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LET Reviewer

Child Growth and Development

Part I: Review Materials A. Basic Concepts of Growth and Development Principle a fundamental law or uniformity of nature. Theory a public pronouncement that indicates what a scientist/theorist believes to be true about his/her specific area of investigation. Heredity (Nature) the totality of characteristics, transmitted from parents to the offspring. Environment (Nurture) the totality of any aspect of physical and social phenomena which surround or affect an individual or organism. Growth the physical and physiological changes that occur throughout life. Development the progressive and continuous change in the organism from birth to death. Maturation developmental changes in the body or behavior that result from the aging process. Life Span the life of an individual organism from birth to death.

B. Stages of Development Stage Zygotic Embryonic Fetal Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Old Age or Senescence Term Applied Zygote Embryo Fetus Partunate Neonate Infant Child Adolescent Adult Old Man/Woman Age Range Fertilization to 14 days 14 days to 60 days 60 days to birth Birth to cutting of the umbilical cord Birth to 30 days Birth to 3 years 2 years to 10 (12) - years Girls 11 years to 21 years Boys 13 years to 21 years 21 years to 65 years 65 years to death

C. Principles of Human Growth and Development Development is influenced by both heredity and environment. Development patterns show wide individual differences. Growth is sequential. Growth is continuous. Development proceeds from general to specific. Each phase of development has characteristic traits. There is unity in growth patterns. Growth is patterned. Developmental rates vary.

LET Reviewer

Child Growth and Development

The body tends to maintain a state of equilibrium called homeostasis.

D. Theories of Human Development 1. Psychoanalytic Theory focus on social and emotional development. Psychoanalytic theorists make us aware that early experiences and unconscious emotional conflict can have a dramatic effect in developing personality. Originated from the work of Sigmund Freud. At birth, the childs personalities consists only of these instinctual forces (id), which gradually diverted into a system of rational thought (ego), and an irrational but ethical component of personality (superego). Stages of development according to the psychoanalytic theory: o Oral stage (birth to one year) o Anal stage (one to three years) o Phallic stage (three to six years) o Latency stage (six to twelve years) o Genital stage (12 years onward) 2. Psychosocial Theory extends Freuds theory by concentrating less on the sex instinct and more on importance on sociocultural determinants of human development. Originated from the work of Erik Erikson. According to the theory every individual progress through a series of eight psychosocial stages: o Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to one year) o Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1 3 years) o Initiative vs. Guilt (3 6 years) o Industry vs. Inferiority (6 12 years) o Identity vs. Role Confusion (12 40 years) o Intimacy vs. Isolation (20 40 years) o Genrativity vs. Stagnation (40 65 years) o Ego Integrity vs. Despair (old age to death) 3. Learning Theory is concerned mainly with the process of development itself. Learning theorist have helped us to understand how children are influenced by their environment and how interactions between person and environment leads to the development of stable habits, traits, talents and peculiarities. Also called behaviorism and is base on the studies of John B. Watson. The basic premises of Watsons Behaviorist/Learning theory are: o The mind of an infant is a blank slate (tabula rasa) and that learned associations between stimuli and responses are the building blocks of human development; o Development does not proceed through a series of stages; o It is a continuous process marked by the gradual acquisition of new and more sophisticated behavioral patterns, or habits; and o He believed that only the simplest of human reflexes are inborn and that important behavioral tendencies, including traits, talents, values, and aspirations are learned.

LET Reviewer

Child Growth and Development

4. Cognitive Theory concentrate on the intellectual aspects of human development. Major contributor is Jean Piaget States that children are neither driven by undesirable instinct nor molded by environmental influences. They view children as constructivist. Piaget divided intellectual development into four major periods: o Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years) o Preoperational stage (2 to 7 years) o Operational stage (7 years and beyond) which is divided into the concrete operation stage (7 to 11 years) and the formal operational stage (11 years and beyond) 5. Sociohistoric Theory states that social interaction is the way in which children develop increasingly more complex thinking. Originated from Lev Semanovich Vygotsky who highly stressed the importance of the social environment to development. The According to Vygotsky the child acquires new skills and information within the zone of proximal development (ZPD), the level at which a child finds a task too difficult to complete alone, but which he can accomplish with the assistance or support of an adult or older peer. 6. Ethology agree, in part, with each of these arguments, but they would also emphasize that human beings are biological creature, who inherit various mannerism, behaviors and motives that help to steer them along particular developmental paths. Ethology is the study of biological bases of behavior, including its evolution, causation and development. This theoretical approach arose from the efforts of several European zoologists who argued that other theorists had overlooked or ignored important biological contributions to human and animal behavior. One interesting ethological idea is that infants are sociable creature who are quite capable of promoting and maintaining social encounters from the day they are born. 7. Moral Development Theory the moral development view point as originated by Piaget and expanded by Kohlberg which is composed of 3 levels and 2 stages under each. Lawrence Kohlberg expanded Piagets studies of moral development by making moral dilemmas that could be appropriate for other children. Kohlberg developed 3 levels and 6 stages of moral reasoning: o Level One Preconventional Morality (birth to 9 years) Stage 1: Punishment-Obedience Orientation (toddler to 4 years) Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation (Pre-school to school age or 5 to 9 years) o Level Two Conventional Morality (9 to 20 years) Stage 3: Good Boy-Nice Girl Orientation Stage 4: law and Order Orientation o Level Three Postconventional Morality (after age 20) Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principle Orientation

LET Reviewer

Child Growth and Development

E. Learning Learning is a change in behavior resulting from the interaction of the organism with its environment. Involves relatively permanent change which is the result of experience or practice. Different Principles of Learning and their Application in Classroom Situation Learning by doing is more effective than just by sitting and listening. Learning should be goal-oriented and focused. The amount of reinforcement necessary for learning is relative to the students needs and abilities. The principle of readiness is related to the learners stage development and their previous learning. The students self-concept and beliefs about their abilities are extremely important. Teachers should provide opportunities for meaningful and appropriate practice (rehearsal). Positive feedback, realistic praise and encouragement are motivating in the teaching-learning process. Learning under the control reward is preferable to punishment. Meaningful materials are readily learned than nonsense materials. Effort is put forth when tasks are challenging. Concepts should be presented in varied and specified situation. Learning is aided by formulating and asking questions. F. Learning Theories 1. Behaviorist Learning Theories a. Pavlovs Classical Conditioning The term classical means in the established manner In this process, a new stimulus previously a neutral one is substituted for the stimulus which originally elicited the response. The features of classical conditioning are: Stimulus Generalization Discrimination Extinction b. Thorndikes Connectionism Proposed by Edward Lee Thorndike. This theory covers the three major Laws of Learning: Law of Readiness states that individuals will learn more effectively and rapidly if they are ready or have matured to that point and if there is a felt need. Law of Exercise similar to the law of use and disuse. This emphasizes that continual practice results to strength and disuse results to weakness.

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Child Growth and Development

Law of Effect maintains that an individual will be more likely to repeat satisfying experiences that those that are annoying. c. Skinners Reinforcement and Operant Conditioning Developed as explanation of learning that stressed the consequences of behavior. According to Burrhus Frederick Skinner behavior is a casual chain of three links, (1) an operation preformed upon the organism from without, (2) some inner condition, and (3) a kind of behavior. d. Banduras Social Cognitive Learning According to the observational learning or social learning theory learning takes place when one person observes and then imitates the behavior of others. The processes in observational learning are: (1) attention, (2) retention, (3) motor reproduction processes and (4) motivational processes. 2. Cognitive Learning Process 1. Field Theory (Lewin) 2. Problem Solving by Insight (Kohler) 3. Meaningful Learning Theory (Ausubel) Two dimensions of learning process are fundamental in this theory: The first dimensions relates to the two ways by which k knowledge to be learned is made available to the learner: o Meaningful Reception Learning new, logically organized material is presented in final form and the learner relates it to his existing knowledge. o Rote Reception Learning material of any kind is presented in final form and is memorized. The second dimension relates to the two ways by which the learner may incorporate new information into his existing cognitive structure: o Meaningful Discovery Learning o Rote Discovery Learning 4. Bruners Theory of Instruction This theory focused on the problem of what people do with information to achieve generalized insights or understanding. Learning is seen as a cognitive process that involves 3 simultaneous processes: (1) acquisition, (2) transformation and (3) evaluation. 5. Gagnes Cumulative Learning Learning skills are hierarchically arranged, where there is a progression from developing simple stimulus-response associations to concepts and principles and problem-solving. Gagne enumerated 8 levels of learning: Signal Learning Stimulus-response Learning

LET Reviewer

Child Growth and Development

Chaining Verbal Association Discrimination Learning Concept Learning Principle Learning Problem solving

LET Reviewer

Child Growth and Development

Part II: Practice Test Read and understand each question and encircle the letter of the best answer. 1. During a physical examination conducted by the school physician in Mrs. Cruzs class, the doctor observed quantitative increase in terms of height and weight. This demonstrate the concept of A. growth C. maturation B. learning D. development 2. After a month of lesson in computer, Carlos can already demonstrate his skills to his classmate. This changes is attributed to the concept called A. growth C. maturation B. learning D. development 3. As we grow older, we observe changes in ourselves such as aging. Which term refers to the development changes in the individual? A. growth C. maturation B. learning D. development 4. The relatively permanent change in the behavior of an individual comes as a result of practice and experience is known as A. development C. maturation B. growth D. learning 5. The newborn infant moves his whole body at one time, instead of moving any part of it. Which of the following principles is illustrated? A. Development is predictable. B. Development follows a pattern. C. Development proceeds from general to specific. D. Development proceeds from specific to general. 6. Mrs. A, an elementary teacher believes that both heredity and environment facilitate the total development of an individual. Therefore, Mrs. A is likely to support which of the following principles of development. A. Development is predictable. B. Development follows a pattern. C. Development proceeds from general to specific. D. Development is an interaction between heredity and environment. 7. Identical twins were orphaned and were raised separately by their relatives who belong to different socio-economic status. After 3 years, there were differences in their academic performance. What explains this difference? A. Difference in nature C. Difference in nurture B. Difference in heredity D. difference in intelligence

LET Reviewer

Child Growth and Development

8. Generally, children crawl, sit and stand before they walk. What does this imply? A. Development is continuous. B. Development follows a pattern. C. Development is sequential. D. Development is influenced by both heredity and environment. 9. Which of the following pertains to strengthening a behavior presenting a desired response after the behavior? A. Cumulative learning C. Classical conditioning B. Associative learning D. Operant conditioning 10. An English teacher pointed out to the students specific elements in making well written paragraphs. Which element of observational learning is demonstrated? A. motivation C. retention B. production D. attention 11. A Grade 5 Science teacher delegates tasks like collecting and distributing materials to her students most of time. In Ericksons psychosocial theory, what is exemplified by the teacher? A. Encourages industry among students. B. Encourages initiative among students. C. Demonstrates a psychomotor skill. D. Models how to collect and distribute materials properly. 12. An infant explores the world using his senses and motor activity. This stages is called A. sensorimotor C. concrete operational B. operant conditioning D. formal operational 13. Which of the following theories can be effective and efficient means of teaching new behavior? A. Observational learning C. Association theory B. Operant conditioning D. Drive theory 14. Children are likely to experience some kind of psychosocial crisis as they go from one stage of development to the next stage. Whose view is this? A. Jean Piaget C. Sigmund Freud B. Erik Erickson D. Edward Thorndike 15. A child during the sensorimotor stage does not see things in abstract forms. What should the teacher do in teaching counting to young children? A. Use real objects. B. Use interactive videos. C. Use flashcards. D. Use pictures instead of numbers. 16. Lily, a Grade 4 pupil, learns a lot from the experience shared by her classmates and teachers. Who stressed that social interaction develops thinking? A. Freud C. Vygotsky B. Watson D. Piaget

LET Reviewer

Child Growth and Development

17. Most young children love large objects and simple activities and gradually work up to more intricate toys and specific tasks. Which principle best describe the situation? A. Sequential development B. Nature and nurture development C. Continuous development D. General to specific development 18. Carl did not finish his activity sheet. The teacher did not allow him to play basketball after the class. Which theory is illustrated? A. Classical conditioning C. Operant conditioning B. Meaningful learning D. Social learning 19. Cheating is persistent problem in classroom. Tina, a freshman student, while taking her final examination noticed that many of her classmates were cheating. Despite what she saw, she did not cheat. In what stage of Kohlbergs theory was her action? A. Law and order orientation B. Social contract orientation C. Good-boy/Nice-girl orientation D. Universal ethical principle orientation 20. The way the child talks, walks or gestures may have learned from models he/she had exposed to. What learning theory explains this? A. Social learning C. Cognitive learning B. Meaningful learning D. Moral development 21. Mrs. C matches her instructional strategies and techniques to her students abilities to foster students cognitive development. Which theory best describe this strategy? A. Freuds theory C. Ericksons theory B. Piagets theory D. Kohlbergs theory 22. Mara comes to school on time because it is one of the schools rules and regulations. Besides, she does not like to disturb their class by coming late. In this situation, which level of Kohlbergs morality does Mara belong? A. preconventional C. postconventional B. conventional D. Universal 23. Lani is wondering why at age 14 she has not menstruated yet while her friend Ana experienced menarche at age 12. Which of the following principles is applied in this situation? A. Developmental rates vary. B. Development is continuous. C. Development is predictable. D. Development patterns show wide individual differences. 24. It is a fact that very young children have short span of attention. Which of the following is BEST suited to them? A. Let them do the things they like to do.

LET Reviewer

Child Growth and Development

B. Group them according to their needs and interests. C. Ask them to do a long activity but with intervals. D. Prepare interesting and different activities but for short period of time. 25. Tinas mother got angry with her because she disobeyed her. She joined the outing of her friends which the mother thought dangerous. If Tina did not join their outing, she will be an outcast in the group. What characteristics of adolescence did Tina exhibit in this case? A. Adolescents give priority to the demands of their peers than to their parents. B. Adolescents know that their parents will forgive them even if they commit mistakes. C. Adolescents do not mind other people as long as they are happy. D. Adolescents are care-free and happy-go-lucky individuals. 26. Most of the students will cheat if the pressure to perform well is great and the chances of being caught are slim. How can teachers prevent cheating? A. Giving difficult and tricky questions. B. Putting students in high-pressure situations. C. Being inconsistent in enforcing policies regarding cheating. D. Preparing the students for tests, projects and assignments so they can do reasonably well. 27. When children are no longer fooled by appearances in understanding basic properties and relations among objects; when they begin to use generalizations, but they still require specific examples to grasp many ideas, then they are considered to be in what period of Piagets intellectual development? A. sensorimotor stage C. Concrete operations B. Preoperational stage D. Formal operations 28. Sonia is a transferee and feels uneasy with her new school. Her teacher is very accommodating, warm and caring. Sonia felt comfortable with her teachers display of genuine warmth. The teacher is consistent in her manner and Sonia began to associate school with the teachers warmth. Which theory is being illustrated in this case? A. Meaningful learning C. Classical conditioning B. Operant conditioning D. Observational conditioning 29. Mrs. B, a Grade 1 teacher tells the parents to buy big pencils, big crayons and big brushes for their children. Which Justifies Mrs. Bs advice? A. Big writing equipment are durable than small one. B. Pupils perform better with bigger writing materials. C. Using bigger writing materials is already a tradition. D. Pupils fine muscles have not yet fully developed. 30. A teacher wants to increase the ability of her students to solve more complex problems. What must she provide? A. Correct answers all the time. B. Increase practice with simple problems.

LET Reviewer

Child Growth and Development

C. Problems match appropriately to students level of thinking. D. Reduce stimulation so as to increase attention to the task. 31. Ms. A is a Grade 5 adviser. How can she promote moral development in her classroom? A. Accept misbehaviors/wrongdoings of pupils because they are still immature. B. Discourage topics like honesty and respect for others in the classroom. C. Disregard the powerful influence as a role model as she interacts with students. D. Emphasize individual responsibility and the practical nature of rules designed to protect the rights of others. 32. Which is an application of cognitive approach to motivation? A. Explain the reason for studying a topic. B. Create a supportive classroom climate for students. C. Provide clear and prompt feedback on assignments. D. Begin lessons with challenging questions and conflicting events. 33. When the students display aggressive behavior in the class, what should the teacher do? A. Model non-violent conflict-resolution strategies. B. Threaten the students to win confidence. C. Send the students out of the classroom. D. Ignore the students. 34. Recently, Josie has come to understand that when you cut a piece of pie in half, you still have the same amount of pie. According to Piaget, Josie A. will understand these pieces of pie and nothing else. B. is demonstrating the principle of observation. C. must be five years older. D. has the ability to focus on several dimensions of a problem. 35. An adolescent who as developed formal operational thinking solves the pendulum problem by A. guessing B. developing a hypothesis, followed by random testing of variables. C. centering on the most likely variable and testing it randomly. D. envisioning all possible factors and testing each systematically. 36. A general conclusion about argumentativeness in adolescence is that A. Adolescents from different ethnic group 37.