You are on page 1of 51

Student Number: 200882440 Year: Final Module Title: Dissertation Word Count: 11,346 Tutors Name: Dr Jenel Virden

Peak Issue:
The different effects the Snowbowl Ski resort may have on the city of Flagstaff due to its future planned expansion using reclaimed water.

Contents Page: 1. Introduction 2. Chapter One: Background/Current Issue 3. Chapter Two: Religion/Culture 4. Chapter Three: Science 5. Conclusion 6. Bibliography 7. Appendix

Introduction:
The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the issues, feelings, concerns and potential effects on the local population and environment of the city of Flagstaff. As there is a proposed plan to make snow from reclaimed water by the Snowbowl Ski resort company to use manmade snow on the San Francisco Peaks. To present the relevant information, this dissertation has been divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 will focus on the history of skiing upon the San Francisco Peaks and the development of the Snowbowl Ski Resort. Chapter 1 also outlines the business case for using manmade snow, which due to litigation purposes has been delayed for many years. Chapter 2 will focus on Native American peoples culture, religious beliefs and current concerns for the San Francisco Peaks in relation to the Snowbowl Resorts development plan, as this mountain is considered sacred. Chapter 3 will focus specifically on the scientific and possible biological effects of using manmade snow from reclaimed water on the Peaks area based on current information. In addition to the relevant research data, included in this dissertation, is material from 25 personal interviews conducted on placement with local residents and prominent people. People who are either directly involved with the expansion plans or feel very strongly about them.

Chapter 1: Background/Current Issue


The story of skiing in Flagstaff is said to have started in the winter of 1914 . When, a very enthusiastic Norwegian skier by the name of Ole Solberg introduced skiing to the city of Flagstaff Arizona.1 Mr Solberg had immigrated to America at the age of ten.2 Ole Solberg put his skis to good use when his brother (who was living in California at that time), came over to visit him. Because of heavy snow in the winter of 1914, much of the city of Flagstaff was impassable to the local population. Using their initiative, the two Solberg brothers built their own skis to access the local vicinity and ended up on observatory hill in the Flagstaff area. Historically, this first local example of skiing introduced by the Solberg brothers is recorded to be the first time skiing was ever participated within Flagstaff.3 Before 1914, other winter sports were popular with local residents in Flagstaff. Jimmie Dunn who was a later skier himself at this time recalled his memories for the period in the documentary Echoes of the Peaks. Mr Dunn explained that ice skating was a popular activity on a manmade pond created locally by the Santa Fe Railway.4 The water of the pond, Mr Dunn recalled, was utilised by the railway company for steam locomotive engine use.5 In the winter, when the pond subsequently froze, many local people would take advantage of the ice and use the pond as an ice rink. As Flagstaff is located at 7,000 feet above sea level, regular snow could be guaranteed every winter period. Not until an unusually dry winter in 1933, according to Jane Jackson narrator for Echoes of the Peaks, did local resident Andy Wolf open up the use of the dirt road that was normally impassable on foot due to heavy snow and help achieve access to a road that is now known as highway 180.6 Mr Wolf had taken up residency in the Flagstaff area in 1932, and made good use of Ole Solbergs ski example for accessing difficult terrain at times of high snow levels. The original dust road led to the Hart Prairie Preserve, which is situated at the base of the San Francisco Peak Mountain. The documentary reported that the forest
1 2 3

Echoes of the Peaks. Cloud Chaser Film Works, dir. Gavin Boughner, Produced by Jane Jackson, 2010 Ibid Ibid 4 Ibid 5 Ibid 6 Ibid

service allowed Ole Solberg to build a small ski run in an area called Shape Hill, part of the San Francisco Peaks range, located at the base of the mountain which quickly became a popular place to ski.7 Because Shape Hill was naturally treeless and the area now had an access road, skiing quickly became popular among the local residents. From the early 1930s period, Flagstaff became a popular choice among many people in Arizona State, as a winter sports area. More and more people began to take advantage of the Shape Hill facility. One man, Ed Groesbeck, who worked for the United States Forest Service, was an avid skier. Groesbeck is reported to have personally helped popularise skiing to become a regular winter activity in Flagstaff. On the Echoes of the Peaks documentary, Groesbeck is called a Timber Officer, and it was he who initially questioned why the nearby larger San Francisco Mountain was not being used.8 By 1938, the documentary reports, a lodge was constructed on the Agassi Peak by the Civilian Conservation Corps. The lodge was subsequently called the CCC lodge. The Echoes of the Peaks documentary, does not give any information as to whether the local Native tribes were consulted about their opinion on the siting of the newly constructed lodge on the Agassi Peak. Nor does the documentary give any indication that the CCC at the time of building the lodge considered (A), the centurys old historical significance of the area to local tribes or (B), consulted tribes about the naming of the lodge. The Arizona Snowbowl Company took its name from the annual carnival held each winter (which began in 1938) on the San Francisco Mountain.9 The area then became established as a popular winter recreational activity location. The popularity of skiing, required the company to look at increasing and modernizing the available facilities to accommodate the annually increasing number of visitors to the mountain. The Arizona Snowbowl Company was established in 1946, and the name for the company was decided by a local popular vote held at the carnival.10 In naming the company, nine different names
7 8 9

Ibid Ibid Ibid 10 Embassy Suites Flagstaff, The Arizona Snowbowl~Flagstaffs playground for all seasons!, http://embassysuites.hilton.com/en/es/hotels/hotelpromo.jhtml;jsessionid=Y4ICL2LGM3JFICSGBJBNMQQ?ctyhocn=FLGESES&promo=outdoors. (accessed 12 April 2012)

were considered; however, Dook o ooslid was not on the list. 11 Dook o ooslid is the local Navajo name for the San Francisco Peaks and it would appear that no other native names were considered. Over the subsequent years, skiing became ever more popular in Flagstaff. Unfortunately, a huge fire in February 1952 badly damaged the CCC mountain lodge, along with all the skiers equipment. Subsequently, ski enthusiasts built a new lodge (the Agassi lodge in the mid 1950s) initially without permission from the forest service and only applied for planning permission after ninety per cent of the building was completed.12 The forest service issued a permit for the first ski lift to be erected in 1962. The forest service acts on behalf of the Agricultural Department in Washington D.C. in the use, maintenance and activities that are allowed on the mountain range area. The erection of the first ski lift in 1962 encouraged expansion plans to be drawn up by the Snowbowl Company, which would include a much larger car park, hotels and restaurants. The original issue about the ski slopes among Native Americans and other concerned residents arose out of the plans in 1969 by the Snowbowl Company for expansion and construction of the new Agassi lodge. The 1969 expansion plans were stopped by the courts due to lawsuits that were brought forward by Native groups who collectively felt strongly such development would infringe on their native religious rights and damage the environment. Since its earliest beginnings, many different companies have held the rights to the Snowbowl business but the land in question always remained federally owned. The 1969 legal case judgement was overturned ten years later when additional ski lifts were allowed. The expansion plans for construction went ahead with 777 acres of land area designated for ski use.13 Construction went ahead, creating the Snowbowl area as it is today.

11

Erin Klauk, Part of the DLESE Community Services Project. Physiographic of the http://serc.carleton.edu/research_education/nativelands/navajo/physiography.html N.D. (Accessed 12 April 2012) 12 Boughner, Echoes of the Peaks. 13 Ibid

Navajo

Nation.

Many organisations in Flagstaff joined forces in 2001 to express their view that Flagstaffs water should not be used to make snow.14 Since 2002, the legal dispute concerning the Snowbowl Resort has been over the proposed planned use of utilizing reclaimed water to make snow. This suggestion was proposed by Snowbowl to gain the financial support of the banking system, which would fund the new expansion of its facilities. Snowbowl needs to adequately prove to the banks, its snow slopes will remain open every day of the season. Mr J. R Murray, the Snowbowl manager, states that to build new lodges, trails and better facilities, Snowbowl needs to borrow money.15 Borrowing money means using manmade snow so the banks can see there will be regular and sustained opening times. Therefore, guaranteeing a return on their capital through Snowbowl having more predictable seasons.16 Howard Shanker, the legal representative for many of the native tribes, explained in personal interview, that the original lawsuit in 2006 brought into question the infringement of the Religious Freedom Act, because Native Americans have no first Amendment rights when it comes to Government controlled Land.17 The initial case was first heard in the U.S District Court, Shanker recalls; on the basis that the Snowbowl reclaimed water use plan would detrimentally affect Native American people from practicing their religious ceremonies upon the San Francisco Peaks.18 The court ruled against this concern and stated at the time that native peoples were not detrimentally affected from practicing their religion.19 The court also ruled, that the ski resort should remain open as it was in the governments compelling interests to allow the ski company to remain open.20 Howard Shanker recalled, that an appeal was heard in the 9th Circuit Court in 2008 when the previous decision from 2006 was overturned and the courts three-judge panel
14

Kyle Boggs, Storm Clouds Darken Over the San Francisco Peaks as the City Debates Water, part 1. Published Saturday, August 28th, 2010. http://www.undertheconcrete.org/2010/08/28/storm-clouds-darken-over-the-san-francisco-peaks-as-the-city-debates-water/. (Accessed 12 April 2012) 15 Devon ONeil, ESPN, ACTION SPORTS, AZ snowmaking debate rages on. Published, October 21 2010. www.espn.go.com/action/freeskiing/_/post/5711568/az-snowma. Accessed 19/12/2011 16 Ibid 17 Richard, Wilson. Personal Interview No 11 Howard Shanker Lawyer for Native American Tribes in Arizona. 2011 18 Ibid 19 Ibid 20 Ibid

ruled in favour of the Native Americans, that an infringement of their religious rights had indeed occurred.21 Shanker recalled the court decision also highlighted concerns regarding the district courts 2006 decision for not adequately evaluating the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). That act failed to consider the impact that reclaimed water could have on the mountain area in the future, in its study published 2004.22 The Justice Department, which was representing the forest service, appealed the 2008 9th Circuit Court decision using a petition called en banc.23 Mr Shanker states in the legal profession this is something legally rarely approved, maybe only 2% of the time.24 En banc is a Latin term meaning for the whole issue to be re-heard.25 The Supreme Court rejected the plea for a formal hearing of the case in 2009. This decision by the Supreme Court resulted in the petition application going to a lower court and in an 8 to 3 decision; the court voted in favour of the Justice Department and also at the same time overturned the NEPA claim due to a technicality.26 Mr Shanker explained that many decades ago, Native people entered a trust obligation in exchange for land with the United States government.27 This trust obligation meant a parental role came into play, something Shanker feels the United States Government is failing to honour.28 The land area around and on the mountain sides has predominantly been used for tree logging and animal grazing from the early nineteenth century. However, in the 1980s much damage was caused by mining of pumice which has a number of uses in manufacturing.29 Andy Bessler, a field organiser for the Sierra Club, has supported native tribes throughout many of the legal issues. He points out, that because of the mining; the Snowbowl current expansion plans incorporating for reclaimed water use are not the first time the mountain area has been threatened with further manmade alteration.30

21 22

Ibid Ibid 23 Ibid 24 Ibid 25 Ibid 26 Ibid 27 Ibid 28 Ibid 29 N.A. The Pluralism Project at Harvard University. Research Report, San Francisco Peaks AZ (Navajo, Hopi, White Mtn, Apache). 2006. http://pluralism.org/reports/view/56 (Accessed 03/11/2011). 30 Richard, Wilson. Personal Interview No 6 Andy Bessler Field Organizer for the Sierra Club. 2011

Bessler in interview quoted John Muir, founder of the Sierra Club, when he said, only the unimaginative can fail to feel the enchantment of these mountains.31 Bessler feels the use of reclaimed water to enhance snow levels by the Snowbowl development company would bring marginal economic benefits to the company and the Flagstaff area.32 Room for 100,000 additional skiers would be created by guaranteed daily snow use each season, but the reclaimed water use for snow generation to enhance daily ski use would be at the cost of infringing the basic human rights of 100,000 local indigenous people.33 Bessler also points out that the Economic Impact Statement relating to the Snowbowl development plan details how much of the current unspoilt land will be required in order to develop further business opportunities. The impact statement claims that 74 acres of new trails need to be constructed and 47 acres of tree thinning will need to be done to create improved glades. Additionally, Bessler reports, the impact statement calls for 87 acres of terrain improvement grading.34 Calculated together these changes come to a combined total of 208 acres of land lost; and also includes for the provision of a 14 mile pipeline to feed the reused water up onto the higher levels of the mountain to create snow.35 This will be alongside 1110 feet of additional roads, plus the snowmaking pipelines will need to be buried within existing and proposed trails. Three thousand six hundred and fifty feet of existing access roads need to be reconstructed, as well as decommissioning approximately 3050 feet of existing two-track mountain access road.36 In addition, the Snowbowl Company has argued for fire suppression to be placed on the mountain.37 Bessler feels the Snowbowl included this as a way to help fight forest fires but also to gain support from locals, who have the threat of losing their homes in the summer due to the intense heat.38

31 32

Ibid Ibid 33 Ibid 34 Ibid 35 Ibid 36 Ibid 37 Ibid 38 N.A. 535 F. 3d 1058 (2008). Navajo Nation v. United States Forest Service. Argued and Submitted December 11, 2007. Filed August 8, 2008. http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?q=%22535+F.3d+1058%22&hl=en&as_sdt=2003&case=11875117975930999049. Pp3. (Accessed January 15th 2012).

The main issue that concerns Mr Bessler with regards to the planned expansion project is that the Snowbowl company seems to be a badly run organisation which will potentially have access to Flagstaffs future water supply. Bessler is concerned that by 2050 there could be no water left to serve the city of Flagstaff if the citys population continues to grow at current trends.39 Bessler stresses that if a drought was to happen, it could be only twenty years before Flagstaff could run out of water.40 To solve the contentious issue of using reclaimed water in the expansion plans, it is Mr Besslers opinion that, the peaks area should be put under the protection of the park service. The park service can use a protect the resource mandate instead of the forest services mandate of multiple usages under the Department of Agriculture regulations.41 Such a change would stop future companies and individuals dictating what can be placed up on the mountain.42 J. R Murray, has stated that because the ski resort only resides on one per cent of the mountains terrain, anyone can see that ninety nine per cent is set aside for wilderness or undeveloped public land and that protection is already in place, stopping any further land from being taken.43 The owner of the Snowbowl Company Eric Borowski, used to be a Sierra Club member. Borowski thought the company plan to use recycled wastewater would be environmentally friendly and therefore popular.44 Mr Borowski claims that the Snowbowl Company could go out of business if manmade snow cannot be used, due to the erratic precipitation of snowfall in Northern Arizona. Some weeks, closed ski slope days occur due to insignificant fresh snowfall.45 Mr Borowski goes onto say that no business can stay open and remain profitable if you miss 98.5 per cent of the companys potential income.46 Flagstaffs normal precipitation averages about twenty-two inches per year, within a range of nine to thirty nine inches.47 Snowfall regularly falls each season, averaging 97 inches a year

39 40 41

Wilson, Personal Interview No 6 Ibid Ibid 42 Ibid 43 Cindy Yurth, Snowbowl manager slams Sierra Club. Navajo Times.11th October 2007. Accessed in Northern Arizona Universitys Archive Centre. (No page number available as taken from photo copy). 44 Wilson, Personal Interview No 6 45 Randal C. Archibold, Commerce and Religion Collide on a Mountainside. The New York Times, 23rd October. 2005, P. 16 46 Ibid 47 Paul Gremillion Ph.D., P.E. written for Portable Engineering Solutions, Capstone Design Capstone CENE 486c - Spring 2006 Portable Water Treatment System Final. April, 25th 2006. http://www.cefns.nau.edu/Research/D4P/EGR486/EnvE/05-Projects/PortableTreatment/Final%20Paper.pdf. P. 3. (Accessed December 3rd 2011)

10

and research shows that global warming temperatures in Flagstaff will increase in addition to periods of droughts, which could be more severe and reoccur more often.48 Mr Murray claims that December holidays is where the Snowbowl resort gains 25 per cent of its income, and that to be a sustainable business a further two thousand skiers are needed per day to make sure there is steady work for the local people and sustainable profit for the business.49 The proposed computerised equipment the Snowbowl company plans to use, will put down two foot of snow and maintain the snow level at two foot, as it uses weather monitoring equipment.50 The problem is thus; as the snowfall is unpredictable, the company cannot guarantee the machines will have adequate supply of water to use each month hence the companys proposal to use reclaimed water for snow use.51 Winter precipitation has been below average for eleven years in the years 1996 to 2007. The only exception to this was the winter of 2005, which recorded the third wettest year, taken from a fifty-seven year record.52 Mr Kyle Boggs a local newspaper editor for the Noise, explained in personal interview that if Snowbowl uses reclaimed snow then it will be the only ski resort in the world to use one hundred per cent reclaimed water.53 Mr Boggs went on to say that he felt any reconciliation between the two groups is unlikely to happen now, but the earlier issue back in the 1930s (when skiing first began) could have been solved if agreed permission to use the mountains slope for recreational skiing was given by all parties. Mr Boggs put the blame for the current controversy on the forest service and explained that the forest service could end the local issue anytime by simply revoking the special use permit they give to the Snowbowl each year.54 Mr Boggs also questioned the need for reclaimed snow when,

48 49

Ibid Stacey Wittig, Next Steps for Construction at Arizona Snowbowl. Flagstaff Business News, http://www.flagstaffbusinessnews.com/next-steps-forconstruction-at-arizona-snowbowl/ (Accessed February 14th 2012) 50 Ibid 51 Richard Hereford, Scientist Emeritus U.S. Geological Survey Flagstaff. Climate History of Flagstaff, Arizona - 1950 to 2007. Floods, Droughts, and LongTerm Warming. Published 2007, http://www.mpcer.nau.edu/files/flagstaff_climate_history.pdf. (Accessed December 3rd 2011) 52 Ibid. 53 Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 12 Kyle Boggs Instructor at NAU and also editor of free newspaper, The Noise. 2011 54 Ibid

11

despite Northern Arizona experiencing one of the driest years on record in January 2010, Snowbowl resort still recorded more skiers than ever before.55 The population of Flagstaff more than doubled in what Paul Gremillion refers to as the late twentieth century wet episode.56 The population grew from 26,000 in 1970 to 53,000 in 2000.57 This wet episode being in Mr Gremillions evaluation as non-typical for Flagstaffs average precipitation, suggests for future planning and modelling purposes would overestimate groundwater recharge.58 This data suggests that the replanting of woodland areas was successful in previous periods probably due to higher precipitation levels. The same replanting results may be much harder to achieve in the dryer climate of 2011/12.59 If the planned expansion of Snowbowl takes place and replanting of remodelled areas is required. Despite the climatic difficulties, the Snowbowl resort has been successful and many people visit annually. For many years, Flagstaff has seen its commercial and recreational trade coming from East to West along the famous Route 66 which traditionally has been utilized by many travellers due to the roads easy access to the West coast. Flagstaffs visitor numbers have also benefitted by the railroad allowing many people to stop and visit on their journey to the west coast. In recent years, Flagstaffs popularity has heavily relied upon its geographical position with the much larger Arizona city of Phoenix. This position relies, on Phoenix residents traveling south to north, which generally takes around two hours by road to reach Flagstaff. Gary Vallen Hospitality Consultants made a winter visitors study guide in 2008-2009, on behalf of the Flagstaff Convention and Visitor Bureau. This study guide was conducted to determine what activities attracted visitors to Flagstaff. Of the 300 visitors surveyed, snow

55 56 57

Ibid Gremillion, Capstone Design Capstone CENE 486c - Spring 2006 Portable Water Treatment System Final, p. 3. Ibid 58 Ibid 59 Ibid

12

play attracted 78%, but only 46% of visitors planned to stay overnight or longer.60 The majority of non-local visitors came from the Phoenix area. The survey findings prove that the Snowbowl Resort is an extremely important attraction for Flagstaffs economic and commercial wellbeing. Most of the visitors who accessed the Snowbowl facilities gave a rating of excellent to very good, a wider range of accommodation choices and greatly improved snow play facilities could improve the 46% overnight total average and therefore potentially increase the local spend totals from present levels to the benefit of the Flagstaff area economy.61 In a personal interview, Lynda Fleischer co-owner of the Bar and Grill restaurant, and who was also a marketing director for the Snowbowl for ten years, feels the Snowbowl attraction contributes significantly to the success of her own business.62 Fleischer explained that her cliental do not come in her establishment when the slopes are closed, this is because seventy five per cent of her cliental are skiers and snowboarders.63 Mrs Fleischer felt that local businesses were heavily dependent on the ski resort keeping the snow slopes open. Jeremiah Caughy, a ski rental shop co-owner, explained a similar view to that of Mrs Fleischer, that he had decided to open up a business in Flagstaff knowing the artificial manmade process for making snow had been proposed for local use.64 Mr Caughy says if this proposal goes ahead, it means guaranteed money can be made due to a longer ski season from November 4th to April 15th.65 This in turn would allow him to hire twenty extra people to work and also make the company grow. Mr Caughy went on to say, that if the Snowbowl is closed then we are closed, and admitted that business is low if there is no snow.66

60

Gary Vallen, Hospitality Consultants. Winter Visitor Study 2008-2009; The Flagstaff Convention and Visitors Bureau Executive Summary. Published 20082009. 61 Ibid 62 Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 14 Lynda Fleischer Co-Owner of the Bar and Grill Restaurant, in Flagstaff. 2011 63 Ibid 64 Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 2 Jeremiah Caughy, Ski Shop Manager. 2011 65 Ibid 66 Ibid (Mrs Fleischer also added that she earns a second income by training young people to ski at the Snowbowl). Personal Interview No 14 Lynda Fleischer.

13

Many such businesses in Flagstaff appear to be in a similar dependant position with the Snowbowl resort when the business is based on snow and the snow slopes. Another business argument comes from Sean McMahan, owner of the World Famous Monti Vista Hotel.67 Mr McMahan in personal interview stated, the Snowbowl resort is so expensive and petrol is so expensive, the majority of Snowbowl visitors arrive for the day only and then travel home at night.68 Mr McMahans opinion is that many guests of the Monti Vista cannot afford to stay at the hotel plus ski on the slopes.69 The Monti Vista has been in business for eighty four years a lot longer than Snowbowl.70 The hotel contributes to the Snowbowl through the taxes it pays to the city of Flagstaff. However, the ski resort fails to return the favour as the tax the Snowbowl pays goes to the State of Arizona.71 Assistant manager of the Monti Vista hotel Mark Greenwall, in personal interview, compared the tax situation to that of the Wal-Mart argument, of how Wal-mart contributes to a local city or town by employing local staff, but then pays its generated tax revenue nationally not helping the city.72 It was a similar issue for Mary Denoon, who owns the Thunder Mountain Trading shop, dealing in Native American and cowboy style art. On interview she explained personally there is only five or so shops like hers in the city of Flagstaff and that she did not see an increase in customers when the Snowbowl was open.73 These quoted individuals are a small representation of the much bigger organisation called Flagstaff Forty. Flagstaff Forty is a citywide group of local businesses, which are supportive of Flagstaff development but are balanced in their opinion over the Snowbowl issue.74 Kevin Burke, Flagstaff city manager, explained that the city entered into a contract roughly in 2003 with the Snowbowl company for the purposes of snowmaking.75 The contracts length is 20 years but the city has yet to deliver any reclaimed water for snow.76 The failure to deliver reclaimed water is because the city reclaimed water concept has been
67 68

Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 25 Sean McMahan Manager and Mark Greenwall Assistant Manager of the Monti Vista Hotel. 2011 Ibid 69 Ibid 70 Ibid 71 Ibid 72 Ibid 73 Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 20 Mary Denoon Owner of the Thunder Mountain Traders shop, in Flagstaff. 2011 N.A. Leadership for Action, Flagstaff Forty, http://www.flagstaffforty.org/recent.php?e=snowbowl (Accessed April 12th 2012) Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 24 Kevin Burke Flagstaff City Manager. 2011 76 Ibid
74 75

14

embroiled in litigation since 2003. The Snowbowl resort reclaimed water plans allow for access to water from within the city limits utilising Flagstaffs reclaimed water volume reserves which the company has agreed permits to access. In addition, the company also possesses the Environmental Impact Statement which allows for waste water to travel through private land, forest service land and other areas to the base of the mountain.77 The water-reclaimed plan, allows water pumps to be located at strategic points to elevate the water from 7000 to 9500 feet to keep a high altitude reservoir full with adequate amounts of wastewater for snow making when required.78 The total water amount promised by the agreed contract is a maximum of about 550 acre feet of water if the full agreed amount was used over 5 months.79 Such use is unlikely said Mr Burke but it gives individuals an idea of the size and volume of water that would be available.80 The contract itself is a reported done deal, and any legal termination would result in court consequences.81 Two additional water resource areas for the city are the Colorado River and the Coconino Aqua fare. There is also possibly a third additional water resource in the 5,000 acre ranch, Red Gap, which the city owns and contains good quality water located under the surface area.82 The city of Flagstaff wanted to use this area and water, however, the Hopi Indian tribe also have claim to Red Gap.83 In order for the water to be utilised by the city of Flagstaff, the water would have had to pass through Hopi land. The Hopi reject the idea of any water passing through their land that is to be used for making reclaimed snow. Mr Burke said that the Snowbowl does bring in tax revenue to the city of Flagstaff, and that over 150,000 people in difficult economic times visited Snowbowl in 2010-2011 and that the previous year the figure was 250,000 people.84 There is no future mayor or current mayor who can remove the contract as it is binding from 2002 to 2022, and as the forest service along with the Snowbowl Resort are in the county, its the county that regulates it,

77 78 79

Ibid Ibid Ibid 80 Ibid 81 Ibid 82 Ibid 83 Ibid 84 Ibid

15

the city of Flagstaff becomes secondary to these other entities.85 The Courts (in 2012) have now sided with the Snowbowl to allow snow making to go ahead, even claiming that those who oppose snow making to be grossly abusing the judicial system due to their constant appealing of the case, this means snowmaking can go ahead in November 2012.86

85 86

Ibid Stephanie Snyder, Federal court rejects challenge to Arizona Snowbowls mountain snow-making plan. http://cronkitenewsonline.com/2012/02/federalcourt-rejects-challenge-to-arizona-snowbowls-plan-for-mountain-snowmaking/ (Accessed 14th February 2012)

16

Chapter 2: Religion/Culture.
The word sacred is used by Native tribes often when describing the San Francisco Peaks. However, few western cultured people use sacred and even less people outside of the Native North American culture would have heard any of the mountains indigenous name translations. Dion Benn, a Native American Navajo who lives on the Navajo Reservation close to the city of Flagstaff, agreed in personal interview, to discuss the story of why his people see this area as sacred. Benn stated, that during the 1860s, the United States Government forcibly moved many Native people from their traditional homeland. This action would become known to his people, as the Long Walk.87 Benn understands, that it is written historical knowledge, Native American people were actually shot and killed even before the 300 mile journey to Fort Sumner, the final destination had been reached.88 This appalling act committed by the army was on the orders of the then government, based on some people being too old, weak or pregnant. Many others were even taken as slaves by other tribes due to their weakened states.89 Benn stated, many tribal elders did eventually travel the great distance to Washington D.C, to secure the return of the tribe members to their original homeland. Some people did not make the journey, because of the ordeal in traveling. But Mr Benn also explained that many Navajo at this time, also hid and sort refuge in the Grand Canyon area and the Navajo Mountain north east of the San Francisco Peaks.90 Those Natives, who sort refuge, helped those tribe members who returned eventually to the area with food and water.91 The book the Long Walk, speaks of the turmoil and difficulty of the trip but not in great detail of those people who survived living in the local surroundings. This fact, may

87 88 89

Richard Wilson. Personal Interview No 8. Dion Benn Native American Resident on the Reservation of the Navajo Nation. 2011 Ibid Ibid 90 Ibid 91 Ibid

17

explain why outsiders fail to see the areas significance to indigenous people. The Long Walk book does recall the long journey home, which took several months to complete and the appreciation the Navajo people had for Tso dzilh (Mount Taylor) when they could finally see the mountain.92 This local land the Navajo people feel was given to them by the Holy People, land they cherish within their sacred mountains.93 Now back on their sacred land in the year 1868, the Native Americans who did not succumb to slavery or death and managed to resist capture. Helped the new arrivals to plant corn using seeds which built their strength and at the same time, gave instructions to live in balance and harmony, to fulfil their duties to the land and to their Holy People.94 To Native American Navajo, this is one of the reasons the area has its power. The herbs that where collected by the survivors were and still are used in ceremonies considered very important by the Navajo community. These ceremonies show the extent of their culture and how the Native society operates herbal practices. Another example of how important these ceremonies are to the Navajo community, is provided during (the actor/comedian) Billy Connollys televised road trip Route 66. Unfortunately, whilst filming, Mr Connolly had an accident and came off his motorbike. In doing so, he injured himself and damaged his bike. When Mr Connolly went to see a local Navajo practitioner, it was not just his physical injury that needed healing, but that of the area in which the incident had taken place. Cooling the earth where Mr Connolly had landed bringing peace to the earth and resettling the balance back before the crash had occurred are considered very important to Native thinking.95 This latter example, gives evidence to Mr Benns story that his people keep the belief of having balance with Mother Nature and the Earth. He feels strongly, that the use of reclaimed water on the San Francisco Peaks would cause imbalance to nature to say the

92 93 94

Raymond Bial, The Long Walk: The Story of Navajo Captivity, Chapter Seven Long Journey Home. (Published by Benchmark Books New York). 2002 P. 74 Ibid Wilson, Personal Interview No 8 95 Billy Connolly with Robert Uhlig, Route 66, The Big Yin on the Ultimate American Road Trip. Chapter 12 Flagstaff, Arizona, Dont Forget Winoa. Sphere Publishers Great Britain. 2011. P. 252

18

least, and the herbs, which Natives use and value, may lose their potency. The mood among many Navajo is that the way plants grow may be different from in previous times. Mr Benn went on to say that everything the Navajo know is under attack, and his faith and trueness are what keeps him going.96 He firmly denies outside opinion, that these areas are not the original Holy mountains from centuries ago, that his people originated from. Instead, Mr Benn and others will continue the fight so that his ancestors over thousands of years did not die with heart ache.97 Helen Lau Running, who has participated in many Native American ceremonies and is an assistant editor for the Hopi Observer explained more information about the Peaks themselves. She says, the San Francisco Peaks are one of four sacred mountains and the western most mountain out of the four is believed to contain a female entity presence.98 Mrs Running says, the Navajo consider the female entity to be the mother.99 Many thousands of years ago, the peaks exploded, the top blew off and lava flowed down the eastern side of the mountain.100 It is now considered by volcanologists to be a dormant volcano and the lava that flowed out was considered the mountains blood by the Navajo at the time.101 Mrs Running went on to say, that it is not hard to see why many Native Americans consider the mountain to be sacred after it has offered so much protection from enemies and nature.102 She explained another issue in history which had disastrous consequences when ecological decisions where not taken into account. Mrs Running said the example was the Aswan Dam, when the Nile was dammed, the river was on the throws of death.103 This act of man, led to many illnesses and disease such as Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease, caused by several species of flatworms (genus Schist soma) which can infect both humans

96 97

Wilson, Personal Interview No 8 Ibid 98 Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 23 Helen Lau Running Author, grant writer consultant and the assistant editor of the Navajo-Hopi Observer newspaper. 2010 99 Ibid 100 Ibid 101 Ibid 102 Ibid 103 Ibid

19

and domestic livestock.104 Mrs Running feels strongly, a similar problem could arise in the peaks and could cause long-term health effects if wastewater is used for snowmaking. In another interview for this project, Klee Benally, the Navajo film director kindly agreed to give his opinions and feelings on the planned use of reclaimed water on the San Francisco Peaks. Mr Benally explained how the mountain to the Navajo is one of six holy mountains which hold up our universe.105 He also stated, the peaks is one of four cardinal mountains which are pillars of our universe, and that the Navajo people need to collect herbs and say prayers and give offerings on the mountain.106 Which cannot be done anywhere else.107 Mr Benally also explained there are teachings associated with this mountain and the other mountains, relating to the existence of deities and gods that are of great importance to many Native tribes.108 He also claimed, one of the major events that take place upon the San Francisco Peaks is the blessing ceremony, which is the foundation of Navajo spiritual practice.109 Mr Benally went on to say, that the Navajo do not have separation between religion and their cultural identity. A bundle of soil collected from the mountain is a direct connection between the people and the mountain.110 Mr Benally, has personally expressed his strong opposition to the planned use of reclaimed water through his documentary the Snowbowl Effect.111 Mr Bennally said on interview, that originally he never intended to make a documentary, instead he just wanted to document what different groups and individuals were saying at public meetings about reclaimed water use.112 However, he felt personally the media locally were biased in their reporting and were deliberately leaving out any information that suggested the water for example, was not suitable to drink.113 Subsequently, to ensure the facts were told, the documentary the Snowbowl Effect was made.114

104 105

Shadab Hussain Ahmed and Burke A Cunha, Schistosomiasis, http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/228392-overview (Accessed 12 April 2012) Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 1, Klee Benally, Native American Film Maker and Activist. 2011 106 Ibid 107 Ibid 108 Ibid 109 Ibid 110 Ibid 111 Ibid 112 Ibid 113 Ibid 114 Ibid

20

Mr Benallys comment about a bundle of soil, suggests any issues with the soil, such as if the soil is contaminated for example, the Navajo lives could be to.115 Ironically, the U.S.A protects Plymouth Rock on the east coast with a monument to ensure no future contamination takes place, but the same cannot be said of the peaks.116 The treaty of 1868 says that Navajo land cannot be sold, taken away or given away without act of Congress, conveniently the area in question is on Federal Land.117 Land the Navajo feel strongly is being lost along with the water, which is naturally located there. Navajo people feel water is worth more than any other mineral wealth, if the water is not protected, (Many Mules Granddaughter once said on another water related issue in the area), then the Navajo tribe may not survive.118 Other Native groups have their own view on how the San Francisco Peaks mountain is sacred such as the Hopi. Lomayumtewa C. Ishii is a Professor at Northern Arizona University and a Hopi member. Mr Ishii explained that, the Peaks play a significant role in our success.119 Many in the Hopi group are concerned about the proposals due to their own unique view on the mountain, for example the Hopi origin stories or instructions Hopi receive that play an important role in the ceremonial cycle, meaning clearly, if one part is affected then in future all would be.120 Mr Ishii explained supernatural deities figure highly in ceremonial activities, parts of the year they dwell on the peaks, other times they are in the villages. Mr Ishii says the Kachinas, are the name for the Hopis deities; prayers and offerings are made which in return the Hopi feel brings snow down naturally.121 The snow melts into water to help crops grow, something which has been done for hundreds if not thousands of years through Hopi farming tradition. Despite the history of Native tradition, the U.S Government fails to see the

115 116

Ibid N.A. Explorers and Settlers, Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/explorers/sitee15.htm (Accessed 12 April 2012) 117 Arthur Claudeen, Between Sacred Mountains: Navajo Stories and Lessons from the Land. Chapter Modern Times, Water. Sun Tracks and the University Of Arizona Press, 1984 p. 236 118 Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 13 Lomayumtewa C. Ishii Professor of Political Science at NAU. 2011 119 Ibid 120 Ibid 121 Ibid

21

significance, as there is not a clear visible sign of sacredness Western society is use to, for example a cross.122 Mr Ishii went onto say, that when mankind affect the efficacy of the Peaks, that efficacy is based in the community, psychological effects may be a future issue as we are told to pray from our heads and our hearts.123 What affects the Peaks being desecrated will have on Native people are still being debated by Hopi elders.124 It has been detailed that there is a complexity to the Native American mind, thinking is a way of seeing, something they describe as natural law guiding them.125 There is written evidence suggesting, that a major cause of drug and alcohol abuse amongst Native Americans is due to the loss of identity from their land or culture which has been taken away and later replaced by a more dominant western model.126 So this loss of land/culture regarding the Peaks could be a future problematic issue for the city of Flagstaff, if the Peaks are desecrated in the eyes of Native Americans.127 Marina M. Vasquez, who works at Northern Arizona University in the Indigenous Studies Department (and who personally is a Mayan Elder), explains in more detail about the religious implications of using reclaimed water. Mrs Vasquez explained that if it was to be used certain plants may no longer be able to be used in ceremonies.128 This Mrs Vasquez knows well from personal experience in her own country of Guatemala. In a similar issue of wastewater use, plants had damaged roots and plants were unable to grow correctly.129 The whole area in question, Mrs Vasquez adds, left plants unable to regrow and caused erosions of so many species.130 She says, the Hopi watch the Kachinas (Gods) come down to the village and the local Hopi will throw food for the gods. The Hopi for the

122

N.A. 535 F. 3d 1058 (2008). Navajo Nation v. United States Forest Service. http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?q=%22535+F.3d+1058%22&hl=en&as_sdt=2003&case=11875117975930999049 (Accessed January 15th 2012). P. 30 123 Wilson, , Personal Interview No 13 Lomayumtewa C. Ishii 124 Ibid 125 Marianne O. Nielson and Robert A. Silverman, Criminal Justice in Native America, Chapter 7 Ed. Linda Robyn Native Americans and Uranium Mining as State-Corporate Crime. The University of Arizona Press Tucson, 2009, P. 101 126 Scott C. Carvajal and Robert S. Young, Culturally Based Substance Abuse Treatment for American Indians/Alaska Natives and Latinos. University of Arizona, N. D. P. 211 127 Ibid 128 Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 18 Marina M Vasquez Professor at NAU in the Indigenous Studies Department, also a Mayan Elder. 2011 129 Ibid 130 Ibid

22

benefit of future generations take great care of the land and this is something western peoples culture fails to see.131 Court hearings have written testimony from some Native American people, who state and apparently believe, the attack on the Twin Towers in New York City are in direct coalition with the disrespect being shown to the San Francisco Peaks.132 This strong feeling, shows the Native peoples beliefs of how important the Peaks area is to them. Despite such strong feelings from Native Americans about the peaks, the only legal reference that states a detrimental infringement may have occurred is under the title emotional religious experience, which refers to the building of the proposed pipeline and ski extension.133 Under Supreme Court precedent the diminishment of anything that is considered a spiritual fulfilment, serious as it may be, is considered to not be a substantial burden on the free exercise of religion.134 The Religious Freedom Restoration Act defines exercise of religion as any exercise of religion whether or not compelled by, or central to, a system of religious beliefs.135 The Supreme Court had heard in Lyng v Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective in 1988 that Native cemetery land was considered religious and the court favoured the Natives because road building and logging was considered devastating to religious beliefs.136 The Native American religious perspective in the Snowbowl issue is not recognised by the present day courts, unlike the previous courts ruling in 1988. The legal case in 2008, which saw the overturning of the decision to allow fake snow to be used. The courts went on record to say that the Native groups cannot dictate the decisions that the Government makes, what is after all the Governments land, but of course, the Government can dictate to tribes without any hindrance on itself.137

131 132

Ibid N.A. 535 F. 3d 1058 (2008). Navajo Nation v. United States Forest Service. http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?q=%22535+F.3d+1058%22&hl=en&as_sdt=2003&case=11875117975930999049 (Accessed January 15th 2012). 133 Ibid 134 Ibid 135 Ibid 136 Ibid 137 Ibid

23

Other tribes such as the Hualapai have testified in court, of their own creation story taking place on the mountain. The Havasupai share a cultural belief that the world was flat marked in the centre by the San Francisco Peaks.138 Many other tribes have directly compared their mountain tales in court similar to the pilgrimage for Muslims to Mecca.139 Many writers in various published mediums have compared the peaks issue for Native tribes to that of other religious groups problems, quotes have been said, such as it would be like flushing a Quran down the toilet, but it is believed no one has ever documented directly any similarity, until now.140 Speaking with Abdul Hadi Dashti an Islamic priest, the question was asked, what would Islamic people do if Mecca was to have reclaimed water poured over it?141 Mr Dashti replied people would go furious.142 Mecca is sacred to Islamic people, he further added that western influenced people fail to see that sacred places cannot be touched.143 Mr Dashti in answering the claim of no visible religious artefacts on the peaks, states it is always an internal feeling.144 Mr Dashti explained that in his opinion, there are similarities between the San Francisco Peaks and Mecca he says, sacred sites like this are like a living person.145 Mr Dashti says, Islamic people would have no difficulty in recognising and acknowledging Native sovereignty over the mountain range. As Islamic teaching clearly states, knock first before entering, he adds, we cannot enter someones house, their home without the owners permission, something which the U.S Government failed to do when proposing the mountain ski lodge development.146 Mr Dashtis, final comments reflected the current Western mood of superiority when dealing with smaller minority groups, Natives have their politics and we have ours; just because we are bigger than them does not mean we can just override them.147

138 139

Ibid Ibid 140 Wilson, Personal Interview No 12 Kyle Boggs 141 Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 3 Abdul Hadi Dashti, Islamic Priest. 2011 142 Ibid 143 Ibid 144 Ibid 145 Ibid 146 Ibid 147 Ibid

24

Muslims hold water very highly as their religion is born out of a desert. As mentioned in the Quran, do the unbelievers not realize that the Heavens and Earth were sewn together, but we ripped apart, and from water created every living thing.148 The Quran also explains that blessed water has been sent down from the sky to grow gardens, and that with it we have revived dead countryside, the Native Americans who survived the Long Walk may also share this quote.149 Rabbi Nina Pearlmutter answered some relevant questions by email on behalf of the Jewish faith. Mrs Pearlmutter said the Jewish faith could relate strongly with the Native cause over the Peaks issue and she knew this to be so. This is because she had personally worked closely on this topic with Native groups. Water is precious and a divine gift, she said.150 Water is valued on its own and as a metaphor for our most sacred Jewish teachings.151 Mrs Pearlmutter added, similar to the ceremonies of Native Americans, Jews do have numerous sacred ceremonies involving water, some using the Mikveh to help purify the body.152 As mentioned by Howard Shanker (Native legal Representative), from his clients personal testimonies to the courts. People would literally bathe in the snow, for their own ceremonies.153 Jews similarly pray for rain and will recite the Shema daily, to ensure the rains can come.154 As stated in the Old Testament, that I will give you the rain of your land in due season the first rain and the latter rain.155 This explaining clearly the importance of crop growing and the need for water. The Old Testament also states, gather in thy corn, and wine thine oil.156 The Navajo also pick Corn, perhaps indicating that all religions have a similar history and culture to basic human substance. Unfortunately for the Native American tribes, their historical beliefs are not written down, known and openly discussed outside of the tribe groupings.
148 149

N. A. The Quran, Chapter 21 the Prophets, Translated with an Introduction by Tarif Khalidi. Penguin Books. Published UK, USA 2009 P. 259 Ibid, Chapter 8 the Booty, P. 139 150 Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 21 Rabbi Nina PearlMutter, 2011 151 Ibid 152 Ibid 153 Wilson, Personal Interview No 11 154 Wilson, Personal Interview No 21 155 N.A. Holy Bible King James Version, Deuteronomy Chapter 11 Verse 14. Collins Publishers. N.D 156 Ibid

25

Speaking with Father Mathew Lowry from a local Catholic church in Flagstaff, Father Lowry did not have a personal view on the Peaks issue itself. However, he did have an opinion on how the world should be seen and what Catholicism feels is our duty to the planet. He states, Christianity sees in creation a reflection of the beauty of our creator, nature is a gift in which humans have been entrusted to be good stewards of.157 Father Lowry went on to say, that the mountain is not a living thing and Catholicism could not see the mountain as alive, but living things do live upon it.158 The plants that grow up there, the animals that live there should be respected and protected and as good stewards we are the crown of creation and these areas are for our benefit.159 Father Lowrys final comments were, that the Catholic church supports Native American rights to keep the mountain sacred to them and that the freedom of one person trampled on is the freedom of everyone.160 Native people see life in such a different way to many other civilizations, especially in the West and western culture. The current situation hinges on the difficulty the Native Americans have on explaining their religions and traditions to the courts and the forest service.161 As to why the land is so intrinsically connected to them and to why all people should have equal rights upon it. This on-going difficulty, was echoed many years before by Native Chief Joseph Nez Perce, when he said, all men were made by the same Great Spirit Chief, they are all brothers, the earth is the mother of all people and everyone should have rights upon it.162 The Natives have used herbs and even the organs of animals to help them with their healing powers. Many Native people were on first name terms with spices, herbs and plants, believing inner qualities of the body should be treated with the up most respect to enhance their health, as the creator had wanted.163 Natives and Nature intertwine even to the point where a single thought could lead to harmful consequences. Not much different to

157 158 159

Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 7 Father Mathew Lowry, Priest Chaplin at Holy Trinity Catholic Newman Centre. 2011 Ibid Ibid 160 Ibid 161 N.A. The Pluralism Project at Harvard University. P. 3 162 Kent Nerburn, Louise Mengelkoch. Native American Wisdom. The Classic Wisdom Collection New World Library Novato, California, 1991, P. 28 163 Shimer Porter, Healing Secrets of the Native Americans. Herbs, Remedies and Practices that Restore the Mind and Rebuild the Spirit. (New York Black Dog & Lenventhal, 1999) P. 8

26

early puritan life where bad thoughts from an individual were felt could lead to vengeance by God.164 Speaking with Andrew Sarracino, (who works in Northern Arizona Universitys Native American student services department) and helps prepare future Natives Americans into higher education; provided valuable insight into the issues younger Native people have and the difficulties they experience in relating to modern western society. The reason for asking the Native youth about what they feel and think is because, one feels, that there could be future discord with the Native youth of today as they may lose interest or knowledge of past traditional and Native events. Mr Sarracino explained, in order to be heard in his Navajo tribe, a young person must be allowed to be by his elders, their decision holds sway over other younger members and other major issues may take precedence over another, meaning if in the future larger issues take place then this important issue could be forgotten.165 Mr Sarracino went on to explain, that corn pollen was picked as part of Native tradition, and that the Navajo Nation is one of the largest tribes in America and this issue has caused problems with sovereignty as the land in question is separate from the U.S.A. in Natives eyes.166 The issue for the Navajo is using dirty water on our sacred mountains.167 The Snowbowl is devastating our sacred lands just by being there. Using dirty water on our plants we use for ceremonial use is unacceptable to the Navajo. Mr Sarracino said, there was great anger amongst the Navajo about Snowbowls wastewater plans.168 In earlier recorded times, Celtic people living in Europe apparently where illiterate, but the Celts had a powerful oral tradition of storytelling and poetry.169 Celtic people even felt oak trees and mistletoe were thought to be sacred.170 How very similar this culture and belief system of the Celts appears to be to Native American people and how ironic that many
164 165 166

Kay Kizer, Puritans, http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/puritans.html (Accessed 12 April 2012) Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 5 Andrew Sarracino Navajo Resident Works with Young Native Americans at NAU. 2011 Ibid 167 Ibid 168 Ibid 169 Adam Hart-Davis editorial consultant. History the Definitive Visual Guide, From the Dawn of Civilization to the Present Day, Chapter 3 Celtic Warriors Dr Richard Lim. (2007 Dorling Kindersley Limited) P. 134 170 Ibid

27

Celtic people would later become European and then American when they originally emigrated.171 Unfortunately this belief system has been lost by Americans in large part. If this had not happened one can only speculate if situations like the Peaks issue would ever occur? Western people may have forgotten the earlier traditions and beliefs of their forbearers, but in Native life, they are still very apparent. A Navajo Indian called George Blue-eyes explained the importance of Dook o oosliid in Navajo culture, at noon the sun tells us, its time to eat, and in the evening when the sun sets, darkness tells us to rest, sleep my grandchildren.172 This comment helps explain how Navajo people have regulated their lives since the beginning.173 Mr Blue-eyes comment, adds clarity, to how important the San Francisco Peaks are to the Navajo tribe and how the mountain guides their life and has done for centuries.174 Mr Blue-eyes went on to say, that because of the prayer bundle which has soil taken from the peaks, something the Navajo call dah nidiilyeeh they are able to gain sheep, horses and cattle in return because this is where their prayers begin from.175 The Snowbowl Company and forest service have claimed to date, that they have held over 41 meetings and exchanged 245 letters with the tribes and found nothing environmentally egregious about using reclaimed water.176 Nora B. Rasure of the Coconino National forest stated, these reforms are needed for the business to stay viable, and that none of the tribes perform ceremonies or maintain shrines within the resort.177 Part of the difficulty religiously is that Native people are reluctant to speak to outsiders about their ways. Bill Bucky Preston, who is a spiritual leader for the Hopi, refused to describe in detail (in court) what practices he would no longer be able to do or how the mountain figures in Hopi lore to his own lawyer.178

171 172 173

Ibid Claudeen, Between Sacred Mountains: Navajo Stories and Lessons from the Land. P. 2 Ibid 174 Ibid 175 Ibid 176 Archibold, Commerce and Religion Collide on a Mountainside. P. 16 177 Ibid 178 Ibid

28

Mr Ishii pointed out in his personal address to Nora Rasure (who is the person who made the decision to go ahead with the snowmaking application), that the year (1492) represents the beginning of American history, but to indigenous people it is a total disregard for centuries of existence.179 He goes on to say that for indigenous groups, this is not just about religion but their future.180 Due to Native life being untouched by western life for many centuries, the practicalities of life are now known as traditional knowledge and for many tribes the Peaks represent much more than religion.181 Peter Friederici (Professor of Journalism at NAU) stated in interview because Natives consider the Peaks as being so sacred, Snowbowl and the forest service cannot start slicing and dicing bits of it off.182 The tribes see the whole Peaks area as being sacred. The idea that only one per cent of the mountain will be used, directly reflects the two ideologies represented here as Native peoples histories are being increasingly separated from their lands and livelihood, and Western society cannot see the interconnectedness of history and life.183 Doublehead Creek Chief once explained this Native way of thinking by saying we are afraid if we part with any more of our lands the white people will not let us keep as much as will be sufficient to bury our dead 184. This latter point, surely shows how the idea of just one per cent being used denies the idea everything is connected.185 If this way of thinking is continued Mr Ishhi explains, then this could be disastrous and have implications for indigenous people everywhere due to the feelings indigenous people believe in. This is that they are the caretakers of this land, just as Father Lowry insisted we all should be.

179 180 181

Lomayumtewa C. Ishii Ph D, The San Francisco Peaks: A Matter of Perspectives and Truths. (Northern Arizona University: N.D.) P. 1 Ibid, P. 2 Ibid, P. 3 182 Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 10 Peter Friederici Professor of Journalism at NAU. 2011 183 Ishii Ph D, The San Francisco Peaks: A Matter of Perspectives and Truths. P. 4 184 Kent Nerburn, Louise Mengelkoch. Native American Wisdom. The Classic Wisdom Collection, P. 52 185 Ishii Ph D, The San Francisco Peaks: A Matter of Perspectives and Truths. P. 4

29

Chapter 3: Science.
The city of Flagstaff will provide 1.5million gallons of treated sewage effluent, which after processing is referred to as reclaimed water. Reclaimed water that is minus the solids, scum, odours and sludge content. Water that has been processed through an initial, secondary and then tertiary filtration system, which includes the use of a two stage anoxic, aerobic and organic biological Fila-mentation gravity-feed process utilised by Flagstaffs two treatment plants.186 The two plants are Wildcat Hill and Rio De Flag.187 The water for reuse then passes through a final sand and anthracite filters process prior to disinfection by ultraviolet light radiation. The water is further treated with hypochlorite solution to ensure that residual disinfection is maintained.188 Once this process is complete, the reused water is considered clean enough to use environmentally. Therefore, no adverse physical affects upon plants, springs or natural resources should occur.189 Despite the hypochlorite solution treatment, microbial pathogens and enteric bacteria, viruses and protozoa (including cryptosporidium and giardia) can still be found.190 Cryptosporidium for example is one of the most frequent causes of waterborne disease among humans in the United States.191 Subsequently, treated reused water can be suitable for snowmaking, but the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) states that precautions must be taken to avoid any ingestion by humans.192 Any organization in Arizona using reclaimed water by law, must therefore clearly signpost that reclaimed water is being used locally and that human beings should not ingest the water.193 The State of Arizona grades the standard of Flagstaffs two-treatment plants final processed reclaimed water, as A+. A+ water can be used for crop irrigation, snowmaking, residential irrigation and fire protection.194 To produce A+ water, the Wildcat plant required a

186 187

N.A. 535 F. 3d 1058 (2008). Navajo Nation v. United States Forest Service. Gary Ghioto, Arizona Daily Sun newspaper. Saturday June 14th 2003, P. 1 188 Gremillion Ph.D. Capstone Design Capstone CENE 486c - Spring 2006 Portable Water Treatment System Final. P. 8 189 Ibid 190 N.A. 535 F. 3d 1058 (2008). Navajo Nation v. United States Forest Service. 191 N.A. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Cryptosporidium http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/crypto/ (Accessed 13April 2012) 192 N.A. 535 F. 3d 1058 (2008). Navajo Nation v. United States Forest Service. 193 Wilson, Personal Interview No 11 194 Ghioto, Digging deep to reclaim aquifer, P. 3

30

$20 million upgrade by Flagstaff City council which was put in place in 2003.195 The treatment plant previously could only produce class B water, which is only considered suitable for street cleaning and golf course watering.196 Reclaimed water now provides over 16% of the total water demand that is annually required in Northern Arizona.197 Despite the grade A+ rating, controversy exists regarding the forest services claim, that reused water is safe to use.198 This is because different standards exist in different States on what is acceptable contamination after processing. The final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) used by forest services legal representation in support of the Snowbowl reuse water application, acknowledges that treated sewage effluent still contains unidentified and unregulated organic contaminants.199 However, under Arizona Law, treated water is still usable even if four out of seven water samples contain faecal coliform bacteria.200 One such bacterium often associated with untreated water is Escherichia Coli or E/Coli. E/coli can cause severe illness if ingested by humans, in some cases it could be life threatening.201 Flagstaffs treatment plants do not test for many modern manmade chemicals such as acrylamids, Dalapan, Di (2-elhylhexl) Adipae, Dinseb, Diquat, Endothall, Epichlorhdrin, Elhylene Dibromide, Lindane, Oxamylcvydates, Picloram, Simazine and Aluminium.202 Such chemicals could be from prescription drugs or care products, and could be potentially hazardous to human and animal consumption if taken in significant quantity. For example, the presence of trace metals in surface water is an important constituent in maintaining biological growth, in excess amounts; metals can cause damage to the kidneys, liver and nervous system.203 Excess amounts, can also cause cancer, nerve damage and mental retardation.

195 196

Ibid, P.2 Ibid, P.3 197 Ibid, P. 1 198 Boggs, Kyle. Our Water Systems, Our Future: Inconvenient Truths Revealed in Snowbowl Talks. http://www.undertheconcrete.org/2010/12/05/our-watersystems-our-future-inconvenient-truths-revealed-in-snowbowl-talks/ (Accessed February 5th 2011) 199 N.A. 535 F. 3d 1058 (2008). Navajo Nation v. United States Forest Service. P. 200 Wilson, Personal Interview No 12 201 Gremillion Ph.D., P.E. Capstone Design Capstone CENE 486c - Spring 2006 Portable Water Treatment System Final. P. 30 202 Boggs, Our Water Systems, Our Future: Inconvenient Truths Revealed in Snowbowl Talks. 203 Gremillion Ph.D., P.E. Capstone Design Capstone CENE 486c - Spring 2006 Portable Water Treatment System Final. P. 30

31

Dr Paul Torrance (former Professor at NAU) has reported on reclaimed water use that veterinary antibiotics, anti-seizure medication and steroids found in antibacterial products are known collectively as triclosan and trilocarbons.204 These can become mega carcinogen poisonous dioxins when subjected to ultra violet light as they would be during the treatment plant process.205 Dr Torrances work has also identified, antihistamines, caffeine, codeine, fragrances and bio-accumulating compounds in reclaimed water, which worryingly, when triclosan reacts with chloride, it becomes chloroform which is a carcinogen in action.206 Local environmental scientist Dr Catherine Propper supports Dr Torrances findings. Dr Propper stated that using an ultra violet treatment process on reclaimed water can sometimes backfire depending on what compounds are present making them better or worse.207 Dr Propper has also demonstrated in her own research, some troubling effects of endocrine trace elements found in reclaimed wastewater in animals. Dr Propper has identified, that shifts in genes may occur in animals resulting in faulty gonads.208 Dr Propper reiterates the importance of healthy gonads long-term in regards to normal sexual and developmental growth in animals209. Dr Proppers research identifies real concerns about the normal sexual ratio in different natural species when such species are exposed to manmade product elements, as they will be on the San Francisco Peaks. Dr Propper is co-publisher of Wastewater Effluent, the report has identified, that endocrine disrupting compounds have the ability to alter the normal function of the endocrine system which is responsible for growth and development in all vertebrates.210 Dr Propper says that Endocrine Disruptors are manmade compounds that impact any aspect of the Endocrine physiology development, from the synthesis of hormones, all through growth

204 205

Boggs, Our Water Systems, Our Future: Inconvenient Truths Revealed in Snowbowl Talks Kyle Boggs, No Really....What is in the Wastewater. http://www.undertheconcrete.org/2009/10/06/no-reallywhat-is-in-the-wastewater/. (Accessed February 5th 2011) 206 Ibid 207 Boggs, Our Water Systems, Our Future: Inconvenient Truths Revealed in Snowbowl Talks 208 Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 22 Dr Catherine Propper Scientist at NAU. 2011 209 Boggs, Our Water Systems, Our Future: Inconvenient Truths Revealed in Snowbowl Talks 210 Wilson, Personal Interview No 22

32

to tissue level.211 Such an effect could change behaviour, development and reproduction ability in next generation plants and fauna. In Dr Proppers opinion, no matter how the water is treated it ends up with overtoxicity and can cause animals to fall over dead when the water is released from a primary treatment plant or worse no treatment facility.212 When water is released from a secondary treatment facility then scientist can see gonads in male species becoming female.213 Dr Proppers work has concluded that fish and frogs in such exposed areas, impacted by endocrine disruption caused by infected reclaimed water allowed the chemicals in the water after processing to mimic or antagonise hormone action.214 In 2002, a United States geological survey, found that industrial waste such as pesticides and insecticides were found in water samples across the country from steams near to wastewater effluent outlets.215 Such manmade chemicals are known to post health risks like cancer, birth defects, brain damage or possibly immune disorders.216 Dr Propper states, that due to the fact human testing is illegal, we can only see the results in animals.217 But she adds, because these tests are done on animals, it does not mean that we could not potentially see effects in humans later as humans are no different.218 Dr Propper wants to see much better built treatment plants to ensure higher standards of cleaner reclaimed water is produced.219 She stated that we cannot say for sure if this water was placed on the mountain that we would see the same result, only that animals downstream from water treatment plants had positive or negative results.220 Dr Propper did reiterate that we will not see people falling down dead from endocrine disruptors but quality of life issues may arise.221

211 212 213

Ibid Ibid Ibid 214 Ibid 215 David Quandrud Ph D, Catherine R. Propper Ph D, Wastewater Effluent: Biological Impacts of Exposure and Treatment Processes to Reduce Risk. N.D. P. Introduction 216 Gremillion Ph.D, P.E. Capstone Design Capstone CENE 486c - Spring 2006 Portable Water Treatment System Final. P. 30 217 Wilson, Personal Interview No 22 218 Ibid 219 Ibid 220 Ibid 221 Ibid

33

In personal interview, geologist Dr Abraham Springer of NAU, expressed his concerns over the planned use of snowmaking on the peaks. Dr Springer explained that he has personally accomplished extensive research at the Hart Prairie Preserve (which is adjacent to the peaks), and because of natural snowmelts from highs levels trickling down from different aquifers all draining into one another and eventually finding its way into the nearby Verde River. Dr Springer is concerned that reclaimed water could affect nutriments in the Verde potentially for up to a radius of 200 miles.222 Dr Springer adds, that some local species of plants and animals are not found anywhere else in the world, and that consensus needs to the established if potential incalculable damage is to be avoided.223 Dr Springer biggest concern is that of nitrogen, as the chemical is not removed from the cleaning process.224 Instead, nitrogen is turned from nitrate to nitrite via process becoming less hazardous but still not natural.225 He explains it is not evaluated how much artificial snow will melt through the environmental terrain.226 He remarked, endocrine disruptors and anthropogenic waste indicators do not appear in real snow.227 Dr Springer further added that because waste indicators do not appear in real snow, then it should be clearly understood by the authorities before manmade snow is placed onto a wildlife habitat as the natural environment may be changed.228 He states, 50% to 70% of the snow in Flagstaff sublimates making it go straight into the atmosphere, this is partly due to the climate of dry wind and sunshine.229 What is left of the water would infiltrate into the ground and Dr Springer warned, that climate change could cause rain and snowfall averages to change lower down the mountain slopes resulting in more future use of manmade snow being used.230

222 223

Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 4 Abraham Springer Professor of Geology at NAU. 2011 Ibid 224 Ibid 225 Ibid 226 Ibid 227 Ibid 228 Ibid 229 Ibid 230 Ibid

34

Dr Springer further added it would help significantly if Arizona State was to revaluate its A+ rating in light of the environmental scientific findings that have been identified not just locally but around the world regarding reclaimed wastewater purity levels.231 Dr Springer accepts, that Nevada for example pumps its wastewater into Lake Mead and then takes it straight out again for general use.232 He adds, San Diego has been using wastewater for decades and many Western states are becoming increasingly dependent on reused water so far without any serious problem developing to his knowledge.233 The issue of unnatural nitrogen level is a concern shared by the Nature Conservancy, the conservation organisation consider the San Francisco Peaks area as a priority bio-diverse conversation area. Nitrogen levels where reclaimed water has been used, have been found to be five times that of normal levels and subsequently can potentially lead to increased growth of weedy non-native plants that could dominate and out compete native species.234 Nitrogen addition has been demonstrated scientifically in the conservatory report, to have significant effects on not only vegetation, but also to negatively impact soil fauna in areas of conifer forests. 235 Although in general, the conservancy supports the use of reclaimed water and accepts that nitrogen in the environment is an essential nutrient for biological growth.236 The conservancy does not consider an alpine ecosystem like the peaks to be in anyway a desirable place to disperse treated effluent by virtue of the alpine ecosystems remoteness and relatively pristine condition.237 In the Nature Conservancies 2005 report on the Snowbowl plan, they stated that they would like test sites to be set up at specific points throughout the San Francisco Peaks area to test water quality if the proposal for snowmaking goes ahead.238 Whilst accepting that wildlife faecal material will occur naturally in the system (elk droppings for example), the
231 232 233

Ibid Ibid Ibid 234 Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 9 Edward Smith Forest Ecologist for the Nature Conservancy. 2011 235 Neil Chapman, Snowbowl Update-Water Monitoring, Water Quality Monitoring Needs at Hart Prairie, The Nature Conservancy. N.D. 236 Bill Ulfelder, Letter to Ken Jacobs Snowbowl DEIS Team Leader, 12 April, 2004 237 Chapman, Snowbowl Update-Water Monitoring, Water Quality Monitoring Needs at Hart Prairie, 238 Ibid

35

potential threat to wildlife, plants and humans posed by concentrations of pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPS), and endocrine disruptors in reused water requires monitoring scientifically.239 In personal interview, Ed Smith who works for the Nature Conservancy, pointed out that many insects such as dragonflys, mammals like elk and a huge array of birds and herbivores for example live off the species of plants which populate the sides of the peaks mountain area.240 Deer, elk, gofers, grasshoppers and other native species have already in his opinion, been shown to have increased levels of contamination from unnatural trace elements through wastewater use in other areas of America and around the world.241 In his opinion, treating effluent reclaimed water to higher standards is vital long-term.242 Mr Smith is especially concerned about the effect of wastewater use on the Bebb Willow, Bebb Willow is a riverside community and not one particular species of plant, it has also been categorised as G2 in rarity because there are few plants in large numbers in anyone place.243 G1 would mean less than five specimens of such fauna or flora left in the world. G2 would mean less than 20. Mr Smith remarks, we must remember, many insects depend on the Bebb Willow area for their survival. Some of these insects exist nowhere else in the world. Mr Smith remarked, the established Foxgen water well, situated on the Hart Prairie Preserve. Is already showing on routine testing, to have unacceptable effluent contamination levels before any wastewater for snow is used.244 Mr Smith feels the answer to the problem, is to have better treatment plants. Mr Smith said, using 03 Oxygen ozonisation filtration would be better.245 Ozonisation uses a longer oxygen infiltrated process, which causes the water to bubble much longer, therefore making the water much cleaner as a result.246 Other

239 240 241

Ibid Wilson, Personal Interview No 9 ibid 242 ibid 243 ibid 244 ibid 245 ibid 246 ibid

36

areas in the U.S and around the world use this Ozonisation process, Mr Smith stated that he recognises this is not a cheap option.247 Neil Chapman (who is the Hart Prairie Preserve manager) expressed concern for the unique biodiversity that exists in the Bebb Willow drainage system and wet meadow areas if wastewater contamination occurs. Mr Chapman said, obviously anything that changes the natural water supply will have an effect somehow.248 Science just cannot say presently where, when and by how much.249 He remarked, endocrine disruptors in the soil nutrients in conjunction with higher nitrogen levels would cause changes in the way some plants operate.250 Such as the Kentucky Blue Grass, which if it came into contact with reclaimed water, may begin to out compete other native plants. These plants are food for local animals and if contaminated would lead to those animals possibly being affected also. Neil Chapman feels a great opportunity to accurately monitor how a natural environment changes with climate change is being lost by this development. He explained that this area in the 1900s saw the fort valley experimental forest, which realised trees needed to be monitored in order for the lumberjack industry to be kept open.251 He had hoped for the area to become a monitoring site but funding was cut, the Conservancy has voiced official concerns over lack of adequate testing which so far have gone unheard. In interview, Peter Friederici (Professor of Journalism at NAU) points out that due to the peaks location being in the arid west and water becoming increasingly a more scarce resource.252 The topic for using reclaimed water becomes potentially more dyer for the environments long-term consequences.253 If water after treatment is still contaminated with unacceptable levels of trace manmade elements Mr Friederici points out; then the technology, machines and equipment used to set up existing wastewater treatment plants are shown already not to be adequate in regards to filtering out chemicals.254 The equipment

247 248 249

ibid Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 17 Neil Chapman Manager of the Hart Prairie Preserve in Arizona. 2011 ibid 250 ibid 251 ibid 252 Wilson, Personal Interview No 10 253 ibid 254 ibid

37

therefore he adds was designed to detect pollution at the time of building and not the pollution we know about now. Howard Shanker stated the EPA is poised to conduct an environmental study but not until the of beginning in 2012 in the Peaks area. He says the analysis of levels of chemicals and what is considered safe in reclaimed water differs from State to State.255 Shanker says there are no national standards for quality when it comes to reclaimed wastewater. Dr Proppers scientific research shows that contaminated reclaimed water does adversely affect the biodiversity and normal development of such things as amphibians, this could be a problem as the Western striped chorus frog and tiger salamander are located downstream from the Snowbowl in the Hart Prairie Reserve.256 Dr Propper points out that insufficient analytical data is currently available for knowing conclusively what will happen environmentally if reclaimed water was to be placed on the mountainside.257 Only when more adequate research has been completed Dr Propper stated, can a proper diagnosis be made about what affects reclaimed water use for snowmaking can have on the environment.258 J. R Murray (Snowbowl Manager) has been quoted in the local media, saying that reclaimed water is not only safe to drink, but also cleaner then the water that falls from the sky in the form of precipitation.259 However, such a claim is only based upon the grading and standards tested in the state of Arizona. Mr Murrays comments, could be based on the work of consultant Jim Crook, who in the early 1970s in San Diego California.260 Began using Dennis Chancellors discovery of cleaning wastewater by Reverse Osmosis, or a hyper filtration process that Crook at the time claimed, made the wastewater treatment quality in San Diego better than the natural drinking water at that time.261

255 256 257

Wilson, Personal Interview No 11 Quandrud Ph D, Propper Ph D, Wastewater Effluent: Biological Impacts of Exposure and Treatment Processes to Reduce Risk. P. 12 Wilson, Personal Interview No 22 258 ibid 259 Boggs, no really....What is in the Wastewater 260 Peter Friederici, Facing the Yuck Factor, Www.HighCountryNews.com, Published September 17, 2007, http://www.hcn.org/issues/354/17227 (Accessed February 15th 2011) 261 Gremillion, Capstone Design Capstone CENE 486c - Spring 2006 Portable Water Treatment System Final P. 5

38

In interview, Mr Burke stated, the likelihood of lawsuits happening against Flagstaff City Council and Snowbowl would be unlikely even if any contamination happened.262 Arizona State grades the reclaimed water as A+, so locally it is more than safe to use even if the local filtration process does not test for all known compounds. Mr Burke stated that reclaimed water meets EPA safe reused water standards and the possibility of someone getting sick in therefore very low.263 Mr Burke points out that Flagstaff has used reclaimed water throughout the city in parks, golf courses and recreational areas. This practice has been going on from the 1980s; resulting in a good record, and Flagstaff does update its filter and treatment plants. Mr burke also added, that the liability is sent to the user under state law. He said, its their tap, so its their decision to use or not, making the responsibility for use clearly theirs264. Liability he added changes at the metre265. Wendell Duffield (former Volcanologist at NAU) stated, that due to the scarcity of water in Northern Arizona, it would be a misuse of resource to make snow. Because water sublimates, a huge waste of potential drinking water is lost in his opinion.266 When water sublimates he adds, it evaporates to vapour, then goes into the atmosphere, not touching the soil at all and it could take decades before some of the snowmelts back into the aquifer.267 Mr Duffield feels the yuk factor about using reclaimed water for drinking stops the idea from going ahead and this problem must be overcome if humankind is to preserve water.268 On the proposal of finding new portable water sites, Mr Duffield adds it could be 2000 feet of drilling before water was located.269 In addition, funding new water access points is very expensive, and he explains there is no guarantee you can find any in Northern Arizona.270 Michael Vasquez (anthropologist at NAU) has worked with indigenous people for over 20 years, he remarks, the whole concept of ecological zones came into western
262 263

Wilson, Personal Interview No 24 Ibid 264 Ibid 265 Ibid 266 Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 19 Wendell Duffield Retired Professor at NAU in the Volcano logy Department. 2011 267 Ibid 268 Ibid 269 Ibid 270 Ibid

39

science through one man by the name of Frank Miriam. He made an epic horseback trip in 1889 from Phoenix in the desert to the top of the San Francisco Peaks, which saw him travel through 10 of the 12 life zones on the planet.271 He brought the whole idea of interlinked biodiversity into scientific thinking and helped establish the concept into the English language.272 Miriams ride showed how many things naturally live together; allowing native indigenous knowledge and cultural understanding of how humankind must respect nature and not abuse and adversely alter the environment, allowing it to become accepted scientific and environmental understanding.273

271 272

Richard Wilson, Personal Interview No 15 Michael L. Vasquez Professor of Anthropology at NAU. 2011 Ibid 273 Ibid

40

Conclusion:
In conclusion, the court decision is decided, unless there is further legal objection, from November 2012, reclaimed water to make manmade snow will commence on the Snowbowl resort. The economic and commercial needs of the few, clearly have overcome the religious, scientific and environmental concerns of the many. Along with the reclaimed water, comes substantial redevelopment and environmental redesigning of an area so many indigenous Native Americans consider sacred. The decision to allow wastewater to make snow on top of the Pumice mining damage sustained in the 80s, must really hurt emotionally the patience, spirit and sap the human will for so many Native Americans. The evidence is clear, local tribes are emotionally and psychologically bonded to their land, their belief system and historical heritage, which is based on the Peaks area. There is potentially, a serious future social issue for the City of Flagstaff, if young generations of Native Americans feel alienated from their culture, spirituality, and ceremonial religious practices. It is surely a concern, that the U.S. legal system and todays modern Flagstaff society broadly still lacks the insight to see the centuries of sacredness the Native tribes hold for the San Francisco Peaks. Looking at the historical facts, the damage to Native reverence for their gods and deities was begun in the 1920s when the forest service allowed Ole Solberg permission to build his small ski run. There is no written indication, that local tribes were consulted about the decision or that their religious beliefs and ceremonial practices were considered. The failure to have no national agreed standards for reclaimed wastewater, even after filtration and prior to re-entry into the environment is surely a concern for everyone. Science evaluated data and continued monitoring, is already expressing great concern for the longterm possible adverse effects on so much fauna and flora in exposed areas. Science and Religion have never mixed well, but what is needed here is surely a little faith in science to evaluate the future issues before potentially drastic irreversible changes appear. Another Frank Miriam individual, one could argue is needed in present time to promote and educate better understanding of nature and the possible effects in the area he once worked, before we see the environment change forever.

41

Bibliography
1. A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, His Divine Grace. Bhagavad~Gita, As It Is.
Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Published 1972, 1983

2. Ahmed, Shadab Hussain. MD, FACP, FIDSA, AAHIVS; Chief Editor: Burke A Cunha,
MD. Schistosomiasis, http://reference.medscape.com/http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/228392overview (Accessed 12 April 2012)

3. Archibold, C. Randal. Commerce and Religion Collide on a Mountainside. The New


York Times, Pg 16 Published Sunday 23rd October, 2005.

4. Benally, Klee. Direct Action to Protect Holy Peaks Continues. Published August 14
2011. http://www.indigenousaction.org/direct-action-to-protect-holy-peaks-continues/. (Accessed November 20th 2011)

5. Benally, Klee. The Snowbowl Effect, Documentary. Indigenous Action Media.


Produced 2005.

6. Bial, Raymond. The Long Walk: The Story of Navajo Captivity. Published by
Benchmark Books New York. 2002

7. Boggs, Kyle. No Really....What is in the Wastewater. Published Tuesday, October


6th, 2009. http://www.undertheconcrete.org/2009/10/06/no-reallywhat-is-in-the-

wastewater/. (Accessed February 5th 2011)

8. Boggs, Kyle. Our Water Systems, Our Future: Inconvenient Truths Revealed in
Snowbowl Talks. Published Sunday, December 5th, 2010.

http://www.undertheconcrete.org/2010/12/05/our-water-systems-our-futureinconvenient-truths-revealed-in-snowbowl-talks/ (Accessed February 5th 2011)

9. Boggs, Kyle. Storm Clouds Darken Over the San Francisco Peaks as the City
Debates Water, part 1. Published Saturday, August 28th, 2010.

http://www.undertheconcrete.org/2010/08/28/storm-clouds-darken-over-the-sanfrancisco-peaks-as-the-city-debates-water/. (Accessed February 5th 2011) 42

10. Boggs, Kyle. Storm Clouds Darken Over the San Francisco Peaks as the City
Debates Water, part 2. Published Monday, August 30th, 2010.

http://www.undertheconcrete.org/2010/09/24/storm-clouds-darken-over-the-sanfrancisco-peaks-part-2/ (Accessed February 5th 2011)

11. Boughner, Gavin. Echoes of the Peaks. Cloud Chaser Film Works. Produced by
Jane Jackson. Flagstaff Arizona. 2010

12. Carvajal, C. Scott and Young, S. Robert. Culturally Based Substance Abuse
Treatment for American Indians/Alaska Natives and Latinos. University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. N. D.

13. Chapman, Neil. Snowbowl Update-Water Monitoring, Water Quality Monitoring


Needs at Hart Prairie, The Nature Conservancy. N.D.

14. Chartier, Karen and Caetano, Raul. Ethnicity and Health Disparities in Alcohol
Research. The University of Texas. 2010.

15. Claudeen, Arthur. Between Sacred Mountains: Navajo Stories and Lessons from the
Land. Tuscon, AZ: Sun Tracks and the University Of Arizona Press, 1984.

16. Cole, Cyndy and Ferguson, Joe. No Drinking Water for Snowbowl. Arizona Daily Sun
Newspaper. September 3rd 2010. http://azdailysun.com/news/local/no-drinking-waterfor-snowbowl/article_7258e58b-f071-5c41-bcd6-d3b777e92f3a.htm November 18th 2010) (Accessed

17. Connolly, Billy, with Uhlig, Robert. Route 66, The Big Yin on the Ultimate American
Road Trip. Sphere Publishers Great Britain. 2011.

18. Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species. Complete and Unabridged Edition. Simon &
Schuster Paperback edition. November 2009.

19. Day, S. Jonathan. Traditional HOPI Kachinas, A New Generation of Carvers.


Northland Publishing. 2000.

20. Decker, Don. What is City afraid of? Letters to the Editor. Arizona Daily Sun
Newspaper. Published November 19th, 2006. Accessed in Northern Arizona

43

Universitys Archive Centre. http://azdailysun.com/news/opinion/mailbag/what-is-cityafraid-of/article_26c0ee5e-3cea-53d3-86ea-930612f36819.html (Accessed October 8th 2010)

21. Embassy Suites Flagstaff, The Arizona Snowbowl~Flagstaffs playground for all
seasons!, http://embassysuites.hilton.com/en/es/hotels/hotelpromo.jhtml;jsessionid=Y4ICL2LG M3JFICSGBJBNMQQ?ctyhocn=FLGESES&promo=outdoors. (Accessed 12 April 2012)

22. Fisher, Jessa and Hogan, Phyllis. The Plant Ambassador, Arizona Ethno Botanical
Research Association Pamphlet. Published 2008.

23. Fixico, Donald. Daily Life of, Native Americans in the Twentieth Century. Greenwood
Press, London. Published 2006.

24. Friederici, Peter. Facing the Yuck Factor. Published September 17, 2007.
http://www.hcn.org/issues/354/17227 (Accessed February 15th 2011)

25. Friese, Bettina and Grube, Joel. Differences in Drinking Behaviour and Access to
Alcohol between Native American and White Adolescents. Prevention Research Centre, Berkeley, California. Published Baywood Co, 2008.

26. Friese, Bettina and Grube, Joel. Drinking Behaviour and Sources of Alcohol:
Differences between Native American and White Youths. Prevention Research Centre, Berkeley, California. Published Baywood Co, 1995.

27. Ghioto, Gary. Digging deep to reclaim aquifer. Arizona Daily Sun newspaper.
Published Saturday June 14th 2003. Accessed in Northern Arizona Universitys Archive Centre.

28. Gremillion, Paul, Ph.D., P.E. written for Portable Engineering Solutions. Capstone
Design Capstone CENE 486c - Spring 2006 Portable Water Treatment System Final. April, 25th 2006.

44

http://www.cefns.nau.edu/Research/D4P/EGR486/EnvE/05Projects/PortableTreatme nt/Final%20Paper.pdf. (Accessed December 3rd 2011)

29. Hart Creek, Nature Trail Guide. The Nature Conservancy, Saving the Last Great
Places on Earth. 2004. www.nature.org (Accessed 12 April 2012)

30. Hart-Davis, Adam. History the Definitive Visual Guide, From the Dawn of Civilization
to the Present Day. First Published in Great Britain in 2007 by Dorling Kindersley Limited.

31. Harvard University, the Pluralism Project at. Research Report, San Francisco Peaks
AZ, (Navajo, Hopi, White Mountain Apache). 2006. http://pluralism.org/reports/view/56 (Accessed 03/11/2011).

32. Heavy Runner-Rioux, R. Aislinn, Hollist, R. Dusten. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance


Abuse, Community, Family and Peer Influences on alcohol, Marijuana, and Illicit Drug Use Among a sample of Native American Youth : Analysis of Predictive Factors. The University of Montana Missoula. Published December 2010.

33. Hereford, Richard, Scientist Emeritus U.S. Geological Survey Flagstaff. Climate
History of Flagstaff, Arizona - 1950 to 2007. Floods, Droughts, and Long-Term Warming. Published 2007. http://www.mpcer.nau.edu/files/flagstaff_climate_history.pdf. (Accessed December 21st 2011)

34. Holy Bible, The. King James Version. Collins Publishers. N.D. 35. Holzkopf, Whitedove Mays. A Thesis. Alcohol Abuse and Cultural Involvement
Among Native Americans. Published by Northern Arizona University. 2004.

36. Ishii, C. Lomayumtewa. Ph D. Notes for Snowbowl Meeting. Northern Arizona


University. 2005.

37. Ishii, C. Lomayumtewa. Ph D. The San Francisco Peaks: A Matter of Perspectives


and Truths. Northern Arizona University. N.D.

45

38. Kizer, Kay. Puritans, http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/puritans.html (Accessed 12


April 2012)

39. Klauk, Erin. Impacts


Hydrology of

of Resource Development on Native American Lands, the Navajo Nation.

http://serc.carleton.edu/research_education/nativelands/navajo/hydrology.html N.D.(Accessed April 12th 2012)

40. Klauk, Erin. Part of the DLESE Community Services Project. Physiographic
the Navajo Nation.

of

http://serc.carleton.edu/research_education/nativelands/navajo/physiography.html. N. D. (Accessed April 12th 2012)

41. Leadership

for

Action,

Flagstaff

Forty.

Science

Foundation

Arizona.

http://www.flagstaffforty.org/effort.php?e=sfa N.D. (Accessed April 12th 2012)

42. Luna-Firebaugh, Eileen. Tribal Policing Asserting Sovereignty Seeking Justice. The
University of Arizona Press. Published 2007.

43. Mangum, Richard and Sherry. Flagstaff Past and Present. Northland Publishing.
2003.

44. Movement, American Indian. Trail of Broken Treaties, an Indian Manifesto. Published
October 31, 1972. https://vista.nau.edu/webct/urw/ssinboundCAS/cobaltMainFrame.dowebct. (April 1st 2011)

45. N. A. 479 F. 3d 1024 - Navajo Natio V. USFS.


http://openjurist.org/479/f3d/1024/navajo-nation. Argued and Submitted September 14, 2006. Filed March 12, 2007. (Accessed January 15th 2012)

46. N. A. 708 F. 2d 735 - Wilson v. R Bloc. http://openjurist.org/708/f2d/735/wilson-v-rblock-hopi-indian-tribe Argued October 15th, 1982. Decided May 20th, 1983. (Accessed January 15th 2012)

46

47. N. A. National Register Status of the San Francisco Peaks statement. Accessed from
Northern Arizona University Archives Centre. 2011.

48. N. A. 535 F. 3d 1058 (2008). Navajo Nation v. United States Forest Service. Argued
and Submitted December 11, 2007. Filed August 8, 2008.

http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?q=%22535+F.3d+1058%22&hl=en&as_sdt= 2003&case=11875117975930999049 (Accessed January 15th 2012).

49. N. A. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Cryptosporidium


http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/crypto/ (Accessed 13April 2012)

50. N. A. Explorers and Settlers, Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings


http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/explorers/sitee15.htm (Accessed April 12 2012)

51. N. A. Flagstaff Skiing Snow Making. http://www.south-of-flagstaffarizona.com/flagstaff-skiing-snow-making.html (Accessed March 10th 2012)

52. N. A. UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT. Navajo
Nation v. USFS. Volume 1 of 2, No. 06-15371. Argued and Submitted September 14, 2006San Francisco, California. Filed March 12, 2007.

http://www.shankerlaw.net/Articles/Navajo/20070312_9th_Circuit_Peaks_Decision.pdf (Accessed January 15th 2012)

53. Nerburn, Kent and Mengelkoch, Louise. Native American Wisdom. The Classic
Wisdom Collection New World Library Novato, California. First printing, October 1991 Printed in Canada.

54. Nerburn, Kent. The Wisdom of the Native Americans. Published by New World
Library, 1st edition. 1999.

55. New Testament, The. Recovery Version. Text translated by: The Editorial Section,
Living Stream Ministry. Published by Living Stream Ministry, 1985, 1991.

47

56. Nielson, O. Marianne and Silverman, A. Robert. Criminal Justice in Native America.
Patterns of Native American Crimes. The University of Arizona Press Tucson. Published. 2009.

57. ONeil,

Devon.

Freeskiing.

AZ

snowmaking

debate

rages

on.

http://espn.go.com/action/freeskiing/blog/_/post/5711568/az-snowmakingdebaterages-on. (Accessed March 3rd 2012)

58. Quandrud, David, Ph D, Propper, R. Catherine, Ph D, Wastewater Effluent: Biological


Impacts of Exposure and Treatment Processes to Reduce Risk. Funded by The Nature Conservatory through a grant from the Nina Mason Pulliam Charitable Trust. N.D.

59. Quran, The. Translated with an Introduction by Tarif Khalidi. Penguin Books.
Published UK, USA 2009

60. Schama, Simon. The American Future, a History. Published by The Bodley Head,
2008.

61. Shimer, Porter. Healing Secrets of the Native Americans. Herbs, Remedies and
Practices that Restore the Mind and Rebuild the Spirit. Black Dog & Lenventhal Publishers New York. Published 1999.

62. Snyder, Stephanie. Federal court rejects challenge to Arizona Snowbowls mountain
snow-making-plan. http://cronkitenewsonline.com/2012/02/federal-court-rejectschallenge-to-arizona-snowbowls-plan-for-mountain-snowmaking/ (Accessed 14th February 2012)

63. Tso, L. Katrina. Understanding the Effects Reclaimed Water Use on Plant and Soil
Community Interactions on the San Francisco Peaks, AZ. Northern Arizona University. 2010.

64. Ulfelder, Bill. Letter to Ken Jacobs Snowbowl DEIS Team Leader, 12 April, 2004 65. Vallen, Gary, Hospitality Consultants. Winter Visitor Study 2008-2009; The Flagstaff
Convention and Visitors Bureau Executive Summary. Published 2008-2009.

48

66. Waterfall, H. Patricia. Harvesting Rainwater, For Landscape Use. Extension Agent,
University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension/Low 4 Program. Second Edition, October 2004, Revised 2006.

67. Wilkins, E. David and Stark, Heidi Kiiwetinepinesiik. American Indian Politics and the
American Political System. Third Edition. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Published 2011.

68. Wittig, Stacey. Next Steps for Construction at Arizona Snowbowl. Flagstaff Business
News. Published January 24th 2011. http://www.flagstaffbusinessnews.com/nextsteps-for-construction-at-arizonasnowbowl/ (Accessed February April 2012)

69. Yurth, Cindy. Snowbowl manager slams Sierra Club. Navajo Times. 11th October
2007. Accessed in Northern Arizona Universitys Archive C entre. (No page number available as taken from photocopy).

49

Appendix

A DVD for Peak Issue is included containing 25 personal interviews recorded for this dissertation: These are placed in order of how they appear on the DVD.
70. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 1, Klee Benally, Native American Film Maker
and Activist. 2011

71. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 2 Jeremiah Caughy, Ski Shop Manager.
2011

72. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 3 Abdul Hadi Dashti, Islamic Priest. 2011 73. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 4 Abraham Springer Professor of Geology at
NAU. 2011

74. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 5 Andrew Sarracino Navajo Resident, Works
with Young Native Americans at NAU. 2011

75. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 6 Andy Bessler Field Organizer for the Sierra
Club. 2011

76. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 7 Father Mathew Lowry, Priest Chaplin at
Holy Trinity Catholic Newman Centre. 2011

77. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 8. Dion Benn Native American Resident on
the Reservation of the Navajo Nation. 2011

78. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 9 Edward Smith Forest Ecologist for the
Nature Conservancy. 2011

79. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 10 Peter Friederici Professor of Journalism at


NAU. 2011

80. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 11 Howard Shanker Lawyer for Native
American Tribes in Arizona. 2011

81. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 12 Kyle Boggs Instructor at NAU and also
editor of free newspaper, The Noise. 2011

50

82. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 13 Lomayumtewa C. Ishii Professor of


Political Science at NAU. 2011

83. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 14 Lynda Fleischer Co-Owner of the Bar and
Grill Restaurant, in Flagstaff. 2011

84. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 15 Michael L. Vasquez Professor of


Anthropology at NAU. 2011

85. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 16 Mike Yates Professor of Archaeology at


NAU. 2011

86. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 17 Neil Chapman Manager of the Hart Prairie
Preserve in Arizona. 2011

87. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 18 Marina M Vasquez Professor at NAU in


the Indigenous Studies Department, also a Mayan Elder. 2011

88. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 19 Wendell Duffield Retired Professor at


NAU in the Volcano logy Department. 2011

89. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 20 Mary Denoon Owner of the Thunder
Mountain Traders shop, in Flagstaff. 2011

90. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 21 Rabbi Nina PearlMutter. 2011 91. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 22 Dr Catherine Propper Scientist at NAU.
2011

92. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 23 Helen Lau Running Author, grant writer
consultant and the assistant editor of the Navajo-Hopi Observer newspaper. 2010

93. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 24 Kevin Burke Flagstaff City Manager. 2011 94. Wilson, Richard. Personal Interview No 25 Sean McMahan Manager and Mark
Greenwall Assistant Manager of the Monti Vist Hotel. 2011

51