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Introduction

Aerodynamics i a part of fl id d A d i is t f fluid dynamics th t thi k of i that think f the air flow phenomena around a moving body in air.

In this chapter, the fundamental concepts of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics are reviewed and new terminology of the geometry of airplane is introduced to be accustomed with new major subject. The principle of aerodynamic forces and moments generated on wings and aeronautical bodies is introduced along with the dimensionless coefficients of th aerodynamic characteristics di i l ffi i t f the d i h t i ti such as lift coefficient, drag coefficient and moment coefficient. (CL, CD, CM)

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Classification of Fluid Mechanics Approach Method; Hydrodynamics Mathematical Approach to Ideal Fluid Flow Hydraulics Experimental Approach to Fluid Mechanics Modern Fluid Mechanics Analytical Approach with th A l ti l A h ith the th theory combined with bi d ith experimental results (DAlemberts Paradox; deviation between theoretical and experimental results 1752) results, Medium; (Air) (1) Aerodynamics (subsonic, hypersonic aerodynamics) (2) G d Gas dynamics i

transonic,

supersonic

and

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(Aims of Aerodynamics) External Flow : Prediction of forces, moments and heat transfer to bodies moving through a fluid ( g g (usually air) Aerodynamic Noise y ) y (Lift, Drag, Moments on airfoils, wings, fuselages, whole airplane) ( (other applications : buildings, ships and automobiles etc) pp g, p ) (Hydraulics: ships, submarines and torpedoes) Internal Flow : Calculation of fluid properties in a closed conduits (Air flow phenomena in the compressors and turbines in the rocket and gas turbine engine, flow in fuel lines and plumbing lines etc)

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Contents

11 1.1

Units d di U i and dimensions i 1.2 Aerodynamic properties; terminology (properties in fluid dynamics and thermodynamics) ( i i fl id d i d h d i ) 1.3 Types of flow 1.4 Aeronautical definitions (airfoil and wing geometry) 1.5 Dimensional analysis and similarity (important non-dimensional coefficients; Re, Ma) 1.6 Basic aerodynamics (aerodynamics forces and moments) 1.7 Historical background

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Classification of Aerodynamics

External Aerodynamics

Continuum Flo Contin m Flow Low density Lo densit and Free-molecular flow Free molec lar flo

Viscous Flow Vi Fl Compressible Flow Incompressible Flow Subsonic Flow Fl Transonic Flow Fl

Inviscid Flow I i id Fl

Supersonic Flow Fl

Hypersonic Flow Fl

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Definition of Fluid

Classifications of Material :

Solid Fluid

Liquid Gas

Solid

( (Zero deformation material to the stress) Elastic Solid )

Liquid : not changed the volume with the external force and density does not change with the temperature and pressure (Incompressible fluid) Gas : Easily compressed with the force and density changes with the temperature and pressure (Compressible fluid)

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Distinction between solid and fluid? Solid Can resist an applied shear by deforming deforming.

Stress strain, i.e., =

F A

= .

Stress strain rate i e = rate, i.e.,

F A

V h

Deformation of a rubber eraser placed between two parallel plates under the influence of a shear force.

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Dimension

Length Time Second S d L T M

SI Unit

Meter Second kg k

Imperial Unit

Ft Second lb

1) Base Unit Absolute Unit : Mass(kg) is base unit (SI Unit) Engineering Unit : Weight (kgf) is base unit 2) Induced Unit

Mass Force

N

Density

kg / m 3 kgfs 2 / m 4

specific volume

m 3 / kg

m 4 / kgfs 2

kgm / s 2

N /m 2

Kinematic viscosity

m2 / s m2 / s

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absolute Engineering

kg

kgf s2 / m

Ns / m 2

kgf

kgf s

2 kgf /m 2 kgfs / m

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In 1960, the six base units was recommended by International Committee of Weights and Measures. (kg, meter, second, Kelvin, ampere and candela) In 1971, the mole was added as the 7th base unit.

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1) 2) ) 3) 4) ) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Pressure Temperature p Density Specific weight p g Specific volume Gravity Thermodynamics principles (Equation of State) Bulk modulus Sonic velocity (Speed of sound)

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Unit and dimension

kgf / m 2 kgf / m 2

lbf / ft 2 lb / fts 2

[ FL2 ]

[ ML1T 2 ]

Engineering unit (1at)

1kgf / cm 2 = 735 . 6 mmHg Absolute pressure (1atm) = 760 mmHg = 1 .03323 at = 101 .325 kPa

1 psi = 1 lbf / in 2

absolute pressure(Pa ) = atmospheric(Po ) + gauge (PG )

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Unit and dimension

SI Unit

-Celsius Temp Scale(Centigrade ) p ( ) p -Kelvin Temp Scale(K) : absolute temperature

Imperial Unit

-Fahrenheit(oF) Fahrenheit( -Rankin Temp Scale(R): absolute temperature

T ( K ) = 273.15 + t oC (k )

F = 9 / 5 C + 32

o

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3

kg / m 3 ,

slug / ft 3

lbfs 2 / ft 4

[ ML3 ]

[ FT 2 L4 ]

Engineering unit Ns 2 / m 4 ,

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W m = = g = g , vol vol

Unit and dimension Absolute unit Engineering unit

= g

kg /( ms ) 2 slug/(ft s) 2 [ ML2T 2 ]

N / m3 lbf / ft 2 [ FL3 ]

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vol 1 v= = mass

Unit and dimension Absolute unit

m3 / kg ,

ft 3 / slug

[ L3 F 1 ]

Engineering unit m 4 / N 2 , Ns

ft / lbf lbfs

4

[L F T ]

2 1 2

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6) Gravity ( g ) : a natural phenomenon by which objects p y j with mass attract one another

Gravitation is

M M F r

1 g 2

M M F =G r

1 g 2

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Gravity is

g g0

2 0

0

g r2 = g (r + Z ) 2

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7) Thermodynamics Properties ( ) q (1)Equation of State Describing the state of matter g under a given set of physical conditions. from Boyle and Charles' law ;

Pv = const T

(1) (Pv/T ) converges to a constant value with the temperature at the atmospheric pressure. (2) It is all the same to all kinds of gases gases.

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Pv =R T

Pv = RT

Gas G constant of air (Rair) ? t t f i

P = RT

a S at S.T.P state(15,760mmHg) s a e( 5 , 60 g)

= 1.225(kg / m )

3 air

5 air

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(2) Polytropic process of ideal gas q g p The equation shows the general process of air property change.

Pv = const

n

Where n is polytropic index n=0 : constant pressure process n=1 : constant temperature process n= : constant volume process p p p/ , ) n=k : isentropic process (k =cp/cv, 1<k <2)

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if n=0 (P ) 0 (P=c),

v1 v2 = T1 T2

if n=1 (T=c), Pv = const (Isothermal Process)

P v1 = P2 v2 1

if n=k ( k (s=const) , t) s = const (I t (Isentropic P t i Process) )

k 1 k

T2 P2 = T1 P 1

v1 = v 2

k 1

P2 T2 = P T1 1

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dp dP E= = Vol dVol dVol Vol

dP dP E = Mv = v dVol dv

unit and dimension

N / M or kg / s m

2 2

Pa

2 -2 2 1 2

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P vn = C,

ln p + n ln v = ln c

dP ndv + =0 v P

dP = nP dv

dP En = v = np dv n

For Isentropic process, n = k

dP E s = v = kP dv T

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Primary Sh k wave at th tip and 2nd shock wave coining Pi Shock t the ti d h k i i from the cannellure and turbulence behind the bullet.

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9) Sonic Velocity (C) The speed of sound or sonic velocity describes how far the p y sound wave travels through medium in a given amount of time. Unit & Dimension : m/s ,

[ LT ]

1

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from Bulk Modulus

acting force g

F = ( P + dP) A PA = A dP

m = A c dt

d & m = (m) = AC dt

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The velocity of piston at the end ; V0 From Newtons 2nd Law ( Newton s

F = ma = m v

dF = AdP = c A ( 0-V) dP c = V

From x

VE dP E c = V = dP

2

c =

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Assume the process as Isentropic ; no friction and heat transfer in the C.V. For Isentropic process, E = Es

c =

For the ideal gas,

Es

P = RT

c= E kP = = k RT ( P / RT )

s

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(example) Estimate the time required to reach the sound wave to an object 1mile away under the 68oF water. (sol) : for 68oF water Es = 45.81106 lbf / ft 2 , = 1.973 slug / ft 3 The sound speed(c) in the water is, 1 mile = 5,280 ft

c=

= 4,863 ft / s

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(example) Estimate the speed of sound in air at STP condition. ( Es = 1.42 105 Pa , = 1.224 kg / m 3 ) (sol) for isentropic process, (R=287.053 J/kg.K)

c=

5

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- steady and unsteady flow - compressible and incompressible flow - viscous and inviscid flow - continuum and free molecular flow - subsonic/transonic/supersonic/hypersonic flow b i /t i / i /h i fl 1) steady and unsteady flow : when the properties of flow does not change with time, it is called steady flow and the time derivatives of the term vanishes in the equation. (d/dt = 0) Time periodic problem is called quasi-steady problem. p p q yp

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when the density of flow changes with pressure and temperature as it moves through in the flow field , it is called compressible flow and when the density is constant with the variable condition, it is y , called incompressible flow problem. (flow) Incompressible flow: = constant (Ma < 0.3) (=367.2m/s @S.L.), Compressible flow : = variable (Ma > 0 3 ) 0.3 Incompressible fluid : liquid p q Compressible fluid : gas

D =0 Dt

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Free movement of fluid particles transport their mass momentum mass, and energy from one place to another in the flow field. ( (Transport Phenomena of Fluid) p ) when the fluid friction has significant effect on the flow motion, it is called viscous flows and if there is no friction, no thermal conduction and mass diffusion in the flow field, it is called inviscid flows. flows Viscous flow : stokes flow at low Reynolds number y (viscous force >> initial force) Inviscid flow : flow at high Reynolds number (viscous force << initial force) ( i f i ii lf )

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In aerodynamics, the flow is assumed of inviscid flow to calculate aerodynamics forces but for the drag, it can not adequately predict t t l d d t l di t total drag. Total Drag = Pressure Drag (form drag) + Friction Drag

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If mean free path() is smaller than the particle diameter(d) the diameter(d), flow is called a continuum substance. That is, if < d : continuum flow if > d : free molecular flow For example; for air = 6 x 10-8 (m) = 60 (nm) at Sea Level = 50 ( ) at 1 500k altitude (m) t 1,500km ltit d For this level of study of aerodynamics, the flow is treated as the continuum f i flow.

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5) S ) Subsonic/Transonic/Supersonic/Hypersonic flow i / i /S i / i f

Mach number(Ma) ; represents an objects speed when it object s speed, travelling at the speed of sound. (dimensionless ratio)

V Ma = c

Flight can be roughly classified in five speed categories: Subsonic Sonic Transonic Supersonic Hypersonic : : : : : Ma < 1 Ma = 1 0.8 < Ma < 1.2 1.2 < Ma < 5 Ma > 5

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1.4

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(1) Wing area (AG , AN) - AG : the gross wing area includes the fuselage area - AN : the net wing area excludes the fuselage area (2) Chord (C) - CT : wing tip chord g p - CR : wing root chord - C : mean chord (standard or g ( geometry mean chord, SMC) y , )

C = S / b or = S / b

G N

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AR = span / SMC = b / C = b / A

2

- A : the gross or net wing area - b : the wing span (4) Sweep back (L.E. , T.E. , 1/4 ) (5) Dihedral angle, Anhedral angle () (6) Angle of Attack or Incidence angle ()

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To adjust the lift distribution along the wing of an aircraft for the stable control.

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Thickness(t )=YU + YL

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1. Symmetric airfoil : Max. thickness position : (C/4~C/2) of chord from L.E. 2. Cambered airfoil (thickness/chord)ratio : t/c * 100 (%)

- For subsonic aircraft : 13 ~18% - For supersonic aircraft : 3% Max. Max thickness position : (30~60%) of chord from L.E. LE

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(important non-dimensional coefficients; Re, Ma) 1.5.1. Fundamental principles How one variable may depend on a number of others? others? The main principle is the dimensional homogeneity in the mathematical equation. From Bernoullis equation;

1 2 + v + gz = const 2

2]. All of the term have the same dimension, [L2T-2] f h h h di i [

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(ex) Finding the eddy frequency(n) at the rear of a circular cylinder in a uniform flow.

n = fun{d ,V , , } f

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n = fun{d ,V , , }

n = cd V

a b e 1 a 1 b 3 e f

[T ] = c [ L] [ LT ] [ ML ] [ L T ]

2 1

Then,

n=c

nd =c v

( )( )

v vd d

f

( )

vd

= cR Re

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F = fun{ , V , A, , l }

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1.5.2 i 1 2 Dimensional analysis applied to Aerodynamic force i l l i li d A d i f For one of the aerodynamic force (lift drag, 3 moments); (lift, drag Drag force is influenced by;

F = fun{V , D, , , k }

D

F = cV D (1 / R e) (1 / Ma )

2 2 2 D 2 2 D

F /( V D ) = fun{ R e, Ma } ( f

For low speed, (Ma< 0.3~0.5), it is incompressible thus ;

F /( V D ) = f { R e } fun

2 2 D

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For the low speed (Ma < 0.3 ~ 0.5) aerodynamics, Re is the only criterion of dynamic similarity for the model test. For high speed flight, Ma > 0.5 o g g , a

F /( V D ) = fun{ R e, Ma } ( f

2 2 D

F /( V D ) = fun{ R e }

2 2

D

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(Aerodynamic F (A d i Forces and M d Moments) t) 1.6.1. 1 6 1 Aerodynamic forces and moments 1.6.2. Force and moment coefficients 1.6.3. Pressure distribution on an airfoil 1.6.4. Pitching moment 1.6.5. Types of aerodynamic drag yp y g 1.6.6. Estimation of CL, CD, CM from pressure distribution 1.6.7. Induced drag

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Aerodynamic f A d i forces on a fl i airplane; flying i l

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Aerodynamic f A d i force coefficient of a flying airplane; ffi i f fl i i l

F C =1 V S 2

F 2

C =

L

1 2

V S

2

-Drag coefficient :

Drag C =1 V S 2

D 2

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M C =1 V S c 2

M 2

Where

Pressure coefficient (Cp);

PP C = 1 V 2

P

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From Bernoullis equation, If (Cp) = 0.0 then the pressure is the same as the free stream pressure (Cp) = 1.0 then the pressure is stagnation pressure at a stagnation point .

If incidence angle is -4o, the pressure distributions on the lower and upper surfaces would be the same and give no lift.

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For L = L and D = D, d

Converting to coefficient form by dividing by 1 V 2 S gives

2

CMx = CM a

a x (C L cos + C D sin ) c c

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The pitching moment is constant independently to the lift force If CMLE is known at L.E. ; C = C Mx M M

L.E.

+ x (C cos + C sin ) s c

L D

If C is calculated at each point along the chord for several values Mx of CL , one special point where C is constant , independent of CL.

Mx

The aerodynamic center(A.C.) of the airfoil. y ( ) (23~25% of the chord line from L.E. at around =10o)

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At moderate incidence angle () between 3~7o, CL = 20 x CD and cos= 10 x sin CL x cos = 200 xCD x sin and sin is negligible, thus

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If (

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(1) Flat or curved plate in inviscid, incompressible flow: A.C. A C = C/4 (1) Thickness and viscosity effect moves A.C. a few % forward (2) C Compressibility effect tends to move A C b k ibilit ff t t d t A.C. backward. d (3) Thin airfoil in supersonic : A.C. = C/2

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The i hi Th pitching moment is zero and the aerodynamic forces i d h d i f (lift, drag) are existing on C.P.

C.P. is moving with the lift force and not always within the airfoil section.

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Dividing by

That is, is always bigger than . It means C.P. is behind A.C. on the chord of airfoil.

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- Aerodynamic Center (AC) :a point on the chord where CM is independent of CL and CD - Center of Pressure (CP) : a point on the chord where CM is zero and only aerodynamic forces are existing

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Total Drag = (S i Friction Drag) + ( (Skin i i ) (Pressure Drag) ) (1) Skin friction drag (surface friction drag) It is traction due to the viscosity of fluid and acts on the surface tangentially at all points. g y p (No friction without viscosity) ( ) (2) Pressure drag (form or profile drag) g( p g) Resistance force acting normal to the surface - Form drag (boundary layer pressure drag) g( y y p g) - Induced drag (vortex drag depends on lift) - Wave drag (shock wave in high speed)

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Form Drag < Skin Friction Drag Form Drag > Skin Friction Drag CD = 0.001 Laminar flow CD = 1.28 CD = 0 005 Turbulent flow 0.005

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(Induced Drag)

(Pressure Drag)

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component Transport Aircraft Subsonic Fighter Executive Helicopter Jet Supersonic Transonic Supersonic

45% 40% 7% 3% 5%

47% 38% 2% 5% 8%

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For unit span length; - Upper surface ; pp - Lower surface ; The total Z-force ;

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Or

Or

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Summary For forces and moments in z-dir and x-direction; y ; ( (Forces) ) (Moments)

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For the lift (CL) and drag coefficient ( D) are; ( g (C where CR cos = CZ and CR sin = CX

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The pressure difference between the upper wing and the lower wing on a finite span wing causes air to flow from the lower surface wing root, around the wingtip, towards the upper surface wing root. This spanwise flow of air combines with chordwise flowing air, causing a change in speed and direction, which twists th i fl t i t the airflow and produces vortices along the wing trailing d d ti l th i t ili edge. The vortices created are unstable, and they quickly combine to unstable produce wingtip vortices. The resulting vortices change the speed and direction of the airflow behind the trailing edge, p g g , deflecting it downwards, and thus inducing downwash behind the wing.

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In Fluid Mechanics

Bernoulli(1738) : Bernoulli(1738)

He found the relationship of pressure velocity and potential pressure, energy for an inviscid flow; an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy. (B t ti l (Bernoulli's equation) lli' ti ) 2

P U + + Z = H = const 2g

Jean le Rend Alembert (1752): 1752) D'Alembert proved that for incompressible and inviscid (potential flow) the drag force is zero on a body moving with constant velocity relative to zero, the fluid. But he found that the substantial drag on the moving body from the experiment. It is called DAlemberts Paradox. This is mainly due to the ignoring the viscosity effect on the boundary layer on the surface of the object.

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He applied the Newtons laws of motion to the fluids and set up the Newton s differential form of equation of motion of inviscid flow with compressible and incompressible conditions.

dP

U + d + dZ = 0 2g

2

If =constant then,

P U2 d + 2g + Z = 0

In 1822, the Navier-Stokes Equations were set describing the motion of fluid raised from applying Newtons 2nd law to fluid motion. In modern days, the NavierStokes equations in their full and simplified forms can be applied to many engineering design areas; the design of aircraft and cars the study of blood flow the design of cars, flow, power stations, the analysis of pollution, and many other things.

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He classified the fluid flow into two different kinds with its velocity.

- Laminar Flow : Very stable flow with no disruption between layers at low speed (streamlined flow) - Turbulent Flow : Very chaotic and fluctuating flow with rapid variation of pressure and velocity with time at high speed

He defined boundary layer on the surface of an solid object and p p p developed the mathematical basis for the principles of subsonic aerodynamics. He classified the flow field into two regions; viscous effect region and inviscid region. He applied the boundary layer effect to Navier-Stokes equation. Navier Stokes

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In Aerodynamics I A d i

1. Isaac Newtons Principia in 1687 p He tried to apply his theorem to fluid flow. He thought,

F = m a sin

2

the tangential momentum would be preserved to move the p particles along the surface. It is his sine-squired law. g q

- DAlembert proved it is only good for angle (50~90degree) g ( g ) - Euler : the particles bend their directions and velocity before reaching the body For modern high-speed aerodynamics, it has very important meanings.

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2. The Wright brother's Effort (Orville and Wilbur) The first successful flying with the power airplane in 1903 at Kitty Hawk North Carolina.

4-Cyllinder Water-Cooled Vertical Engine Bore Stroke Displace 4 3/8 in 4 in 3.93 liters Power RPM Weight 28-42 HP 1,325~1,500 72.6~81.6 kg

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3. High-speed supersonic flight (Rocket and High-speed airplane) The first supersonic flight was started by the end of World p g y War II. For a high speed vehicle such as aerospace vehicle re-entering to earths orbiter at speed of 6km/h, aerodynamic heating was serious problem. The heating was dominant problem to solve by the high-speed aerodynamicists high speed aerodynamicists.

Heinkel He 178 was the world's first aircraft to fly under turbojet power in 1939

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In 1951 J li All I 1951, Julian Allen at NASA introduced the concept of the t i t d d th t f th blunt re-entry body.

This blunt reentry body is an excellent example of the importance of aerodynamics to space vehicle design. design

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Copyright 2009 Prof Chul-Ho KIM Seoul National University of Technology. All right Reserved

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Apollo Command Module flying at a high angle of attack for lifting entry

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