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Independent and Dependent Clauses Clause: A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a complete verb.

Independent clause: An independent clause can stand by itself and make sense. It contains the main subject and verb of a sentence. The fans cheer at the World Cup games. Dependent clause: A dependent clause cannot stand by itself. It depends on an independent clause for its meaning. A dependent clause is also called a subordinate clause. When their favorite team scores a goal. Complex sentence: A sentence that contains an independent and dependent clause. The fans cheer at the World Cup games when their favorite team scores a goal. Dependent clauses can be classified according to their role in the sentence. Adjective clauses, noun clauses, and adverb clauses all do different jobs. Adjective clause: An adjective clause (also called a relative clause) is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. The player who is wearing the number 10 shirt on the USA team is Landon Donovan. The USA goal that would have won the game against Slovenia was not counted. South Africa, which is the first African nation to host the World Cup, will not move to the knockout stage of the tournament. Englands goalkeeper Green will not forget the day when he let the USA score an easy goal. The team whose players work together has a better chance of winning. The player whom my son admires the most is Steven Gerrard from England. Noun clause: A noun clause is used in the same ways as a noun. It can be used as a subject, an object, or the object of a preposition. The French coach did not shake the hand of the South African coach. What he did was inexcusable. Many people criticized what he did. The newspapers wrote about the poor attitude displayed by the French team. Idontknowwhytheyactedthatway. Idontknowhowtheywillactinthefuture. I wonder if the French team will apologize. Whattheyshoulddoisobvious. Adverb clause: An adverb clause tells us something about the sentences main verb: when, why, or under what condition. After the group stage is completed, sixteen teams will move to the knockout stage of the World Cup. Mexico will move to the knockout stage because their goal differential is better than South Africas. Although Mexico and South Africa both had four points, only Mexico will move to the knockout stage. The USA will move to the knockout stage if they win their game against Algeria.

Time After Before When While As By the time (that) Since Until As soon as Once As/so long as Whenever Every time (that) The first time (that) The last time (that) The next time (that)

Words Used To Introduce Adverb Clauses Cause and Effect Opposition Because Even though Since Although Now that Though As As/So long as Inasmuch as Whereas While So (that) In order that

Condition If Unless Only if Whether or not Even if Providing (that) Provided (that) In case (that) In the event (that)

Punctuation rules: Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction to separate two independent clauses. Mexico will move to the knockout stage, and they will play Argentina. Use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses. Argentina took first place in Group B; they will move to the knockout stage. Use a semicolon, a transition, and a comma to separate two independent clauses. Mexico will move to the knockout stage; however, they must beat Argentina to move to the quarterfinals. Use a comma after a transitional word. The South African team will not advance to the knockout stage. Therefore, their hopes for another victory are over. Use a comma if the adverb clause comes first in the sentence. If two teams have the same number of points at the end of the group stage, their goal differentials determine the outcome. Do not use a comma if the adverb clause comes at the end of the sentence. Their goal differentials determine the outcome if two teams have the same number of points at the end of the group stage. Use commas if the adjective clause is not necessary to identify the noun it modifies. Brazil, which has won five World Cup Championships, will play Portugal on June 25. Do not use a comma if the adjective clause is necessary to identify the noun it modifies. The team that has won five World Cup Championships hopes to win again in South Africa.