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COMPO1 - LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION: DATA PROCESSING

DATA Any collection of facts. Refers to qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables.

Example of DATA 1. Numerical Data Inventory figures, test scores 2. Non-Numerical Data Sales report, customers names and addresses weather reports etc. DATA PROCESSING Is the manipulation of data into a more useful form. It is the modern name for paperwork and involves the collecting, processing, and distributing of facts and figures to achieve a desired result. It includes not only numerical calculations but also operations such as the classification of data and the transmission of data from one place to another. Operations are performed by some type of machine or computer, although some of them could also be carried out normally. DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM Refers to the equipment or devices and procedures by which the result is achieved. CATEGORIES OF DATA PROCESSING 1. Mechanical Data Processing Use a combination of manual procedures and mechanical equipment System uses various devices such as typewriters, sorters, calculators, collators, tabulators, duplicators and verifiers. (Most of these systems operate on punched cards. 2. Electronic Data Processing Different types of input, output and storage devices may be interconnected to an electronic computer to process data. Major Difference between the two categories is that the mechanical system usually requires constant manual intervention between the different data processing operations, whereas in an electronic system the different operations are performed automatically with a minimum of manual intervention.

BASIC STEPS IN DATA PROCESSING CYCLE


1. INPUT In this step the initial data or input data are prepared in some convenient form for processing. The form will depend on the processing machine.

Ex. When electro-mechanical devices are used, the input data are punched on cards; but if electronic computers are used, the input data could be recorded on any of several types of input medium, such as cards, tapes and disks.

2. PROCESSING In this step the input data are changed, and usually combined with other information, to produce data in a more useful form. Processing step usually involves a sequence of certain basic processing operations. Ex. Paychecks maybe calculated from the time cards, or a summary of sales for the month may be calculated from the sales order. 3. OUTPUT Results of the preceding processing steps are collected. Particular form of the output data depends on the use of data. Ex. Output data maybe paychecks for employees, a printed summary of monthly sales for management, or simply a data to be stored for further processing at a later date.

ACTUAL EXAMPLE During the semester an instructor gives five unit examinations. At the end of the semester the grades must be processed and a final grade sheet for the class submitted to the department. INPUT: Students names and the five scores PROCESSING: The instructor process the input data by averaging the five examinations and then determining the equivalent letter grade of each student. OUTPUT: Students names and their letter grades with alphabetical order on the final grade sheet.

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EXPANDED DATA PROCESSING CYCLE


Three more steps are added to the basic data processing cycle to obtain the expanded data processing cycle. 1. ORIGINATION A step which refers to the process of collecting the original data.

An original recording of the data is called source document. Ex. Source documents for the determination of student grades are graded test papers of the students. 2. DISTRIBUTION This step refers to the distribution of the output data. Recordings of the output data are often called report documents. Ex. The report document in the case of student grade is the class grade sheet which is forwarded to the registrar. The flowline which goes from the distribution box back to the originating box indicates that report documents may become the source documents for further data processing. 3. STORAGE Data processing results are frequently placed in storage to be used as input data for further processing at a later date. Storage is crucial in many data processing procedures. The two flowlines between the processing box and the storage box indicate the interaction of these two steps. FILE Unified set of data in storage. Consists of collection of records, where each record contains similar data items, and a collection of related files is called a database.

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AREAS OF DATA PROCESSING


Data Processing maybe classified as either scientific or business in nature.

1. BUSINESS DATA PROCESSING Characterized by the need to establish, retain, and process files of data for producing useful information. Involves large volume of input data, limited arithmetical operations, and a relatively large volume of output. 2. SCIENTIFIC DATA PROCESSING Data processing involves a limited volume of input and many logical or arithmetic calculations. Most of the scientific problems are non-repetitive, requiring a one time solution.

DATA PROCESSING OPERATIONS


1. RECORDING Refers to the transfer of data onto some form of document. It relates to the documentation of intermediate figures and facts resulting from calculations. 2. VERIFYING Refers to checking carefully the recorded data for any errors. Since recording is usually a manual operation, it is important that recorded data be carefully checked for any errors. 3. DUPLICATING This operation consists in reproducing the data onto many forms or documents. Duplicating maybe done while the data are being recorded manually, or it may be done afterwards, by some machine. 4. CLASSIFYING This operation separates data into various categories. Identifying and arranging items with like characteristics into groups or classes. Classifying is usually done by a shortened, predetermined method of abbreviation known as coding. 3 Types of Code a. Numeric a persons social security number or Student ID number. b. Alphabetic - grades as A, B, and C or names of persons c. Alphanumeric automobile license plate or course and year. 5. SORTING Arranging data in a specific order is called sorting. After the data are classified, it is usually necessary to arrange or rearrange them in a predetermined sequence to facilitate processing. Sorting is done in an alphabetic or numeric order and the data item which determines the sorting is called the key.

6. CALCULATING Arithmetic manipulation of the data is known as calculating. It is the crucial phase of data manipulation because the outcome of this operation becomes part of the output. 7. SUMMARIZING AND REPORTING In this operation, a collection of data is condensed and certain conclusions from the data are represented in a meaningful format. To be of value, data must often be condensed or sifted so that the resulting output reports will be clear, concise and effective. Reducing masses of data to a more usable form is called summarizing. 8. MERGING This operation takes two or more sets of data, all sets having been sorted by the same key, and puts them together to form a single sorted set of data. 9. STORING Placing similar data into files for future reference. Storage is done by any of the following methods: 1. Manual such as in ledger book. 2. Electromechanical in the form of punched cards. 3. Electronic by magnetic tape, disk, and main memory of the computer. 10. RETRIEVING Recovering stored data and/or information when needed is the retrieving step. Retrieval methods range from searches made by file clerks to the use of quick responding inquiry terminals that are connected directly to a computer. FEEDBACK Is the comparison of the outputs and the goal set in advance; any discrepancy is analyzed, corrected, and fed back to the proper stage in the processing operation.

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METHOD OF PROCESSING DATA


1. BATCH PROCESSING Is a technique in which data to be processed or programs to be executed are collected into groups to permit convenient, efficient and serial processing. Simplest form of data processing. With this method, data is entered into the information flow in large volumes, or batches. ADVANTAGES OF BATCH PROCESSING a. Economical when a large volume of data must be processed. b. Most appropriate method for those applications (ex. Payroll) where the delay caused by accumulating data into batches does not reduce the value of the information. LIMITATIONS OF BATCH PROCESSING a. It requires sorting prior to processing.

b. Reduces timeliness in some instances it takes a fixed time interval before current data is added, and inquiries cannot be effectively made between processing intervals. c. Requires sequential file organization this may prove to be a handicap if the current status of a record near the end of file needs to be determined.

2. ON-LINE PROCESSING The term on line refers to equipment or devices under the direct control of the central processing unit of a computer. An online operation is one which uses devices directly connected to the CPU either for data entry or inquiry purposes. On-Line processing has been developed for certain uses as an answer to the batch processing deficiencies On-Line Processing systems may feature some random and rapid input of transactions and immediate and direct access to record contents as needed. Requires unique hardware and software. Requires software security provisions to prevent confidential information from falling into unauthorized hands and prevent deliberate or accidental tampering with data and program files. 3. REAL-TIME PROCESSING Is a method of data processing which has the capability of a fast response to obtain data from an activity or a physical process, perform computations, and return a response rapidly enough to affect the outcome of the activity or process. Process of data is done immediately. 4. DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING Most complex level of computer processing. Generally consist of remote terminals linked to a large central computer system to help the user conduct inquiries about accounts, process jobs, or other data processing operations. In a distributed processing network a large number of computers and significant software resources is being shared among a large number of users. ADVANTAGES OF DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING SYSTEMS a. Central processor idle time is reduced. b. Sophisticated computers and a growing library of applications programs may be immediately available to end-users whenever needed. c. Skilled professionals are available to help users to develop their own specialized applications. d. Managers may be able to react more rapidly to new developments and interact with the system in order to seek solutions to unusual problems. DISADVANTAGES OF DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING SYSTEM a. The reliability and cost of the data communications facilities used, and the cost and quality of the computing service received, may be disappointing in some cases. b. Input/output terminals are often rather slow and inefficient

c. Provisions for protecting the confidentiality and integrity of user programs and data files are generally ineffective against a skilled penetrator.