respondents belongs to the age group of forty one to forty five and twenty two percent of the respondents belongs to the age group of above forty five. so the company have highly experienced employees. The survey result among the hundred percentage of the respondents gives there is no female respondents so hundred percentage of the respondents are male. Among the hundred respondents thirty nine percentage of the respondents are earning monthly income of rupees twenty thousand and ten percentage of the respondents are earning monthly income of above forty thousand. Among the hundred respondents forty two percentage of the respondents are satisfied with their job mainly because of their good relationship between their workers and management and job security. Among hundred respondents sixty seven percent of respondents have obtained promotions because majority of the employees are highly

95

experienced and have technical knowledge and thirty three percentage of the respondents have not obtained promotions. Among hundred respondents sixty eight percentage of the respondents are not satisfied with their salary because they expect more salary for their experience and their excellent performance. Among hundred respondents sixty seven percentage of the respondents are not satisfied with the financial rewards because they expect high financial rewards for their excellent performance. Among hundred respondents seventy six percentage of the respondents are satisfied with employees recognition and thirty three percentage recognition. Among hundred respondents twenty nine percentage of the respondents feel fair opinion about increments and provident fund and ten percent of the respondents feel poor opinion about increments and provident funds because majority of the respondents are highly experienced so they expect more increment and provident fund. Among hundred respondents twenty three of the respondents expect good salary, fifteen percentage of the respondents expects job security and twelve percentage of the respondents expects good supervision. of the respondents are dissatisfied with employees

96

Among hundred respondents forty nine percentage of the respondents are satisfied with relationship between workers and management because the employees are freely express their views to the management. Among hundred respondents forty two percentage of the

respondents are satisfied with their working condition because they have good ventilation, rest room, etc., Among hundred respondents thirty eight percentage of the respondents feel fair opinion about their supervision. Forty seven percentage of the respondents are satisfied with policy and

administration because they satisfied with certain norms of the company such as No Smoking inside the campus, recognition letter to be submit before three months and no financial business inside the campus and so on. Among hundred respondents forty four percentage of the respondents are satisfied with the co-workers relationship because they have mutual understanding among them. Among hundred respondents forty percentage of the respondents need both monetary and non monetary rewards because they expect job security and promotions for their performance and pension for their future.

97

Among hundred respondents thirty nine percentage of the respondents are satisfied with the participation in management because the employees freely express their views and ideas to the management. We conclude that majority of the respondents are satisfied with their job, working condition, co-workers relationship, relationship between workers and management and participation in management but the employees have fair opinion about supervision and salary so the company have good employees motivation.

98

SUGGESTION From the findings it is found that employees motivation in a company is good but there are some dissatisfiers who need some facilities. 1) Company should provide educational facilities like giving scholarships to the children of the employees. 2) Regular leave arrangements should be changed according to the employees 3) The company increase loan amount for workers medical expenses. 4) The company should conduct counseling to the employees for solving their personal and work problem. 5) The employees fell that they need refreshment to work enthusiastically.

99

CONCLUSION From the study, the researcher conclude that the financial benefits, job security, and promotion are motivating factors for workers. Recognition of work emerges as one of the most important factors for motivating the workers, the out come of the recognition is good work. In this Sakthi Sugars Limited., (Soya Division) most of the employees are satisfied with policy and administration, working conditions, good employee employer relationship, supervision system, employees recognition and promotional opportunities etc. The

employees are highly satisfied their personal job also. So the researcher conclude that not only monitory incentives motivates employees but non-monitory incentives also encourage the employees which results in increase the employees motivation. Factors contributing to dissatisfiers are salary and incentive system, but the management should consider the salary and incentive system provided to the employees in which they dissatisfied. If the management do so the company can attain very good motivational level.

100

A STUDY ON MOTIVATIONAL PATTERN AMONG THE EMPLOYEES OF SAKTHI SUGARS LIMITED (SOYA DIVISION)

1. Personal Data Name Age Gender Marital Status Income (Monthly) : : : : : Male Married Female Un Married

Below 10,000 10000-20000 20000-40000 40000 above

Educational Qualification Salary (Monthly) :

: Below 2000 2000 4000 4000 8000 8000-above

101

2. Are you satisfied with your personal job? High Satisfied Dissatisfied 3. Opinion about your work Excellent Fair Good Poor Satisfied High Dissatisfied

4. Are you given promotional opportunities? Yes No

5. Do you feel that there is any danger of losing your jobs? Most of the time Occasionally 6. Opinion about the incentive system is your organization? Exellent Fair Good Poor Some times

7. Are you satisfied with your salary / wages? Yes No

8. Is there any financial rewards provided by the management for your excellent performance Yes 9. Have you received any bonus Yes No No

102

10. Is the company provide any loans to the employees Yes No

11. Are you satisfied with your company performance evaluation system? Yes No

12. Do you feel that the employees are recognition properly Yes No

13. Opinion about your Increments P.F? Excellent Fair 14. What you are expect from your job? Good salary / Wages Job Security Allowances Challenging work Good working condition Future Supervision Good Supervision Participation in Management Good Poor

15. Opinion about the existing relationship between the workers and management? Excellent Fair Good Poor

16. Are you satisfied with working condition? High Satisfied Dissatisfied Satisfied High Dissatisfied

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17. Are you satisfied with your company supervision? High Satisfied Dissatisfied Satisfied High Dissatisfied

18. What kind of supervisors you have. Autocratic Leader Free-rien Leader 19. Opinion about your company policy and administration Excellent Fair Good Poor Participation Leader

20. Are you satisfied with your co-workers? High Satisfied Dissatisfied Satisfied High Dissatisfied

21. Which of the following do you feel that the motivational factor Monitary Both 22. Opinion about workers participation in management Excellent Fair Good Poor Non-Monitary

23. Give your suggestion to improve workers motivation in your organization.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. C.R.Kothari - Research Methodology New Delhi, Wishwaprakashan publishers 14th reprint 1997 2. Dr.C.B.Gupta - Human resource Management New Delhi, educational publishers, 5th revised edition

3. Fred Luthans

- Organizational behaviour MC Graw-Hill international edition 1992

4. Keith davis

- Human behaviour at work organizational behaviour, Tata MC Graw-Hill company ltd., 6th edition

5. P.C.Tripathi

- Personnel Management & Industrial relations New Delhi, Sultan Chand & sons, 11th edition, 1996

6. Richard M.Steers

- Introduction to organizational behaviour New York, Harper Collins Publishers 4th edition

7. Stephen P.Robbins Organizational behaviour New Delhi, prentice Hall of India, 9th edition

105

A STUDY ON MOTIVATIONAL PATTERN AMONG THE EMPLOYEES OF SAKTHI SUGARS LIMITED., (SOYA DIVISION)
PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by S. SHOBANA Reg.No.0235F0441

Under the guidance of

Miss. R.KAVITHA,

M.B.A., M.Phil.,

Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION of Bharathiar University, Coimbatore

106

2002 2004

Department of Management Studies

MAHARAJA COLLEGE FOR WOMEN


Perundurai 638 052

107

MAHARAJA COLLEGE FOR WOMEN


Perundurai 638 052

Certificate
This is to certify that the summer placement project report entitled

A STUDY ON MOTIVATIONAL PATTERN AMONG THE EMPLOYEES OF SAKTHI SUGARS LIMITED., (SOYA DIVISION)
Is a bonafide record of work done by

S.SHOBANA
Reg.No.0235F0441 and submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION of Bharathiar University, Coimbatore

Head of the Department

Faculty Guide

Principal

108

Viva Voce examination held on ______________

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

109

DECLARATION
I, Miss. S.SHOBANA, a bonafied student of Department of Management Studies, Maharaja College for Women, Perundurai would like to declare that the project titled A STUDY ON MOTIVATIONAL PATTERN AMONG THE EMPLOYEES OF SAKTHI SUGARS LIMITED., (SOYA DIVISION) in partial fulfillment of MBA degree course of Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, is my original work.

Signature, Date : SHOBANA Place : S.

110

ACKNOWLEGEMENT First of all, I thank the almighty God from the depth of my heart who helped and guided me in the completion of my project work. My grateful thanks to Dr.R.INDRALEKHA, M.A., M.Phil., M.Ed., special Officer of Maharaja College for Women, Perundurai for giving me the opportunity to undergo this project work. I also extend my thanks to Mrs.PANKAGAJA VIJAYAN, M.Sc., M.Phil., Principal of Maharaja College for Women, Perudurai for giving me this nice opportunity. I offer my profound gratitude to our respected Head of the department, Mr.P.PARAMANANDAM, MBA., M.A(Psy), M.A(Soc)., M.Sc., M.A (Eng)., M.Ed., BLIS; PGDHRM., PGDMM., for his valuable support. I owe my indebtedness to my guide Miss.R.KAVITHA, MBA., M.Phil., for her valuable guidance, continued interest and constant encouragement evinced during the course of the project. I am grateful to the Sakthi Soya for allowing me to do the project. I am very thankful to Mr.P.C.SISODIA, GM, of Sakthi Sugars Liquated, Soya Division for his kind help. 111

I am very thankful to Mr.GOVINDARAJ, Personnel Manager who took immense interest to help my project. I thank Mr.SIVAKUMAR, B.E., because and of his valuable patience

suggestion

constructive

criticisms

sustained

helped to finish this project. I convey my sincere thank to Mr.SELVARAJ for his kind help. I express my sincere thanks to my dear parents, sister and friends who have been my great source of inspiration at every stage of my project.

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

TITLE Respondents based on Age Group Respondents based on Gender Marital Status of the respondents Monthly Income of the respondents Educational Qualification of the respondents Monthly Salary of the respondents Respondents opinion about their Job Respondents opinion about promotions obtained Respondents opinion about Job insecurity

PAGE NO. 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 54

Respondents opinion about incentive system in a 55 company

11. 12.

Respondents opinion about salary

56

Respondents opinion about financial rewards for 58 their excellent performance

13.

Respondents opinion about bonus received in a 59 company

14.

Respondents opinion about Loans provided by 60 the company

15.

Respondents

opinion

about

company 61

performance evaluation system 16. Respondents opinion 113 about employees 62

Recognition 17. Respondents opinion about Increments and 64

provident fund provided by the company 18. 19. Job expectation of the respondents 65

Respondents opinion about relationship between 66 workers and management

20. 21.

Respondents opinion about working condition Respondents opinion about satisfaction

68 of 69

company supervision. 22. 23. Respondents opinion about kinds of supervision. 70

Respondents opinion about company policy and 71 administration

24.

Respondents opinion about relationship with co- 72 workers

25. 26.

Respondents opinion about motivational factor

73

Respondents opinion about workers participation 75 in management

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CHI-SQUARE TEST 27. Respondents opinion about the relationship 76

between salary and age group. 28. Respondents opinion about relationship between 78 company qualification. 29. Respondents opinion about relationship between 80 promotions obtained and age group. 30. Respondents opinion about relationship between 82 working condition and age group. 31. Respondents opinion about relationship between 84 workers and management based on salary. 32. Respondents opinion about relationship between 86 job and salary. 33. Table shows the relationship between opinion of 88 work and age group. ANOVA TWO WAY CLSSIFICATION 34. Respondents opinion about relationship between 90 opinion of work and Income level. supervision and educational

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LIST OF CHART

S.No 1. 2. 3.

TITLE Respondents opinion about promotions obtained Respondents opinion about salary Respondents recognition opinion about

PAGE NO. 53 57 employees 63

4.

Respondents opinion about relationship between 67 workers and management

5.

Respondents opinion about motivational factors

74

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CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

TITLE INTRODUCTION * Introduction to industry * Profile of the company * Motivation

PAGE NO.

1 4 33 39 40 44 45 76 93 97 98 99 103

II III IV V VI VII VIII IX

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION HYPOTHESIS TESTING FINDINGS SUGGESTIONS CONCLUSION APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY

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