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School of Aeronautical Engineering

Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Chap. 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions p p

Prof. Chul-Ho Kim

School of Aerospace, Mechanical & Mechatronic Engineering


Copyright 2009 Prof Chul-Ho KIM Seoul National University of Technology. All right Reserved

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Introduction
Aerodynamics i a part of fl id d A d i is t f fluid dynamics th t thi k of i that think f the air flow phenomena around a moving body in air.
In this chapter, the fundamental concepts of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics are reviewed and new terminology of the geometry of airplane is introduced to be accustomed with new major subject. The principle of aerodynamic forces and moments generated on wings and aeronautical bodies is introduced along with the dimensionless coefficients of th aerodynamic characteristics di i l ffi i t f the d i h t i ti such as lift coefficient, drag coefficient and moment coefficient. (CL, CD, CM)
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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Classification of Fluid Mechanics Approach Method; Hydrodynamics Mathematical Approach to Ideal Fluid Flow Hydraulics Experimental Approach to Fluid Mechanics Modern Fluid Mechanics Analytical Approach with th A l ti l A h ith the th theory combined with bi d ith experimental results (DAlemberts Paradox; deviation between theoretical and experimental results 1752) results, Medium; (Air) (1) Aerodynamics (subsonic, hypersonic aerodynamics) (2) G d Gas dynamics i

transonic,

supersonic

and

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

(Aims of Aerodynamics) External Flow : Prediction of forces, moments and heat transfer to bodies moving through a fluid ( g g (usually air) Aerodynamic Noise y ) y (Lift, Drag, Moments on airfoils, wings, fuselages, whole airplane) ( (other applications : buildings, ships and automobiles etc) pp g, p ) (Hydraulics: ships, submarines and torpedoes) Internal Flow : Calculation of fluid properties in a closed conduits (Air flow phenomena in the compressors and turbines in the rocket and gas turbine engine, flow in fuel lines and plumbing lines etc)

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Example of external flow; Flow around a model truck

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Contents
11 1.1

Units d di U i and dimensions i 1.2 Aerodynamic properties; terminology (properties in fluid dynamics and thermodynamics) ( i i fl id d i d h d i ) 1.3 Types of flow 1.4 Aeronautical definitions (airfoil and wing geometry) 1.5 Dimensional analysis and similarity (important non-dimensional coefficients; Re, Ma) 1.6 Basic aerodynamics (aerodynamics forces and moments) 1.7 Historical background
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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Classification of Aerodynamics
External Aerodynamics
Continuum Flo Contin m Flow Low density Lo densit and Free-molecular flow Free molec lar flo

Viscous Flow Vi Fl Compressible Flow Incompressible Flow Subsonic Flow Fl Transonic Flow Fl

Inviscid Flow I i id Fl

Supersonic Flow Fl

Hypersonic Flow Fl
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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Definition of Fluid
Classifications of Material :

Solid Fluid

Liquid Gas

Solid

: a distinct structural rigidity and virtual resistance to deformation


( (Zero deformation material to the stress) Elastic Solid )

Fluid : continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress

(Zero-resistance (Zero resistance material to the shear stress )


Liquid : not changed the volume with the external force and density does not change with the temperature and pressure (Incompressible fluid) Gas : Easily compressed with the force and density changes with the temperature and pressure (Compressible fluid)
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Distinction between solid and fluid? Solid Can resist an applied shear by deforming deforming.
Stress strain, i.e., =
F A

= .

Fluid Deforms continuously under applied shear.


Stress strain rate i e = rate, i.e.,
F A

V h

Deformation of a rubber eraser placed between two parallel plates under the influence of a shear force.

The Linear velocity profile : Couette flow between parallel plates. b t ll l l t


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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

1.1 Units and dimensions (SI unit and Imperial unit)


Dimension
Length Time Second S d L T M

SI Unit
Meter Second kg k

Imperial Unit
Ft Second lb

1) Base Unit Absolute Unit : Mass(kg) is base unit (SI Unit) Engineering Unit : Weight (kgf) is base unit 2) Induced Unit
Mass Force
N

Density
kg / m 3 kgfs 2 / m 4

specific volume
m 3 / kg
m 4 / kgfs 2

momentum pressure viscosity


kgm / s 2
N /m 2

Kinematic viscosity
m2 / s m2 / s
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kg
kgf s2 / m

Ns / m 2

kgf

kgf s

2 kgf /m 2 kgfs / m

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

In 1960, the six base units was recommended by International Committee of Weights and Measures. (kg, meter, second, Kelvin, ampere and candela) In 1971, the mole was added as the 7th base unit.

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1.2 Aerodynamic properties; terminology


1) 2) ) 3) 4) ) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Pressure Temperature p Density Specific weight p g Specific volume Gravity Thermodynamics principles (Equation of State) Bulk modulus Sonic velocity (Speed of sound)

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1) Pressure : Normal Force per unit area


Unit and dimension

kgf / m 2 kgf / m 2

lbf / ft 2 lb / fts 2

[ FL2 ]
[ ML1T 2 ]

1N / m 2 = 10 5 bar Absolute unit (1ata) =


Engineering unit (1at)

1kgf / cm 2 = 735 . 6 mmHg Absolute pressure (1atm) = 760 mmHg = 1 .03323 at = 101 .325 kPa

1 mAg = 103 kgf / m 3 = 9.80665kPa

1 bar = 105 Pa = 105 ( N / m 2 )


1 psi = 1 lbf / in 2
absolute pressure(Pa ) = atmospheric(Po ) + gauge (PG )
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2) Temperature : the average kinetic energy of the moleculars of the fluid.


Unit and dimension

SI Unit
-Celsius Temp Scale(Centigrade ) p ( ) p -Kelvin Temp Scale(K) : absolute temperature

Imperial Unit
-Fahrenheit(oF) Fahrenheit( -Rankin Temp Scale(R): absolute temperature

T ( K ) = 273.15 + t oC (k )

F = 9 / 5 C + 32
o
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3) Density () : mass per unit volume

mass (kg / m ) = volume


3

Unit and dimension Absolute unit

kg / m 3 ,

slug / ft 3
lbfs 2 / ft 4

[ ML3 ]
[ FT 2 L4 ]

Engineering unit Ns 2 / m 4 ,

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4) Specific Weight ( ) : weight per unit volume


W m = = g = g , vol vol
Unit and dimension Absolute unit Engineering unit

= g

kg /( ms ) 2 slug/(ft s) 2 [ ML2T 2 ]
N / m3 lbf / ft 2 [ FL3 ]

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5) Specific Volume ( v ) : volume per unit mass

vol 1 v= = mass
Unit and dimension Absolute unit

m3 / kg ,

ft 3 / slug

[ L3 F 1 ]

Engineering unit m 4 / N 2 , Ns

ft / lbf lbfs
4

[L F T ]
2 1 2

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6) Gravity ( g ) : a natural phenomenon by which objects p y j with mass attract one another
Gravitation is

M M F r
1 g 2

M M F =G r
1 g 2

(where G : gravitational constant, 6.6731011 N m2 kg2 )

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the net force exerted by the Earth on objects in its vicinity.


Gravity is

Varies with the latitude and altitude on Earth

g g0

= 9.9995 10 1 (1 2.6373 10 3 cos 2 + 5.9 10 6 cos 2 2


2 0

where g = 9.80665 9.807m / s @ = 45 3233.


0

g r2 = g (r + Z ) 2

where r is the radius of Earth (6,357 ~ 6,378km).


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7) Thermodynamics Properties ( ) q (1)Equation of State Describing the state of matter g under a given set of physical conditions. from Boyle and Charles' law ;

From the experiments;

Pv = const T

(1) (Pv/T ) converges to a constant value with the temperature at the atmospheric pressure. (2) It is all the same to all kinds of gases gases.
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The constant was defined as Gas constant (R). i.e. i

Pv =R T

(universal or mole gas constant (

= 8 3145 J/moleK) ) 8.3145 J/mole K)

Equation of State of Perfect Gas

Pv = RT
Gas G constant of air (Rair) ? t t f i

P = RT
a S at S.T.P state(15,760mmHg) s a e( 5 , 60 g)

= 1.225(kg / m )
3 air
5 air

1.01325 10 N m R = = 287.05( ) = 8.3143( J / mole K ) 288.15 1.225 kg K


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(2) Polytropic process of ideal gas q g p The equation shows the general process of air property change.

Pv = const
n

Where n is polytropic index n=0 : constant pressure process n=1 : constant temperature process n= : constant volume process p p p/ , ) n=k : isentropic process (k =cp/cv, 1<k <2)
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if n=0 (P ) 0 (P=c),

P=const (I b i P P t (Isobaric Process) )

v1 v2 = T1 T2
if n=1 (T=c), Pv = const (Isothermal Process)

P v1 = P2 v2 1
if n=k ( k (s=const) , t) s = const (I t (Isentropic P t i Process) )
k 1 k

T2 P2 = T1 P 1

v1 = v 2

k 1

if n= v =const (Isovolumetric Process) n=,

P2 T2 = P T1 1
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8) Bulk Modulus (E)

stress (E ) volume strain


dp dP E= = Vol dVol dVol Vol

then Vol = Mv, thus

dP dP E = Mv = v dVol dv
unit and dimension

N / M or kg / s m
2 2

Pa

lbf / ft [FL ] lbm / s ft [ ML T ]


2 -2 2 1 2

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For an ideal gas, (from polytropic process)

P vn = C,

ln p + n ln v = ln c

dP ndv + =0 v P

dP = nP dv

dP En = v = np dv n
For Isentropic process, n = k
dP E s = v = kP dv T

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

U.S. Navy F/A-18 breaking the sound barrier

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Primary Sh k wave at th tip and 2nd shock wave coining Pi Shock t the ti d h k i i from the cannellure and turbulence behind the bullet.

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1. Subsonic 2. Mach 1 3. Supersonic 4. Shock wave

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9) Sonic Velocity (C) The speed of sound or sonic velocity describes how far the p y sound wave travels through medium in a given amount of time. Unit & Dimension : m/s ,

[ LT ]
1

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From Bulk Modulus Newtons 2nd Law Newton s


from Bulk Modulus

dP dP c dP E= = = dVol / Vol VdtA / CdtA V VE or c= dP

acting force g

Mass of air in the C.V. :

F = ( P + dP) A PA = A dP
m = A c dt
d & m = (m) = AC dt

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The velocity of piston at the end ; V0 From Newtons 2nd Law ( Newton s

F = ma = m v

dF = AdP = c A ( 0-V) dP c = V
From x

VE dP E c = V = dP
2

c =

Here E (Bulk Modulus) varies with the state of the process ( ) p


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Assume the process as Isentropic ; no friction and heat transfer in the C.V. For Isentropic process, E = Es

c =
For the ideal gas,

Es

P = RT
c= E kP = = k RT ( P / RT )
s

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(example) Estimate the time required to reach the sound wave to an object 1mile away under the 68oF water. (sol) : for 68oF water Es = 45.81106 lbf / ft 2 , = 1.973 slug / ft 3 The sound speed(c) in the water is, 1 mile = 5,280 ft

c=

= 4,863 ft / s

5,280 t = t = 1.0857( ) (sec) 4,863

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(example) Estimate the speed of sound in air at STP condition. ( Es = 1.42 105 Pa , = 1.224 kg / m 3 ) (sol) for isentropic process, (R=287.053 J/kg.K)

c=

= 1.42 10 / 1.224 = 340.06 (m / s )


5

c = k R T = 1.4 287.8 288.15 = 340.74 (m / s )

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1.3 Types of flow (terminology)

- steady and unsteady flow - compressible and incompressible flow - viscous and inviscid flow - continuum and free molecular flow - subsonic/transonic/supersonic/hypersonic flow b i /t i / i /h i fl 1) steady and unsteady flow : when the properties of flow does not change with time, it is called steady flow and the time derivatives of the term vanishes in the equation. (d/dt = 0) Time periodic problem is called quasi-steady problem. p p q yp
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2) compressible and incompressible flow i i i f


when the density of flow changes with pressure and temperature as it moves through in the flow field , it is called compressible flow and when the density is constant with the variable condition, it is y , called incompressible flow problem. (flow) Incompressible flow: = constant (Ma < 0.3) (=367.2m/s @S.L.), Compressible flow : = variable (Ma > 0 3 ) 0.3 Incompressible fluid : liquid p q Compressible fluid : gas

D =0 Dt

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3) viscous and inviscid flow i i i i f


Free movement of fluid particles transport their mass momentum mass, and energy from one place to another in the flow field. ( (Transport Phenomena of Fluid) p ) when the fluid friction has significant effect on the flow motion, it is called viscous flows and if there is no friction, no thermal conduction and mass diffusion in the flow field, it is called inviscid flows. flows Viscous flow : stokes flow at low Reynolds number y (viscous force >> initial force) Inviscid flow : flow at high Reynolds number (viscous force << initial force) ( i f i ii lf )
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In aerodynamics, the flow is assumed of inviscid flow to calculate aerodynamics forces but for the drag, it can not adequately predict t t l d d t l di t total drag. Total Drag = Pressure Drag (form drag) + Friction Drag

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4) C i Continuum f flow and Free molecular flow f


If mean free path() is smaller than the particle diameter(d) the diameter(d), flow is called a continuum substance. That is, if < d : continuum flow if > d : free molecular flow For example; for air = 6 x 10-8 (m) = 60 (nm) at Sea Level = 50 ( ) at 1 500k altitude (m) t 1,500km ltit d For this level of study of aerodynamics, the flow is treated as the continuum f i flow.
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5) S ) Subsonic/Transonic/Supersonic/Hypersonic flow i / i /S i / i f
Mach number(Ma) ; represents an objects speed when it object s speed, travelling at the speed of sound. (dimensionless ratio)

V Ma = c
Flight can be roughly classified in five speed categories: Subsonic Sonic Transonic Supersonic Hypersonic : : : : : Ma < 1 Ma = 1 0.8 < Ma < 1.2 1.2 < Ma < 5 Ma > 5
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(1) Subsonic flow (Ma < 1.0 everywhere)

( ) (2) Transonic flow ( Ma < 1.0, Ma > 1.0 mixed region) , g )

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(3) Transonic flow (1.0 < Ma < 1.2 ) T i fl (1 0 M 12

(4) Supersonic flow ( Ma >1.0 everywhere )

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(5) Hypersonic flow ( Ma > 5.0 ) H i fl M 50

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1.4

Aeronautical definitions (airfoil and wing geometry)

1.4.1. Wing geometry gg y

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(1) Wing area (AG , AN) - AG : the gross wing area includes the fuselage area - AN : the net wing area excludes the fuselage area (2) Chord (C) - CT : wing tip chord g p - CR : wing root chord - C : mean chord (standard or g ( geometry mean chord, SMC) y , )

C = S / b or = S / b
G N

(CT/CR) : tape ratio (tape ratio < 1.0)

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(3) Aspect ratio(AR)

AR = span / SMC = b / C = b / A
2

- A : the gross or net wing area - b : the wing span (4) Sweep back (L.E. , T.E. , 1/4 ) (5) Dihedral angle, Anhedral angle () (6) Angle of Attack or Incidence angle ()

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Comparison of Sweep-back of the aircrafts

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(7) Angle of incidence of an airplane

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(8) Twisted wing, structural wash-in and wash-out

To adjust the lift distribution along the wing of an aircraft for the stable control.

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1.4.2. Airfoil geometry

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Thickness(t )=YU + YL

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1. Symmetric airfoil : Max. thickness position : (C/4~C/2) of chord from L.E. 2. Cambered airfoil (thickness/chord)ratio : t/c * 100 (%)

- For subsonic aircraft : 13 ~18% - For supersonic aircraft : 3% Max. Max thickness position : (30~60%) of chord from L.E. LE
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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

1 Dimensional analysis and Similarity 1.5 i i l l i d Si il i

(important non-dimensional coefficients; Re, Ma) 1.5.1. Fundamental principles How one variable may depend on a number of others? others? The main principle is the dimensional homogeneity in the mathematical equation. From Bernoullis equation;

1 2 + v + gz = const 2
2]. All of the term have the same dimension, [L2T-2] f h h h di i [
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(ex) Finding the eddy frequency(n) at the rear of a circular cylinder in a uniform flow.

n = fun{d ,V , , } f

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Assume Ma < 0.3 that the compressible effect is ignored.

n = fun{d ,V , , }
n = cd V
a b e 1 a 1 b 3 e f

[T ] = c [ L] [ LT ] [ ML ] [ L T ]
2 1

Then,

n=c
nd =c v

( )( )
v vd d
f

( )
vd

= cR Re

The frequency of eddy is a function of Reynolds number.


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(ex) The force (F) that the flat plate received is ;

F = fun{ , V , A, , l }

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1.5.2 i 1 2 Dimensional analysis applied to Aerodynamic force i l l i li d A d i f For one of the aerodynamic force (lift drag, 3 moments); (lift, drag Drag force is influenced by;

F = fun{V , D, , , k }
D

where D is size of a body and k is the bulk modulus

F = cV D (1 / R e) (1 / Ma )
2 2 2 D 2 2 D

F /( V D ) = fun{ R e, Ma } ( f
For low speed, (Ma< 0.3~0.5), it is incompressible thus ;

F /( V D ) = f { R e } fun
2 2 D
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For the low speed (Ma < 0.3 ~ 0.5) aerodynamics, Re is the only criterion of dynamic similarity for the model test. For high speed flight, Ma > 0.5 o g g , a

F /( V D ) = fun{ R e, Ma } ( f
2 2 D

For low F l speed flight, Ma < 0.5 d fli ht M 05

F /( V D ) = fun{ R e }
2 2
D

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1 6 Basic aerodynamics 1.6 i i

(Aerodynamic F (A d i Forces and M d Moments) t) 1.6.1. 1 6 1 Aerodynamic forces and moments 1.6.2. Force and moment coefficients 1.6.3. Pressure distribution on an airfoil 1.6.4. Pitching moment 1.6.5. Types of aerodynamic drag yp y g 1.6.6. Estimation of CL, CD, CM from pressure distribution 1.6.7. Induced drag

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1.6.1. Aerodynamic forces and moments


Aerodynamic f A d i forces on a fl i airplane; flying i l

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Aerodynamic moments on a flying airplane;

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Pitching motion of airplane (Elevator)

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Rolling motion of airplane (Aileron)

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Yawing motion of airplane (Rudder)

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Airplane parts and their functions

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

( Direction of Lift Force of a flying airplane )

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

1.6.2. Force and Moment coefficients


Aerodynamic f A d i force coefficient of a flying airplane; ffi i f fl i i l

F C =1 V S 2
F 2

where S is the planform area of the wing. - Lift coefficient : Lift f

C =
L

1 2

V S
2

-Drag coefficient :

Drag C =1 V S 2
D 2

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Pitching moment coefficient of a flying airplane;

M C =1 V S c 2
M 2

Where

is the aerodynamic mean chord of the wing. y g

1.6.3. Pressure distribution on an aerofoil


Pressure coefficient (Cp);

PP C = 1 V 2
P

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

From Bernoullis equation, If (Cp) = 0.0 then the pressure is the same as the free stream pressure (Cp) = 1.0 then the pressure is stagnation pressure at a stagnation point .

If incidence angle is -4o, the pressure distributions on the lower and upper surfaces would be the same and give no lift.
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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

(Air flow phenomena around an airfoil)

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

1.6.4. Pitching moment


For L = L and D = D, d

M x = M a ( L cos + D sin )(a x )


Converting to coefficient form by dividing by 1 V 2 S gives
2

CMx = CM a

a x (C L cos + C D sin ) c c
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School of Aeronautical Engineering

Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

(1) A d Aerodynamic center i t


The pitching moment is constant independently to the lift force If CMLE is known at L.E. ; C = C Mx M M

L.E.

+ x (C cos + C sin ) s c
L D

If C is calculated at each point along the chord for several values Mx of CL , one special point where C is constant , independent of CL.
Mx

The aerodynamic center(A.C.) of the airfoil. y ( ) (23~25% of the chord line from L.E. at around =10o)

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Let A C b L A.C. be on xac f from the L E with CL, CD. h L.E. i h

At moderate incidence angle () between 3~7o, CL = 20 x CD and cos= 10 x sin CL x cos = 200 xCD x sin and sin is negligible, thus
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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Differentiating the equation by CL; ( iff i i h i b (cos 1) )

For the aerodynamic center (A.C.), CM is independent to CL. thus

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

If (

) is measured from the experiments,

For example, if CL = 0, then CMa = CMac p , ,

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

(1) Flat or curved plate in inviscid, incompressible flow: A.C. A C = C/4 (1) Thickness and viscosity effect moves A.C. a few % forward (2) C Compressibility effect tends to move A C b k ibilit ff t t d t A.C. backward. d (3) Thin airfoil in supersonic : A.C. = C/2

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

(2) Center of Pressure (C.P.)

The i hi Th pitching moment is zero and the aerodynamic forces i d h d i f (lift, drag) are existing on C.P.
C.P. is moving with the lift force and not always within the airfoil section.

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Dividing by

Thus, If angle () is between 3~7o, sin=0 and cos 1.0. Thus,

That is, is always bigger than . It means C.P. is behind A.C. on the chord of airfoil.
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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

- Aerodynamic Center (AC) :a point on the chord where CM is independent of CL and CD - Center of Pressure (CP) : a point on the chord where CM is zero and only aerodynamic forces are existing

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

1.6.5. Types of drag


Total Drag = (S i Friction Drag) + ( (Skin i i ) (Pressure Drag) ) (1) Skin friction drag (surface friction drag) It is traction due to the viscosity of fluid and acts on the surface tangentially at all points. g y p (No friction without viscosity) ( ) (2) Pressure drag (form or profile drag) g( p g) Resistance force acting normal to the surface - Form drag (boundary layer pressure drag) g( y y p g) - Induced drag (vortex drag depends on lift) - Wave drag (shock wave in high speed)
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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Form Drag < Skin Friction Drag Form Drag > Skin Friction Drag CD = 0.001 Laminar flow CD = 1.28 CD = 0 005 Turbulent flow 0.005

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Pressure Drag and Induced Drag

(Induced Drag)

(Pressure Drag)
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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Drag levels on the airplanes


component Transport Aircraft Subsonic Fighter Executive Helicopter Jet Supersonic Transonic Supersonic

skin friction Lift-induced Interference Wave Other

45% 40% 7% 3% 5%

40% 37% 2% 18% 3%

53% 20% 9% 10% 8%

47% 38% 2% 5% 8%

23% 29% 6% 35% 7%

25% 25% 40% 5% 5%

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Copyright 2009 Prof Chul-Ho KIM Seoul National University of Technology. All right Reserved

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Copyright 2009 Prof Chul-Ho KIM Seoul National University of Technology. All right Reserved

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

1.6.6. Estimation of CL, CD, CM from the pressure distribution

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

1. Total Forces in z-direction and x-direction; (1) For z-direction;

For unit span length; - Upper surface ; pp - Lower surface ; The total Z-force ;

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

For 2-dimensional geometry, wing area is S=c x 1.

Or

(2) Similarly for x-direction;

Or

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Integrating from ZmaxU to ZmaxL ;

2. Pitching moment at L.E. g For z-direction; ; For moment coefficient; ;

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Similarly for x-direction;

Summary For forces and moments in z-dir and x-direction; y ; ( (Forces) ) (Moments)

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Lift and Drag forces;

For the lift (CL) and drag coefficient ( D) are; ( g (C where CR cos = CZ and CR sin = CX

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

1.6.7. Induced drag


The pressure difference between the upper wing and the lower wing on a finite span wing causes air to flow from the lower surface wing root, around the wingtip, towards the upper surface wing root. This spanwise flow of air combines with chordwise flowing air, causing a change in speed and direction, which twists th i fl t i t the airflow and produces vortices along the wing trailing d d ti l th i t ili edge. The vortices created are unstable, and they quickly combine to unstable produce wingtip vortices. The resulting vortices change the speed and direction of the airflow behind the trailing edge, p g g , deflecting it downwards, and thus inducing downwash behind the wing.
Copyright 2009 Prof Chul-Ho KIM Seoul National University of Technology. All right Reserved

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School of Aeronautical Engineering

Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Copyright 2009 Prof Chul-Ho KIM Seoul National University of Technology. All right Reserved

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Copyright 2009 Prof Chul-Ho KIM Seoul National University of Technology. All right Reserved

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

If geometrical incidence angle is , the actual incidence angle g g , g ( ) is;

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

If the circulation round the section of the airfoil is appropriate to ,

lift force (L) is;

Induced drag force(D) is;

Copyright 2009 Prof Chul-Ho KIM Seoul National University of Technology. All right Reserved

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

1.7 Historical background

In Fluid Mechanics
Bernoulli(1738) : Bernoulli(1738)
He found the relationship of pressure velocity and potential pressure, energy for an inviscid flow; an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy. (B t ti l (Bernoulli's equation) lli' ti ) 2

P U + + Z = H = const 2g

Jean le Rend Alembert (1752): 1752) D'Alembert proved that for incompressible and inviscid (potential flow) the drag force is zero on a body moving with constant velocity relative to zero, the fluid. But he found that the substantial drag on the moving body from the experiment. It is called DAlemberts Paradox. This is mainly due to the ignoring the viscosity effect on the boundary layer on the surface of the object.
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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Leonhard Euler(1757) : Euler(1757)


He applied the Newtons laws of motion to the fluids and set up the Newton s differential form of equation of motion of inviscid flow with compressible and incompressible conditions.

dP

U + d + dZ = 0 2g
2

If =constant then,

Navier(1827) Stokes(1845) Navier(1827) Stokes(1845) :

P U2 d + 2g + Z = 0

In 1822, the Navier-Stokes Equations were set describing the motion of fluid raised from applying Newtons 2nd law to fluid motion. In modern days, the NavierStokes equations in their full and simplified forms can be applied to many engineering design areas; the design of aircraft and cars the study of blood flow the design of cars, flow, power stations, the analysis of pollution, and many other things.
Copyright 2009 Prof Chul-Ho KIM Seoul National University of Technology. All right Reserved

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

Osborne Reynold(1883) : Reynolds number Reynold(1883)


He classified the fluid flow into two different kinds with its velocity.
- Laminar Flow : Very stable flow with no disruption between layers at low speed (streamlined flow) - Turbulent Flow : Very chaotic and fluctuating flow with rapid variation of pressure and velocity with time at high speed

Ludwig Prandtl (1904) 1904)


He defined boundary layer on the surface of an solid object and p p p developed the mathematical basis for the principles of subsonic aerodynamics. He classified the flow field into two regions; viscous effect region and inviscid region. He applied the boundary layer effect to Navier-Stokes equation. Navier Stokes
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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

In Aerodynamics I A d i
1. Isaac Newtons Principia in 1687 p He tried to apply his theorem to fluid flow. He thought,

F = m a sin
2

the tangential momentum would be preserved to move the p particles along the surface. It is his sine-squired law. g q
- DAlembert proved it is only good for angle (50~90degree) g ( g ) - Euler : the particles bend their directions and velocity before reaching the body For modern high-speed aerodynamics, it has very important meanings.

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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

2. The Wright brother's Effort (Orville and Wilbur) The first successful flying with the power airplane in 1903 at Kitty Hawk North Carolina.

4-Cyllinder Water-Cooled Vertical Engine Bore Stroke Displace 4 3/8 in 4 in 3.93 liters Power RPM Weight 28-42 HP 1,325~1,500 72.6~81.6 kg
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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

3. High-speed supersonic flight (Rocket and High-speed airplane) The first supersonic flight was started by the end of World p g y War II. For a high speed vehicle such as aerospace vehicle re-entering to earths orbiter at speed of 6km/h, aerodynamic heating was serious problem. The heating was dominant problem to solve by the high-speed aerodynamicists high speed aerodynamicists.

Heinkel He 178 was the world's first aircraft to fly under turbojet power in 1939
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Chap.1 Basic concepts and definitions

In 1951 J li All I 1951, Julian Allen at NASA introduced the concept of the t i t d d th t f th blunt re-entry body.

This blunt reentry body is an excellent example of the importance of aerodynamics to space vehicle design. design
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Shenzhou 5 reentry capsule

Apollo command module

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Apollo Command Module flying at a high angle of attack for lifting entry
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