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Journal of Food Engineering 80 (2007) 152156 www.elsevier.

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Inuence of pre-treatments on the drying kinetics during vacuum drying of carrot and pumpkin
Aroldo Arevalo-Pinedo
a

a,*

, Fernanda E. Xidieh Murr

Faculty of Food Engineering, Federal University of Tocantins (UFT) Av. NS 15, ALC NO-14, CEP: 77123-360 Palmas, TO, Brazil b Faculty of Food Engineering, Campinas State University, P.O. Box 6121, CEP:13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil Received 25 November 2005; accepted 4 May 2006 Available online 23 May 2006

Abstract Vacuum drying of carrot and pumpkin were carried out to compare the inuence of freezing and blanching as pre-treatments on the drying kinetics at temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 C and vacuum chamber of 5 and 15 kPa. The experimental curves of drying were adjusted to the diusional model of Fick for an innite slab. The results, provide evidence that pre-drying pre-treatments aect moisture transport of this products. It was found that the values obtained for the samples pumpkin presented larger values of the diusion coefcient than the samples carrots. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Blanching; Carrot; Diusion; Freezing; Pumpkin; Vacuum drying

1. Introduction In vacuum drying, removal of moisture from food products takes place under low pressure. The lower pressure allow drying temperature to be reduced and higher quality to be obtained than with classical air conventional process at atmospheric pressure (Jaya & Das, 2003; Kompany, Benchimol, Allaf, Ainseba, & Bouvier, 1993). Vacuum expands air and water vapor present in the food products and creates a frothy or pued structure. Vacuum drying process was always applied to biotechnology product oxidizable and temperature sensitive products (Bialobrzewski & Misiak, 1997; Markowski & Bialobrzewski, 1998; Nastaj, 1994). A number of authors have suggested the physical predrying treatments solid food products as a means to both improve product quality and to modify the structure

of food products so as to improve mass transfer coecients in drying (Arevalo-Pinedo, Murr, Giraldo-Zuniga, & Arevalo, 2004; Arevalo-Pinedo, 2003; Kompany et al., 1993). The objective of this work was to study the vacuum drying kinetics of pre-treated and untreated carrot and pumpkin. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Raw material Carrots (Daucus carota) and pumpkins (Cucurbita maxima) were purchased from the local market hand peeled and washed in running tap water. The pumpkins and carrots were cut into slabs with a thickness of 5 mm a length 40 mm and a width of 20 mm. Slabs samples subject to water blanching were immersed in hot water at 95 C for 5 min and then cooled at room temperature. Therefore slabs subject to frozen were frozen by placing in a freezer at 20 C for a period of 3 h. The frozen samples were then allowed to thaw at room temperature.

Corresponding author. Fax: +55 63 32188020. E-mail addresses: aroldo@uft.edu.br (A. Arevalo-Pinedo), fexmurr@ ceres.fea.unicamp.br (F.E. Xidieh Murr). 0260-8774/$ - see front matter 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.05.005

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2.2. Shrinkage
(X - Xe) / (Xo - Xe)

1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 P = 5 kPa o T = 60 C P. freezing P. blanching P. untreated

Using the analogy between thermal expansion and shrinkage due to moisture content variation, Charm (1971) suggested a linear equation in order to express the change in length as a function of moisture content. A linear correlation between linear dimensions (length, width and thickness) and moisture content was applied. 2.3. Vacuum drying The drying equipment has been described in detail in a previous work (Arevalo-Pinedo, 2003). The equipment was designed to allow various temperature and pressures inside the drying chamber and various shapes and size and samples. Vacuum conditions were maintained by a vacuum pump; manometric valve controlled the vacuum. Two steel plates, heated by electric resistance glued on them provided thermal energy. An automatic regulator controlled the temperature of hot plate. Experimental procedure consisted in putting food samples on hot plate, the door of the chamber was closed, and the chamber was put under vacuum. Samples pumpkins were withdrawn from the dryer at a denitive period of time and their weight was measured. The sample weight was measured by an analytical balance with an accuracy of 0.0001 g. For dierent experiences the temperature of plate was varied from 50 to 70 C and the pressure from 5, 15 and 25 kPa. 2.4. Modeling of drying curves

Time (h) 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 P = 25 kPa o T = 60 C P. freezing P. blanching P. untreated

(X - Xe) / (Xo - Xe)

3 4 5 Time (h)

Fig. 1. Eects of pre-treatments and pressures (5 and 25 kPa) on drying kinetics of pumpkin at 60 C.

1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 P = 5 kPa o T = 60 C C. freezing C. blanching C. untreated

oW r Def rW ; ot

oX Def r2 X ; ot with t 0; t > 0; t > 0; X X 0; z 0; z L; oX =oz 0; X X e;

(X - Xe) / (Xo - Xe)

where W is moisture concentrations (kg/m3), t is the time (s) and Def is the moisture diusivity (m2/s). For the drying process, the concentration could be converted to moisture content per unit of dry matter. Considering the negligible shrinkage, Eq. (1) could be expressed (Sherwood, 1929) as: 2

(X - Xe) / (Xo - Xe)

The method consists of an analysis of the drying process considering a diusional model. The dierential equation based on Ficks second law for the diusion of water during drying is:

Time (h) 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Time (h)
Fig. 2. Eects of pre-treatment and pressures (5 and 25 kPa) on drying kinetics of carrot at 60 C.

P = 25 kPa T = 60oC C. freezing C. blanching C. untreated

where L is diusional path (m), X is moisture content (kg water/kg dry matter), Xe is equilibrium moisture content at the pressure condition prevailing, inside the vacuum

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A. Arevalo-Pinedo, F.E. Xidieh Murr / Journal of Food Engineering 80 (2007) 152156

dryer (kg water/kg dry matter) and X0 is initial moisture content (kg water/kg dry matter). The evaporation through the side surfaces of the samples can be neglected, due to the small supercial area of the sides surfaces in comparison with the two other surfaces. For the unidirectional diusion in the at plate one may obtain (Crank, 1975): 1 X Xe 8 X 1 2 X 0 X e p n0 2n 12   Def t 2 exp 2n 1 p2 2 : 3 L

3. Results and discussion 3.1. The eect of pre-treatments on drying velocity Drying kinetics of two vegetables, carrot and pumpkin, were studied in the vacuum dryer under dierent experimental conditions [temperature: (50, 60 and 70 C); pressure: (5 and 25 kPa); pre-treatments: blanching and freezing] as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. It was observed that most of the drying curves exhibit a short warning-up period (shorter that 2 and 3 h in every experiments carried out) during which the drying kinetics increases, followed by a
1

1
(X - Xe) / (Xo - Xe)

(X- Xe) / (Xo - Xe)

0.1

P = 5 kPa o 70 C o 60 C o 50 C Eq. (3)

0.1

P = 5 kPa 70oC 60oC 50oC Eq. (3)

0.01

0.01

0.001 0 (a) 1 1 2 3 Time (h) 4 5 6

0.001 0 1

(a)
1

2 3 Time (h)

P = 5 kPa

(X- Xo ) / (Xo - Xe)

(X- Xo) / (Xo - Xe)

0.1

P = 5 kPa o 70 C o 60 C o 50 C Eq. (3)

70oC
0.1
60oC 50oC Eq. (3)

0.01

0.01

0.001 0 (b) 1
(X - Xe) / (Xo - Xe)

0.001

3 4 Time (h)

7 (b)
1

3 4 Time (h)

(X- Xe) / (Xo- Xe)

0.1

P = 5 kPa o 70 C o 60 C o 50 C Eq. (3)

0.1

P= 5 kPa 70oC 60oC 50oC Eq. (3)

0.01

0.01

0.001 0 (c) 1 2 3 4 Time (h) 5 6 7

0.001 0

Time (h)

(c)
Fig. 4. Modelling vacuum drying kinetics at dierent temperatures at pressure of 5 kPa for carrot samples: (a) freezing, (b) blanching and (c) untreated.

Fig. 3. Modeling vacuum drying kinetics at dierent temperatures at pressure of 5 kPa for carrot samples: (a) freezing, (b) blanching and (c) untreated.

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long period of falling drying period. Bialobrzewski and Misiak (1997) found a drying behavior similar during the vacuum drying of celery. The overall drying velocity of carrots and pumpkin dried after the application of freezing pre-treatment was signicantly faster than those of pre-treatment where freezing was not involved. This indicates than in order to increase the drying kinetics, this vegetables need to be freezing as part of any pre-treatment. The higher drying kinetics and faster drying time of samples freezing prior to drying is because freezing causes cell disruption, which allows moisture to be removed more easily (Eshtiaghi, Stute, & Knorr, 1994; Mazza, 1983). The inuence of the pre-treatments in the drying velocity on the pumpkin samples is higher in comparison to that observed of carrot samples and untreated. It should be attributed to the higher moisture content of pumpkin (about 94%) compared to carrot (about 90%) (ArevaloPinedo, 2003). The eect of pressure on drying velocity for two vegetables, are studied. In general, there is increase in drying velocity with the decrease of pressure and type of pre-treatment applied (Kompany, Allaf, Bouvier, & Guigon, 1990, 1993). An increased in the drying velocity was observed with decrease of pressure, lower pressure low drying time,

however, it is noted that the drying velocity does not depend on the pre-treatments at high pressure for carrots and pumpkins samples. The time required to dry the carrot and pumpkin samples is considerably reduced by increasing the temperature and decreasing pressure. In Fig. 1 for pumpkin it should be observed that at 60 C and 5 kPa the time to reduce the moisture content ratio to 0.05 was 2.5 h and 25 kPa, 5.2 h and for carrot (Fig. 2) noted that a 60 C and 5 kPa the time is 3 h. 3.2. Vacuum drying modeling Eq. (3) is used to calculate diusion coecient for carrot and pumpkin samples. Diusivity is calculated from the slope of the plots as shown in Figs. 3 and 4. Good linear t is obtained conrming that drying took place under falling rate period. All the diusivity values are listed in Tables 1 and 2 for carrots and pumpkin, respectively. Based on the values for R2 and E (%) presented at Tables 1 and 2 it can be say that tting of the experimental data to the equations is adequate to estimate the parameters. With regard to diusivity, it value increases from 1.644 109 to 4.844 109 m2/s for freezing carrots,

Table 1 Values of eective diusivity during vacuum drying of carrot slabs at dierent pressures and temperatures based on Eq. (3) P (kPa) T (C) Carrot freezing Defx10 (m /s) 5 70 60 50 70 60 50 70 60 50 4.844 3.486 2.533 3.608 2.700 2.174 2.165 1.930 1.654
9 2

Carrot blanching R
2

Carrot untreated R
2

E(%) 1.57 1.70 2.53 1.68 1.82 2.41 1.60 2.03 2,63

Defx 10 (m /s) 3.536 2.868 2.286 2.632 2.203 1.941 2.337 1.663 1,273

E (%) 1.63 1.81 2.84 2.05 1.94 1.99 1.92 2.13 3.01

Defx 109 (m2/s) 2.740 2.335 1.938 2.256 1.844 1.469 2.022 1.544 1.474

R2 0.98 0.98 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.96 0,95

E (%) 1.65 1.73 2.66 1.85 1.84 2.66 1.92 2.01 3.17

0.98 0.98 0.95 0.96 0.95 0.95 0.97 0.95 0.95

0.98 0.99 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.95 0.97 0.97 0.95

15

25

P: pressure (kPa) and T: temperature (C).

Table 2 Values of eective diusivity during vacuum drying of pumpkin slabs at dierent pressures and temperatures based on Eq. (3) P (kPa) T (C) Pumpkin freezing Defx 109 (m2/s) 5 70 60 50 70 60 50 70 60 50 5.70 4.26 2.97 3.52 2.91 2.41 3.03 2.33 2.01 R2 0.97 0.98 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.95 0.97 0.96 0.96 E (%) 1.49 1.82 2.81 1.90 2.20 3.09 1.91 2.83 2.97 Pumpkin blanching Defx 109 (m2/s) 4.94 3.27 2.64 3.22 2.81 2.31 2.78 2.25 2.03 R2 0.98 0.98 0.96 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.97 0.96 0.95 E (%) 1.66 1.82 2.77 1.55 1.79 1.67 1.72 1,81 2.82 Pumpkin untreated Defx 109 (m2/s) 4.03 2.82 2.26 3.12 2.52 2.33 2.83 2.16 2.08 R2 0.98 0.98 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.95 0.97 0.96 0.96 E (%) 1.79 1.67 2.85 1.86 1.79 1.94 1.55 1.81 1.76

15

25

P: pressure (kPa) and T: temperature (C).

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1.273 109 to 3.536 109 m2/s for carrot blanching and 1.474 109 to 2.740 109 m2/s for carrot untreated; for pumpkin samples its values increase from 2.010 109 to 5.700 109 m2/s for freezing pumpkin, 2.030 109 to 4.94 109 m2/s for blanching pumpkin and 2.08 109 to 4.03 109 m2/s for pumpkin untreated when pressure decreases from 25 to 5 kPa; the obtained values are in the suitable range for similar products report in the literature by Jaya and Das (2003) for vacuum drying of mango pulp. Observing the eective diusivity values, it is noted that values vary with pre-treatment applied and parameters of pressure and temperature. This diusivity increase with freezing and blanching pre-treatment, however decreased values with increase of pressure of vacuum drying. It compared the raw material, it is veried that the values obtained for the samples pumpkin presented larger values of the diusion coecient than the samples carrots. 4. Conclusion Water removal during drying of the carrots and pumpkin slabs occurs in the falling-rate period and main factors aecting the drying of this vegetables as the pre-treatment applied and pressure and temperature. The eective diusivity of moisture transport during vacuum drying increase with the pre-treatments, pressure and temperature, principally, pressure. Was veried that the values obtained for the samples pumpkin presented larger values of the diusion coecient than the samples carrots. Acknowledgements This work was supported by CAPES (Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal Superior)

and Faculty of Food Engineering, FEA/DEA, Campinas, SP, Brazil. References


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