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A STUDY ON EFFECTS OF TOURISM ON ENVIRONMENT AT DEHRADUN DISTRICT OF UTTARKAND STATE *Dr.Sujatha.Vadrevu **Mrs. Kanchan Deoli, ***Mr.SC.

Gupta ***************
1.0.Introduction Uttarakand is one of states for its natural beauty and attracting pilgrims to this region for many centuries. The rivers Ganga and Yamuna and their tributaries arise from the glaciers of the Great Himalayas and flowing through this district. Presently, the trend of tourism is transforming into adventurer tourism. Mountaineeing, trekking, river rafting, rock climbing, and skiing are being the major attractions of the tourists in the region. Skiing is being developed in Auli (Chemoli district) as winter sports. Trekking in many natural places and river rafting in the Alaknanda and Bhagirathi are attracting tourists at a large scale. Socio-cultural transformation can be seen due to the mass tourism. Tourism provides the employment, generation of revenue from foreign currency, establishment of the new avenues 1.1.0.Need: Dehradun is also one of the oldest cities in India. It is peaceful place having cultural diversity. Tourism is the fast growing industry. Tourists are coming from India and abroad. They are disturbing the natural conditions. The surroundings of the city are converting into hostels, hotels and business centers for the tourists. Tourism is also one of the factors for causing environmental pollution and are deteriorating ecological conditions and biodiversity. The main objective of the survey is to protect surrounding of the Dehradun district by practicing afforestation. 1.2.0.Scope: There is a scope to study the various areas such as biodiversity, ecosystem, and climate change etc.; the present study is focused to study the effects of tourism on Dehradun district. 1.3.0: Obectives 1.3.1.To know various tourist places in Dehradun district 1.3.2.To study the effect pollution on water bodies due to tourism 1.3.3.To study effect of air pollution on climate change due to tourism 1.3.4. To study deterioration of biodiversity in various seasons due to tourism.

1.4.0. Delimitation: It is very difficult to cover all the areas in Uttarakand state. The study is limited to Dehradun district. The study is limited to know tourists places, to study effect of pollution on water bodies, air pollution on climate change and deterioration of biodiversity in various seasons. 1.5.0. Methodology: The methodology of the findings based on the observation and the secondary sources of data from internet. The main tool is observation. 1.6.0. Sample: The sample area is very small and beautiful. It is covered with mountains, valleys, streams and forests. The road is passing through woodland forest to reach any place. 1.7.0. The major findings of the study. 1.7.1. Scenario of Dehradun District: The capital city Uttarakand is a complete blend of city and hill culture. It is situated at intermountain valley of Shiwalik range, which is set in the foot hills of Himalayas at the centre of the 120 kms long Doon Valley. The name Dehradun is literally made up of two words where Dera means Camp and Dun stands for Valley. Geographically, the location of Dehradun is lies in between 29 58' and 31 2'30'' north latitudes and 77 34'45'' and 78 18'30'' east longitudes. The beautiful town is referred as the gateway to Mussoorie and Garhwal interior. This district is temperate region. The coldest months are from Mid November to Mid February. Most of the rain fall is received from June to September. The rainiest months are being July and August. The city is pleasant in summer but temperature is rising in summer due to deforestation. It is perhaps one of the oldest cities in India and was occupied in turns by the Sikhs, Mughals and Gurkhas before coming under the reigns of the British. The population of the district is as of 2009. Indian census, the Dehradun district has a population of 1282143. Hindus 1086094, Muslims 139197 (10.85%), and Sikhs 33379. Dehradun is today proud of its institutions like the Forest Research Institute, Doon School and Welham Schools, ONGC, Indian Military Academy, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Studies, Survey of India and Botanical Survey of India etc. The Survey of India was established in 1767 and its greatest achievement was to determine the height of Mt. Everest. Being a host of large Cantonment area, the city is a popular retirement spot. It is also famous for aromatic long grain rich. Also known as the Abode of the Gods. Uttranchal is embraced by the blissful air of divinity and picture-postcard beauty enveloping the Himalayas is a paradise for the nature lovers 1.7.2. Objective1. To know various tourist places in Dehradun district The tourist places in Dehradun district are Rushikesh, Mossoorie, Tapkeshwar temple, Kempety falls, Dot temple, Sahasradhara, Laxaman Jula and Rama Jula etc 1.7.3. Objective 2. To study the effect of pollution on water bodies due to tourism. There are infinite number of streams and river Alkanada and Yamuna are following from this area. The streams get water during rainy season only. All these streams are dry and no water rest of the seasons.

No aquatic life. The river Yamuna is dried up. This is due to deforestation. The biggest negative factor concerning is water pollution. People dispose large amount waste. They throw litter on road, water bodies, No. of people are coming from various places for education, trade, employment and recreation. Proper sewage system has not been installed at hotels for tourists. The untreated water has thrown out on roads or into river. This water pollutes the soil and river water. 1.7.4. Objective 3. To study effect of air pollution on climate change due to tourism. The following factors cause for air pollution. Many Tourists are coming from various places for pilgrimage, recreation, trekking, skiing, rafting and visit their relatives. Tourists 96% are hiring private vehicles for sightseeing instead of public transport, which is increasing pressure on transport. This creates traffic jam at junctions. Lot of air pollutants emit from automobiles. The most important Gas CO2 is releasing and increasing temperature day by day. If it continues, the temperature in Dehradun city will be hotter in summers. The local people are crossing the river Ganga across Laxmana Jula on two wheelers. The jula will be weakened. This causes problem to pedestrians and emission gases from automobiles. The river Ganga is also polluting. It is not possible to construct same strength jula. 1.3.4. To study deterioration of biodiversity in various seasons due to tourism. Forests play crucial role in providing livelihood opportunities to a large human population all over the world. They provide productive as well as protective functions to human society and other organisms of the global ecosystem. Uttarkand is famous for national parks, wild life sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves. Rajaji National Parks are found famous for conservation of elephants, Corbett National Park is famous for conserving tigers, Nanda Devi Biosphere is declared as world heritage site for Kasturi dear (mirg). Asan barriage in Dehradun district is famous for bird sanctuaries. Forests are source areas of fuel, fodder, timber and numerous minor products (e.g. medicinal herbs, gums, resins, food items). They also perform important protective functions such as storing atmospheric moisture, regulating water flows, reducing soil erosion and conserving biological diversity etc. Forests play crucial role in sustainable development of mountain region that are home to about one tenth of human population (Mountain Forum, 2000). It is in fact their important economic and ecological roles that have made forests highly contested spaces, the arena of struggles and conflicts. The habitat of flora and fauna is damaging due to climate change, expansion of roads, Tromping carelessly through the forest, smashing down delicate flowers and grasses or burning dead fall or dry leaves and destroying habitat for local ground dwelling animals. The loud noise can scare animals out of the area and possibly even disrupt the local ecosystem.

The biodiversity of the Dehradun district is following Flora The natural vegetation of the area is creepers, xerophytes, herbs, shrubs and trees. They hold the soil firmly and protect from soil erosion. The district has good vegetation. The area from Nandaki chowk to Bidholi village, Dehradun to Rushikesh road and Dehradun to Vikasnager area covered with mango trees. The shrubs are shoe flowers, roses, and other flowering plants. The forest area covered with woodlands. Few examples have below. This district rich in ethnomedicinal plants. Flora Trees Local Name Scientific name

Achmehandi Aam Anjiri Bans Chiura Dalchini Dhaman Pipal Safed Siris Semal Semla Al,alay, khinkari Banbijora, Banninbu Banbimba, Pilu, potla Bhatmal Jharberi Jhau Kapni Chameli Chirchit

Lycium europaeum linn Mangifera indica Linn Pleus palmate Dendrocalamus Strictus (Roxb) Nees Diploknema butyracea (roxb) Cinnamomun amala nees et. Ebrem Grewia elastic royle Ficus religiosa Linn Albi procera Benth Bombax ceiba Linn Bauhimia retusa Ham
Shrubs & Herbs

Mimosa Himalayan gamble Citrus medici linn Glycosmis arborea (roxb) DC Ardisia solanacea Roxb. Zizyphus nummularia (burn F.) Tamarixdioica roxb Holmskioldia sanguine Retz. Jasminum arvorescens (Linn) Roxb Achyaranthes aspera Linn.

Chunmuna, sanni Daia, Daya

Crotalaria sericea Retz Callicarpa macrophylla bahl

1.7.5.Impacts of natural vegetation. Removal natural vegetation affects ecosystem-causing reduction of native plants and animals, disturbing habitat, breaking food chain etc. The biological species specific for a particular environmental condition are the best indicators are involved in assessment of biological environment of the study area: Some of the rice crops (basmati) which were found near majra is not available now a days , even leechi crops is almost vanished from the city. Common animals/ birds are also not seen in the city because of human settlement and high noise level. Positive Affects due to tourism

The forest area from Nandaki chowk to Bidholi village, and Dehradun to Rushikesh area converted into
residential area and educational institutions. More than 20 buildings are constructed to the students for accommodation within 8 months (August 2009 to April 2010). Many old buildings are renovated for providing accommodation. Many tea stalls are opened to supply snacks, tea, & coffee for students. If this continues the local climatic conditions changes due to removal native plants and trees.

Benefits for local people Financially benefited. Renovating of building, establishing small tea stalls for tourists. Working as labour in tea stalls, construction areas, shops. City transportation increased. Attraction of Local handicrafts