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A&AE 251 Class 14 9/27/02

Class 14: Drag Prediction II


K Parasite

drag - drag build-up

Flat plate equivalent area Complete MD-80 example


K Parasite

drag due to lift drag

Induced drag coefficient


K Compressibility

Drag divergence mach number Wing sweep


K Predicting

total drag

Total Parasite Drag


K With

all information, use build-up to estimate parasite drag


CD p =

components

KiQi C f i S weti S ref

D p = C D p qS

A&AE 251 Class 14 9/27/02

Flat Plate Equivalent Area


KA

means to compare drag of different aircraft


f e = C D p S ref

fe =

Dp q

MD-80 Drag - Wing


C (CD )w = K wQwS f
p w

S wet w

K Parasite

ref

drag coefficient

( f e )w = C D p Sref

( )w

K Flat

plate equivalent area

A&AE 251 Class 14 9/27/02

MD-80 Drag - Fuselage


C (CD ) f = K f Q f S f
p f

S wet f

K Parasite

ref

drag coefficient

( f e ) f = CD p Sref

( )f

K Flat

plate equivalent area

MD-80 Parasite Drag Build-up


Component Wing Fuselage Horizontal Tail Vertical Tail Nacelles Pylons Total fe [ft2] CDp

2.16 0.61 1.54 0.35

0.00170 0.00048 0.00121 0.00028

A&AE 251 Class 14 9/27/02

MD-80 Drag - Miscellaneous


K MD-80
n n n

aircraft

Flight conditions
V = 750 ft/s M = 0.76 h = 32,000 ft Re/l = 2.0254106 ft-1 = 8.270410-4 sl/ft3 a = 986.22 ft/s

Atmosphere
n n n

K Miscellaneous

drag

coefficient, CDmisc

K Parasite

drag coefficient, CDp

Parasite Drag Due to Lift


K Experimentally,

CDp varies with CL2


2

CL 2 CD = CD p + kCL + + CDmisc AR
K Terms

k and combined into Oswald Efficiency Factor, e


CL2 CD = CD p + + C Dmisc ARe
generally, 0.75 < e < 0.85

A&AE 251 Class 14 9/27/02

MD-80 Drag - Induced Drag


K

Weight and geometry


W = 140,000 lb S = 1270 ft2 AR = 9.62 e = 0.8 (estimated)

Flight conditions
V = 750 ft/s = 0.76 h = 32,000 ft = 8.270410-4 sl/ft3 a = 986.22 ft/s

Lift coefficient, CL

Induced drag coefficient, CDi

10

Compressibility Drag
K Factor

in transonic (and faster) flight regime

Flow passing a body can be locally supersonic Supersonic bubble forms on airfoils

A&AE 251 Class 14 9/27/02

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Drag Divergence Mach Number


K Compressibility

(CD )c

drag becomes significant, at drag divergence mach number (MDD)


airfoils

0.035 0.03 0.025 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005

jet transports fly below aircrafts MDD

0 0 0.5 1 1.5

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Wing Sweep
KA

means to increase MDD of the wing K Sweep angle, c/4


c/4

MT
simple estimator for wing MDD

M0

MN

(M DD )swept wing =

(M DD )airfoil
cos c 4

A&AE 251 Class 14 9/27/02

Compressibility Drag Design Issues

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Boeing 777 cruise M = 0.83

Concorde cruise M = 2.04

K Difficult

to predict CDc (methods beyond 251) K Select airfoil and sweep


speed required additional complexity and weight
K Jet

passenger transports fly M MDD

MD-80 Drag - Compressibility Drag


K

14

Geometry
= 24.5 wing t/c = 0.11

Flight conditions
V = 750 ft/s M = 0.76 h = 32,000 ft = 8.270410-4 sl/ft3 a = 986.22 ft/s
K

Compressibility drag coefficient, CDc

Estimated wing MDD

A&AE 251 Class 14 9/27/02

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Predicting Total Drag


K Total

drag coefficient C D = C D p + C Di + C Dmisc + C Dc


KiQi C f i S weti S ref CL2 + + C Dmisc + C Dc ARe

CD =
i