Basic aerodynamics
induced drag.
6.2 Airfoil coefficients
Lift, drag and moment (L, D, M) acting on an aircraft wing are expressed by the equations: Lift (L) per unit width -
CL12 pU2
2
Basic aerodynamics
97
Fig. 6.1
Fig. 6.2
98
Drag (D) per unit width - CD12 pU~ 2 Moment (M) about LE or 1/4 chord - CM pU2 12 2 per unit width.
CL, CD and CM are the lift, drag and moment coefficients, respectively. Figure 6.3 shows typical values plotted against the angle of attack, or incidence, (a). The value of CD is small so a value of 10 CD is often used for the characteristic curve. CL rises towards stall point and then falls off dramatically, as the wing enters the stalled condition. CD rises gradually, increasing dramatically after the stall point. Other general relationships are:
9 As a rule of thumb, a Reynolds number of Re 1 0 6 is considered a general flight condition. 9 Maximum CL increases steadily for Reynolds numbers between 105 and 1 0 7. 9 CD decreases rapidly up to Reynolds numbers of about 1 0 6 , beyond which the rate of change reduces. 9 Thickness and camber both affect the maximum CL that can be achieved. As a general rule, CL increases with thickness and then reduces again as the airfoil becomes even thicker. CL generally increases as camber increases. The minimum CD achievable increases fairly steadily with section thickness.
=
Basic aerodynamics
Characteristics for an asymmetrical 'infinite-span 2D airfoil' Stall point # / 1.5
99
o e-
/
i/
75
1.0
\,-\,
! !
50
0.5
-5 ~ 0
10~
15~
O~
20~
,/
. /
#-
0.4. L
o/
-0.4
-0.04 -0.08 ~
CM1/4
~ ~,,,~
\
\
-0.12
-8 ~
-4 ~
0~
4~
O~
8~
12~
16~
20 ~
Fig. 6.3
Airfoil coefficients
100
Arrow length represents the magnitude of pressure coefficient Cp Poo= upstream pressure
O~ .---. 5 ~
Pressure coefficient Cp = 1
( p - p=)
%
o~=12 ~
p v2
Fig. 6.4
6.4 Aerodynamic centre The aerodynamic centre (AC) is defined as the point in the section about which the pitching moment coefficient (CM) is constant, i.e. does not vary with lift coefficient (CL). Its theoretical positions are indicated in Table 6.1.
Condition
a<10 ~ Section with high aspect ratio Flat or curved plate: inviscid, incompressible flow
Basic aerodynamics
101
9
c
d
dCL
(C~a)
where CM. - pitching moment coefficient at distance a back from LE XAC -- position of AC back from LE. c - chord length.
L. Lift
"1
..I
ME r XAc "1
Drag
Aerodynamic centre
Lift
102
the principle of moments the following expression can be derived for kcp: kcp"~'AC _
CMAc
CL cos a + CD sin a
CMAC
G
6.6 S u p e r s o n i c c o n d i t i o n s
As an aircraft is accelerated to approach supersonic speed the equations of motion which describe the flow change in character. In order to predict the behaviour of airfoil sections in upper subsonic and supersonic regions, compressible flow equations are required.
6.6.1 Basic definitions M Mach number M~ Free stream Mach number Mc Critical Mach number, i.e. the value of which results in flow of M~ - 1 at some location on the airfoil surface.
Figure 6.6 shows approximate forms of the pressure distribution on a two-dimensional airfoil around the critical region. Owing to the complex non-linear form of the equations of motion which describe high speed flow, two popular simplifications are used: the small perturbation approximation and the so-called exact approximation.
6.6.2 Supersonic effects on drag In the supersonic region, induced drag (due to lift) increases in relation to the parameter
Basic aerodynamics
103
L=p
VKons
Ko-
CLVS
gs
104
AR tanALE
~ 6
~ ~ 5
~
I
4
~ 3
Xa.c.
Cr
~ 2
Subsonic ~F---~ |
I
-~
Supersonic
m__u~
AR tanALE
ct/cR = 0.5
1.0
Xa.c.
~
~
4
3
Unsww_~I-.E__~--~'~"~ ~ 1 t
Subsonic ~-~ -----* Supersonic
Ct/Ca = 0.25
1.2 ~ ~ 6
ARtanALE
1me
-~-i5
Xa . 0.8 ~
'
"'
~ - -
06 ~ _ . _ ~ ~
0.4 0.2
0 0 tanALE
I
Subsonic ~ 1 [3 tanALE ---~ Supersonic 0 13 tanALE 1 tanALE [3 0
Fig. 6.7 Wing aerodynamic centre location: subsonic/ supersonic flight. Originally published in The AIAA Aerospace Engineers Design Guide, 4th Edition. Copyright 9 1998 by The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. Reprinted with permission.
Basic aerodynamics
105
For downwash velocity (w)" w - -4--S' i.e. it is constant along the span. For induced drag (vortex):
CL 2
K0
Hence, CDvfalls (theoretically) to zero as aspect ratio increases. At zero lift in symmetric flight,
CDv -- O.