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Banks and its functions

BY V.Srikanth Intern Indusind Bank Vijayawada

An Overview
A bank is an institution that accepts deposits of money from the public, which are repayable on demand and withdraw able by cheque. Such deposits are used for lending to others and not for financing its own business of any kind. The term lending includes both direct lending to borrowers and indirect lending through investment in open market securities.

Role of Banks
Banks provide funds for business as well as personal needs of individuals. They play a significant role in the economy of a nation. It encourages savings habit amongst people and thereby makes funds available for productive use. It acts as an intermediary between people having surplus money and those requiring money for various business activities. It facilitates business transactions through receipts and payments by cheques instead of Currency.

Types of Banks
1. Scheduled Banks 2. Non-Scheduled Banks Scheduled Banks: Scheduled banks are those which are entered into the second schedule of the RBI Act, 1934. It includes those banks which have a paid-up capital and reserves of an aggregate value of not less than Rs. 5 lakhs and which satisfy RBI that their affairs are being carried out in the interests of the depositor

Non-Scheduled Banks: On-scheduled banks are those which have not been included in the second schedule of the RBI Act, 1934 these banks are not governed according to the RBI Act and they receive no benefits from the RBI. These banks have no place in the list of recognized banks of the RBI.

Scheduled Banks and Classification

Reserve Bank of India

Scheduled Banks

Commercial Banks

Co-Operatives

Foreign Banks

Private Banks

Public Sector Banks

Regional Rural Banks

Urban CoOperatives

State CoOperatives

SBI & Associate Banks

Other Nationalize d Banks

RBI Role in Banks


The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is the supreme monetary authority responsible for controlling the banking system in the country. It was established on April 1, 1935, in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. Though originally privately owned, since nationalisation in 1949, the Reserve Bank is fully owned by the Government of India. It was nationalised on the basis of the Reserve Bank of India (Transfer to Public Ownership) Act, 1948. As a result all shares in the capital of the bank were deemed transferred to the Central Government on payment of a suitable compensation. The central office of the Reserve Bank is established at Mumbai and the bank has 22 regional offices ,most of which are in State capitals. The Banking Regulation Act, 1949, provides the legal framework for regulation of the banking sector by the Reserve Bank of India. The main functions of RBI are: Formulate, implement and monitor the monetary policy with the objective of maintaining price stability and ensuring adequate flow of credit to productive sectors. Regulate and supervise the financial system by prescribing the broad parameters of banking operations within which the system must function. Manager foreign exchange in order to facilitate external trade and promote orderly development and maintenance of foreign exchange market in India. Issues and exchanges or destroys currency and coins not fit for circulation, so as to give the public adequate quantity of supplies of currency notes and coins and in good quality. Performs a wide range of promotional functions to support national objectives. Banker to the Central and State Governments.

Banker to banks by maintaining banking accounts of all scheduled banks.

Commercial Banks
A commercial bank is a type of financial institution and intermediary. It is a bank that provides transactional, savings, and money market accounts and that accepts time deposits. These institutions are run to make a profit and owned by a group of individuals, yet some may be members of the Federal Reserve System. While commercial banks offer services to individuals, they are primarily concerned with receiving deposits and lending to businesses.

The role of commercial banks Processing of payments by way of telegraphic transfer, EFTPOS, internet banking, or other means Issuing bank drafts and bank cheques Accepting money on term deposit Lending money by overdraft, installment loan, or other means Providing documentary and standby letter of credit, guarantees, performance bonds, securities underwriting commitments and other forms of off balance sheet exposures Safekeeping of documents and other items in safe deposit boxes Sales distribution or brokerage, with or without advice, of insurance, unit trusts and similar financial products as a financial supermarket Cash management and treasury Merchant banking and private equity financing Traditionally, large commercial banks also underwrite bonds, and make markets in currency, interest rates, and credit-related securities, but today large commercial banks usually have an investment bank arm that is involved in the mentioned activities.

Commercial banks are categorized into 4 types. 1. Private Banks 2. Public Sector is sub divided into 2 types SBI and its Associates Other Nationalised Banks 3. Foreign banks 4. Regional Rural Banks

Private Banks Private banking in India was practiced since the beginning of banking system in India. The first private bank in India to be set up in Private Sector Banks in India was IndusInd Bank. It is one of the fastest growing Bank Private Sector Banks in India. IDBI ranks the tenth largest development bank in the world as Private Banks in India and has promoted world class institutions in India. The first Private Bank in India to receive an in principle approval from the Reserve Bank of India was Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited, to set up a bank in the private sector banks in India as part of the RBI's liberalization of the Indian Banking Industry. It was incorporated in August 1994 as HDFC Bank Limited with registered office in Mumbai and commenced operations as Scheduled Commercial Bank in January 1995. Public Sector Banks These are banks where majority stake is held by the Government of India or Reserve Bank of India. Examples of public sector banks are: State Bank of India, Corporation Bank, Bank of Boroda and Dena Bank, etc.

Foreign Banks These banks are registered and have their headquarters in a foreign country but operate their branches in our country. Some of the foreign banks operating in our country are Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC), Citibank, American Express Bank, Standard & Chartered Bank, Grindlays Bank, etc. The number of foreign banks operating in our country has increased since the financial sector reforms of 1991.

Co-operative Banks People who come together to jointly serve their common interest often form a cooperative society under the Co-operative Societies Act. When a co-operative society engages itself in banking business it is called a Co-operative Bank. The society has to obtain a license from the Reserve Bank of India before starting banking business. Any co-operative bank as a society is to function under the overall supervision of the Registrar, Co-operative Societies of the State. As regards banking business, the society must follow the guidelines set and issued by the Reserve Bank of India.

Urban Co-Operatives The term Urban Co-operative Banks (UCBs), though not formally defined, refers to primary cooperative banks located in urban and semi-urban areas. These banks, till 1996, were allowed to lend money only for non-agricultural purposes. This distinction does not hold today. These banks were traditionally centered around communities, localities work place groups. They essentially lent to small borrowers and businesses. Today, their scope of operations has widened considerably.

State Co-operative Banks: These are the apex (highest level) co-operative banks in all the state of the country. They mobilise funds and help in its proper channelization among various sectors. The money reaches the individual borrowers from the state co-operative banks through the central co-operative banks and the primary credit societies

Specialized Banks:
There are some banks, which cater to the requirements and provide overall support for setting up business in specific areas of activity. EXIM Bank, SIDBI and NABARD are examples of such banks. They engage themselves in some specific area or activity and thus, are called specialised banks. 1. Export Import Bank of India (EXIM Bank): If you want to set up a business for exporting Products abroad or importing products from foreign countries for sale in our country, EXIM

Bank can provide you the required support and assistance. The bank grants loans to exporters and importers and also provides information about the international market. It gives guidance about the opportunities for export or import, the risks involved in it and the competition to be faced, etc. 2. Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI): If you want to establish a smallscale business unit or industry, loan on easy terms can be available through SIDBI. It also finances modernisation of small-scale industrial units, use of new technology and market activities. The aim and focus of SIDBI is to promote, finance and develop small-scale industries. 3. National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development (NABARD): It is a central or apex institution for financing agricultural and rural sectors. If a person is engaged in agriculture or other activities like handloom weaving, fishing, etc. NABARD can provide credit, both shortterm and long-term, through regional rural banks. It provides financial assistance, especially, to co-operative credit, in the field of agriculture, small-scale industries, cottage and village industries handicrafts and allied economic activities in rural areas.

Functions of Banks

Function of Commerical Banks Primary Functions Accepting Deposits Loans Granting loans and advances Advances Cash Credit Overdraft Discounting Bills The functions of commercial banks are of two types. (A) Primary functions; and (B) Secondary functions.

(i) Primary functions


a) Accepting deposits The most important activity of a commercial bank is to mobilise deposits from the public. People who have surplus income and savings find it convenient to deposit the amounts with banks. Depending upon the nature of deposits, funds deposited with bank also earn interest. Thus, Business Studies deposits with the bank grow along with the interest earned. If the rate of interest is higher, public are motivated to deposit more funds with the bank. There is also safety of funds deposited with the bank.

b) Grant of loans and advances The second important function of a commercial bank is to grant loans and advances. Such loans and advances are given to members of the public and to the business community at a higher rate of interest than allowed by banks on various deposit accounts. The rate of interest charged on Loans and advances varies according to the purpose and period of loan and also the mode of Repayment. i) Loans A loan is granted for a specific time period. Generally commercial banks provide shortterm loans. But term loans, i.e., loans for more than a year may also be granted. The borrower may be given the entire amount in lump sum or in installments. Loans are generally granted against the security of certain assets. A loan is normally repaid in installments. However, it may also be repaid in lump sum. ii) Advances An advance is a credit facility provided by the bank to its customers. It differs from loan in The sense that loans may be granted for longer period, but advances are normally granted for a short period of time. Further the purpose of granting advances is to meet the day-to-day Requirements of business. The rate of interest charged on advances varies from bank to bank. Interest is charged only on the amount withdrawn and not on the sanctioned amount.

Types of Advances Banks grant short-term financial assistance by way of cash credit, overdraft and bill discounting. a) Cash Credit Cash credit is an arrangement whereby the bank allows the borrower to draw amount upto a specified limit. The amount is credited to the account of the customer. The customer can Withdraw this amount as and when he requires. Interest is charged on the amount actually Withdrawn. Cash Credit is granted as per terms and conditions agreed with the customers. b) Overdraft Overdraft is also a credit facility granted by bank. A customer who has a current account With the bank is allowed to withdraw more than the amount of credit balance in his account. It is a temporary arrangement. Overdraft facility with a specified limit may be allowed either On the security of assets, or on personal security, or both.

c) Discounting of Bills Banks provide short-term finance by discounting bills, that is, making payment of the amount before the due date of the bills after deducting a certain rate of discount. The party gets the funds without waiting for the date of maturity of the bills. In case any bill is dishonored on the due date, the bank can recover the amount from the customer

Secondary Functions of Commercial Banks Issuing letters of credit, travellers cheque, etc Undertaking safe custody of valuables, important document and securities by providing safe deposit vaults or lockers Providing customers with facilities of foreign exchange dealings. Transferring money from one account to another; and from one branch to anotherbranch of the bank through cheque, pay order, demand draft Standing guarantee on behalf of its customers, for making payment for purchase ofgoods, machinery, vehicles etc Collecting and supplying business information.

Providing reports on the credit worthiness of customers Providing consumer finance for individuals by way of loans on easy terms for purchaseof consumer durables like televisions, refrigerators, etc. Educational loans to students at reasonable rate of interest for higher studies, especially for professional courses.