You are on page 1of 10

AFF Notes for test 3 Skeletal Muscle Actions: -moving bones - attached to bone by tendons.

Tendons cover the whole muscle and tie into the periosteum of the bone. -muscles cross at least one joint -One bone moves the other is stationary -origin: the attachment of the muscle tendon to the stationary bone -insertion: the attachment of the muscle tendon to the moving bone -belly: the area of the muscle between the origin and insertion -action of the muscle is the action of the bone that the muscle moves -muscles cannot push bone. They can only pull -antagonistic muscle groups: move most of our bones ex: bicep + triceps working opposite -fixator muscles: hold the stationary bone in place so that the moving bone can be moved more efficiently ex scapula has many fixator muscles Two types of muscle contractions -isometric: muscle contraction when the muscle does not shorten. Muscle does not generate enough force to overcome opposing force. -isotonic: muscle contraction with muscle shortening. Muscle generates enough force to overcome opposing forces *Most Start as isometric and become isotonic Three types of muscle cell\fibers A) Slow oxidative fibers -small in diameter and not very strong -slow contraction velocity - Large number of capillaries - High concentration of myoglobin (pigment molecule that transports oxygen) -high concentration of mitochondria (ATP production) - High aerobic capability -contract for long periods of time without fatigue -used for posture

B) Fast Oxidative fibers -intermediate in diameter - Bigger and stronger -fast contraction velocity -high number of capillaries -high concentration of myoglobin -high concentration of mitochondria -high aerobic capability -used for distance running and lifting with many repetitions C) Fast glycolytic Fibers -Fat in diameter -Fast contraction velocity -low number of capillaries -low number of myoglobin -low number of mitochondria -used for sprinting -drawback is they fatigue quickly Structures of Muscle fibers Sarcolemma- cell membrane. Can conduct action potentials. Transverse tubules- or T tubules are continuations of the sarcolemma into the muscle fiber. They also can conduct action potentials Sarcoplasmic Reticulum- series of membrane that encloses a space. Has two sac like parts near t tubules called terminal cisternae which are used for storage of Ca ions Mitochondria- constantly producing energy Thick myofilaments -Made up of the protein myosin -Myosin head has a bulb like end that binds with thin filaments and pulls them in during muscle contraction. Thin Myofilaments -Actin is the main protein. It contains binding sites foe the myosin head - Tropomyosin is a thin band like protein. Covers the myosin binding site, allowing the muscle to relax.

-Troponin is connected to the Tropomyosin. It controls the location of the Tropomyosin. Also has a binding site for calcium ions Banding Pattern 3 IMPORTANT BANDS 1. A Band- a dark band produced by the parallel arrangement of the thick filaments 2. I band- light colored bands that lie on both ends of the A band. 3. Z line- dark line down the center of the I band. Made of proteins that holds thin filaments in place Sarcomere- the repeating unit of muscle. Z line to Z line How filaments move together Contraction: shortening of the sarcomeres. The A bands do NOT shorten, they move closer together. The I bands shorten. Thick filaments pull the thin filaments in, causing them to overlap. -In a fully contracted muscle fiber the I band disappears. Cross Bridge Cycle- how thick filaments pull thin filaments in 1. Myosin head is energized- requires energy 2. Myosin head binds at binding site on thin filament forming a cross bridge 3. Energy is released. Myosin head rolls over and pulls the thin filament 4. Energy put it-reenergize the myosin head. Myosin head binds again somewhere else pulling the thin filament in. Acts like an inch worm Troponin and Tropomyosin-determine whether muscles contract or relax 1. Preventing contraction: Tropomyosin covers the binding site 2. Calcium ions bind with troponin causing a shape change in the troponin molecule which pushes Tropomyosin away from the binding site. This allows the muscle to contract. *Presence or absence of calcium ions determines whether the muscle contracts or relaxes Whole process of muscle contraction to relaxation -Produce action potential is motor neuron -AP travels down to axon terminal -causes release of ACH -ACH diffuses across synaptic cleft -Binds with ACH receptor on motor end plate of muscle cell -produces AP in sarcolemma and down into t tubule - T tubule carries AP down into muscle fiber -t tubule passes between the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum

-when AP passes terminal cisternae, Ca2+ ions release from terminal cisternae -Ca2+ ions bind with troponin on the thin filaments -causes shape change in the troponin -pushes tropomyosis away from the actin binding sites of the thin filament -myosin head of thick filament binds with think filament -myosin head pulls forward pulling the thin filament -process continues as long as AP are happening and Ca2+ is released. Relaxing -stop sending Aps through motor neuron -stop release of ACH -AchE is breaking down AchE, removes Ach from synaptic clegt -stops AP in sarcolemma -stop AP in sarcolemma and t tubule -Ca2+ ions actively transported back into the terminal cisternae -removes the Ca2+ from troponin -tropomyosin does back on the actin binding site -no more actin\myosin crossbridge -muscle relaxes Motor Units -the way we control our skeletal muscle -a motor unit is a single motor neuron and the muscle fiber that it controls -motor neuron branches into collateral branches -allows a single motor neuron to control more than one muscle fiber -lots of motor units controlling each muscle -allows for production of graded contractions -graded contractions allow us to control the strength that we use in each of our muscles. Varies strength of muscle contractions as opposed to flinging shit all over the place Energy is Muscle -muscle eventually fatigue because they run out of ATP -Muscles only have enough ATP for a set number of contractions -muscles store carb glycogen-easy to break down into glucose

-when glycogen Is used up it is hard to get ATP -need to get glycogen from liver -muscles contain chemicals called phosphogens -phosphogens contain a PO4 2- group -creatine phosphate a phosphogen -glycogen to produce more ATP -creatine phosphate to add phosphates to ATP Muscle growth and generation -born with all the muscle fibers were going to get -cant replace muscle fibers -muscle fibers can repair themselves -repairs self with connective tissue, little gaps, divet in muscle results -muscle fibers connect with connective tissue so it still works. -growing and lifting weights doesnt add muscle fibers it adds myofilaments -individual muscle fibers get bigger -born with a certain amount of muscle mass Circulatory Systems- 3 groups of animals A) No circulatory system -cnidarians and Platyhelminthes. Nutrients exchange by diffusion. -nematodes have a fluid filled body cavity. Nutrients are absorbed in body cavity and then diffused elsewhere. B)Open circulatory system- arthropods and mollusks have complex tissues and are bigger in size -blood is not always enclosed in vessels - 4 parts: blood, pump, vessels, and hemocoel -hemocoel is an open cavity in the body where tissues are directly bathed in blood. Nutrient exchange occurs here C)Closed Circulatory System-blood is always enclosed in vessels. Nutrients exchanged in capillaries Vertebrate Circulatory System Cardiovascular System: blood, heart, vessels Lymphatic System: lymphatic vessels, lymph, lymph nodes and organs Functions of the Circulatory System 1. Transportation-all molecules necessary for cellular metabolism

a) Respiratory Substances- CO2 from tissues to lungs and O2 from lungs to tissues b)Nutritive substances- food molecules that are digested and absorbed travel to tissues c) Excretory substances-metabolic wastes from energy production 2. Regulation a) metabolism of target tissues by hormones- endocrine glands to blood to target tissues b)body temperature-goes up (dilate vessels near skin to loose heat) goes down(vessels constrict) 3. Protection a)white blood cells protect from infection by pathogen b)clotting mechanism prevents massive blood loss from an injury Components of the Cardiovascular System -Blood is 5.5 liters about 8% of body weight Plasma -liquid portion of blood -mainly water. 91% -ions dissolved in water electrolytes such as Na+ , K+, Ca+ etc. -plasma proteins -other substances: nutrients, wastes, respiratory gases, and hormones Plasma Proteins -Made by our body -each protein has a specific function Albumins-50% of plasma Produced by liver. Function is osmotic pressure. Increases blood volume and pressure Globulins-40% of plasma a) Alpha and Beta are produced by liver. Transport lipids and fat soluble vitamins b)Gamma-immunoglobulins produced by lymphocytes. They are antibodies for the immune response. Fibrinogen-10% function in blood clothing. Produced by liver Cellular formed elements of blood -hematopoeisi produces blood cells. Occurs in marrow -starts with hempoeitic stem cells(general cell that can undergo mitosis) -formed blood cells cant undergo mitosis -stem cells undergo differentiation into all other blood cell types

-There are 3 general groups of blood cells Red blood cells-flattened biconcave disk shaped to increase surface area -transport O2. Lack a nuclelus to free up space for more O2 -contain hemoglobin pigment molecule that binfs with O2 - Hgb contains heme- Fe2+ -O2 transport via covalent bond with Fe2+ -RBC have relatively short lives. 100-120 days -go to liver or spleen for recycling White Blood cells-leukocytes - have nuclei and longer life -different WBCs have different functions Neutrophils- 55-70% of WBCs -phagocytosis(engulf and digest pathogens) Eosinophils 1-4% -produce and release chemicals that reduce inflammation. Also work in killing parasites Basophils - .5-1% -secrete Heparin an anitcoagulant and histamine -stimulates the inflammatory response as part of immunity to kill pathogen Monocytes 2-8% -phagocytosis. Have ability to leave blood and enter other tissues where they become macrophages Lymphocytes 20-30% -immune response long term Platelets -megakaryocytes. Lack a nucleus and have large granules. Used for clotting Heart -component of the CV system -simplest in fish A) Fish heart -four chambers all in a straight line -sinus venosus and atrium are the first two chambers that collect blood

-ventricle and conus arteriosus are the 2 pumping chmabers -heart pumps directly to gill capillaries that travel to tissues Next vertebrates have 2 separate ciculatory units. Heart and lungs -1takes blood to the lungs and 1 takes blood to the tissues -right side of the heat has law O2 blood that delivers blood to the lungs -amphibians have a simple 3 chamber heart. 2 atria and 1 ventricle O2 and deO2 mix in the ventricle Reptiles -3 chamber heart -septum helps funnel blood so there is less mixing of O2 and deO2 blood -Fast moving higher metabolosm reptiles(lizards and snake) tend to have a longer septum Heart physiology-electrical coordination -contraction of the cardiac muscle like contractions of skeletal muscle-deoplarization of all membrane, filaments pull together, and muscle contracts -cardiac muscle cells connected by gap junstions -muscle cell of heart contracts in sequence to push bood through properly -heart contains specialized pacemaker cells -myogenic -contract on their own without being stimulated by nervous system -myogenic cells start heart contractions -heart lacks nerves, contains specialized conducting fibers-specialized cardiac muscle cells that are good at conducting action potentials -electrical coordination of heart goes through -starts in sinoatrail node in top of right atrium,where myogenic pacemaker cells -pacemaker cells start depolarization of atrium -spreads through both atria simultaneously and quickly -causes blth atria to contract at same time -depolarization reaches bottom of right atrium, where the atrioventricular node is -AV node slows down the depolarization because the AV node conducts, Aps slowly -giives ventricles time to fill with blood before they contract -AP spreads into specialized conducting cells interventricular bundle

-moves into interventricular septum and splits into left and right bundle branches-specialized conducting fibers that carry the depolarization up into the walls of the ventricle, causes ventricles to contract from bottom up -squeezes blood up and out through the top of the heart Heart Physiology-mechanical contraction of heart -myocardium is the muscle part of the heat that contains cardiac muscle cells -cardiac muscle cells are bracnhed to help squeeze blood out of the chamber -2 pds of ventricular events-systole and diastole -systole is the contraction phase -diastole is the relaxtion phase -sequence of events that move blood through heart- cardiac cycle - 4stages 1. atria relax and fill with blood from vena cava and pulmonary veins 2. atria contract push blood through AV valve and into ventricles 3. ventricles are filled with blood and contract pushing atiroventricular valve closed, push semilunar valve open and moves blood into pulmonary artery and aorta 4. ventricles relax blood flows back against semilunar valve and pushes them shut Blood vessels -vessels form tubular network to carry blood to all tissues -blood to aorta to arteries to arterioles to arteriole capillaries to venous capillaries to venules to veins to vena cava to heart Arteries -always carry blood away from heart -blood is high in oxygen and low carbon dioxide usually -mutliple layers of elastic connective tissue -thicker and more muscular Veins -always carry blood to the heart -less muscle less elastic connective tissue -usually low in oxygen and high in CO2 -contain valves to prevent backflow with low pressure -veins contain skeletal muscle pumps to help return blood to the heart

-as skeletal muscle contracts blood forced forward toward heart Capillaries -only one cell layer thick allows for easy diffusion -smallest vessel -where materials are exchanged between blood and tissues -tissues are filled with capillaries -RBCs pass through capillaries single file