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required so that the system is controllable? Solution: As stated in chapter 11.2, a system is controllable if and only if the determinant of the controllability matrix is non-zero. So we first get the controllability matrix from the given information, then select the right b1 and b2 to make the determinant of the controllability matrix to be non-zero. In this problem, n=2, controllability matrix Pc=[B AB],

b1 b1 1 0 b1 b1 AB= b = 2b , Pc= b 2b ; det( Pc) = 2b1b2 b1b2 = b1b2 ; 0 2 2 2 2 2

DP11.4 A high performance helicopter has a model as

d 2 d dx = 1 1 + n 2 dt dt dt d 2x d dx = g 2 2 + g . 2 dt dt dt The goal is to control the pitch angle by adjust the rotor angle , where x is the translation in the horizontal direction. Given: 1 =0.415 2 =0.0198 1 =1.43 2 =0.0111 n=6.27 g=9.8

Find a) the state variable representation of the system; b) the transfer function for ( s ) / ( s ) ;

c) using the state variable feedback to achieve adequate performance for the controlled system. The performance requirements are Ts<1.5s, overshoot <20%, and steady-state error less than 20% of the input magnitude.

1

Solution:

As stated in the problem, the input of the system is , the output of the system is . To be clear in notation, we use z instead x for the translation in the horizontal direction. Then the given system is d 2 d dz = 1 1 + n 2 dt dt dt d 2z d dz = g 2 2 + g 2 dt dt dt

& & & a) Set the state variable as x = & , x = & , y = = [1 0 0]x . && z & z

& = [0 1 0]x

& & & = 1& 1 z + n = [0 1 1 ]x + n ; && = g 2& 2 z + g = [g & z

2 ]x + g

0 & x = 0 g 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 x + n = 0 0.415 0.0111 x + 6.27 1 9.8 1.43 0.0198 g 9 .8 2

y = = [1 0 0]x

b) Find the transfer function: From Chapter 3 Eq 3.71, we knew that transfer function of a system is

G ( s) =

Y ( s) = C[ sI A]1 B . X ( s)

s [ sI A]1 = 0 g

1 s + 1

0 1 s +2

( s + 1 )( s + 2 ) 1 2 s +2 1

(s + 1 ) g s ( s + 2 ) ( s 2 g ) 0 s( s + 1 )

1 g

3

0 & x = 0 g 1 1 2

1 1 2 0 0 x + n [-k -k 1 2 1 g 2 0 k3 ]x + n k 4 r g

0 0 0 x + n = 0 1 g g 2 0

1 0 nk 1 nk2 H = 1 g gk1 2 gk2

1 nk3 2 gk3 0

1 s + 1 + nk2 2 + gk2

1 + nk3 ) s + 2 + gk3 0

= s( s + 1 + nk2 )( s + 2+ gk3 ) (a1 + nk3 )( gk1 g ) + nk1 ( s + 2 + gk3 )( gk2 + a2 ) = s 3 + ( gk3 + nk2 + 1 + 2 ) s 2 + ( 1 2 + n 2 k2 + g 1k3 + nk1 a1 gk2 a1a2 ) s +

a1 g a1 gk1 + gnk3 + 2 nk1 = ( s 2 + 2 n s + n )(s + 1) = 0

2

4

1

2

P.O= 100e

then n > 6.52 , pick n = 6.7 . According to the explanation in section 5.4, the real part of the third root should greater than 10 times of the real part of the dominant roots (the roots of the second order system). So | 1

| 10 | n |= 30

2

0 n n n 2 a1 g a1 g + 2 n 0 k1 36 1 2 a2 n + g 1 k2 = 225 + a1 + a2 k3 1350 a1 g gn g

so K=[ 53.1116 -28.6441 21.9555]. (the results may be a little bit different because different and n were picked up. It is OK as long as the performance requirements are achieved )

1 1 1 0 4 0 3 x + 0 u , & MP11.1 consider the system x = 1 6 8 10 y = [1 2 1]x .

4

Using the ctrb and obsv functions show that the system is controllable and observable.

Solution: the Matlab script is the following:

>> det_con = 118 the system is controllable. det_obs = -19 the systemis observable

1 0 0 & x= x + 1u 2 4.5

y = [1 0]x .

Determine if the system is controllable and observable. Compute the transfer function from u to

y.

5

>> det_con = -1 the system is controllable. det_obs = 1 the systemis observable Transfer function: 1 --------------s^2 + 4.5 s + 2

Using the method if section 11.4(eq 11.19) and a negative unity feedback, determine the optimal system when x T (0) = [1 0] .

0 1 .

Solution: set the state variable feedback as u = k1 x1-k2 x2 = [-k1 -k2 ]x , where k1,k2>0

0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 & Then x = x + 1u = 1 0 x + 1[ k1 k2 ]x = 1 0 x + - k k x 1 0 2 1 1 0 = x ; 1 k1 k2 1 0 H = 1 k1 k2

to achieve a good feedback contol, we need to minimize the performance index J, i.e. to design the symmetric matrix P to keep H T P + PH = -I .

0 1 k1 p11 1 k2 p12 (1 k1 ) p12 p k p 11 2 12 p12 p11 + p22 p12 p12 0 p22 1 k 11 1 0 = k2 0 1

2(1 k1 ) p12 p (1 + k ) p + k p 1 22 2 12 11

so p12 =

p12 1 p k 2 + k12 + 3k1 + 2 T . the performance index J = x 0 Px 0 = [1 0] 11 = p11 = 2 2(1 + k1 )k2 p12 p22 0 To minimize J as a function of k2, we take the derivative with repect to k2 and set it equal to zero. 2 2k (2(1 + k1 )k2 ) (k2 + k12 + 3k1 + 2)2(1 + k1 ) J 1 k 2 + k12 + 3k1 + 2 = = 2 2 2 k2 [2(1 + k1 )k2 ]2 (1 + k1 ) 2(1 + k1 )k2 1 k +2 1 k +2 = 1 2 = 0 , i.e. = 1 2 2(1 + k1 ) 2k2 (1 + k1 ) k2

k 2 = (1 + k1 )(k1 + 2)

7

k2 = (1 + k1 )(k1 + 2)

J =

(1 + k1 )(k1 + 2) = (1 + k1 )

k1 + 2 1 + k1

use Matlab to plot the relationship between k1 and k2, J and k1 to help us pick a proper set of [k1 k2]. The figure shows that as k1 increase, the performance index J decreases. However, we see that the rate of decrease slows considerably after k1>20. Also k2 increase as k1 increase. We want to keep both gains as small as possible, while still having a small J. A reasonable selection is k1=20 and k2=21.5.

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