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4/22/12 Turbine Governing System

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The TGS comprises ofthe following sub systems:
1
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4/22/12 Turbine Governing System
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The TGS comprises ofthe following sub systems:
A. Speed controller
B. Load controller
C.

Pressure controller
D. Control mode selection and Electro hydraulic converter (EHC)
E. Mechanical hydraulic controller (MHC)
F. Servo Motors ofthe control valves.
The first four subsystems form the electro hydraulic controller. Both EHTC and MHC acts on the
valve servo motors through selection criterion which ensures that MHC acts as backup to EHTC.
Similarly selection circuit of EHTC ensures that one of the controllers influence the control
action at a time.

EHTC has the task to control the steam flow through the main control valves and accordingly
the speed, as well as the load of turbine generator for any operating condition i.e. startup,
loading, operation under load, shutdown, and load rejection.
EHTC consists ofthe following basic control loops:
a) Speed Control Loop
b) Load Control Loop
c) Pressure Control Loop
d) Control mode selection & Electro Hydraulic Converter.

The function of speed Control Loop is to control the TG set during start up and during
synchronisation with the distribution system. While the TG set is operating under load the
speed controller serves as an overspeed limit controller.lt keeps the speed increase below the
over speed trip setting. The speed increase generally results from partial or full toad rejection
due to disturbance in grid. The setpoint to the speed controller is time dependent reference
speed (Nr) and the feedback signal is the turbine speed (Nact).

The speed control loop consists of
i) Speed reference setter (SRS)
ii) Speed reference limiter (SRL)
iii) Speed controller
& , " " ! - " #" - " * " . " / / " -
It accepts signal from manual push button in UCB, it can also have the provision of accepting
signal from F.G. control (functional group) during startup in auto mode and from synchroniser
during synchronisation. Manual P.B signal has got first priority. Speed reference signal is an
electronic module with a motorised setpoint setting facility.lts output Nr is proportional to 0 10
volts which corresponds to 0 3600 rpm. Nr is displayed in operators tile When turbine trips
speed reference setter goes to follow up mode i.e., its output follows the actual turbine speed
with a constant negative error. During normal operation when speed control not in active
speed reference follows the actual speed by +15 rpm.
&& , " " ! - " #" - " * " ( &) &/ " -
It determines the acceleration rate. It is basically an integrator. The integration can be stopped
by a binary signal. The upper and lower limit of the acceleration rate can be set by
potentiometers in the electronic module Speed reference signal also gets influenced by the
signal coming from TSE. Influence ofTSE can be switched on or offfrom the EHC cabinet.
When turbine trips SRL goes to fast modes, when TSE fault appears SRL stops integration
(Provided TSE influence was on) stop reference limiter indication comes at the same time
Output of SRL is known as N which is again 0 10 volts signal is also displayed in operators tile
and corresponds to 0 3300 rpm
&&& , " " ! + * / - + ( ( " -
4/22/12 Turbine Governing System
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It is a proportional type of controller which requires a finite deviation (Nrtd Nact) to give an
output signal. In case of faults in the other control loops speed control loop may be used for
load control of TG. But due to proportional characteristics of speed controller Nrtd should
always be kept at a value more than the actual speed in order to keep the control valves open.
For that purpose an adjustment is required which is known as droop. If required N is 3150 rpm
in order to load the TG set fully at an actual speed of 3000 rpm, then droop is
(3150 3000)/3000*100 or 5%.
During startup at different time the TG set may be synchronized at different throttle pressure.
But in order to synchronies at lower throttle pressure the opening of control valve should be
more to get the required speed. So a corrective signal Known as No load correction" is added
to Nrtd as shown in the scheme. Actually n = f (p) [function of throttle pressure] This no load

correction is approximately 100 Bar = 20 rpm. This correction is high if the pressure is lower
and vise versa. Output ofspeed controller goes to selection circuit.

Immediately after the synchronization of the TG set to the grid, the load controller assumes
control ofthe turbine. Its main components are
i) Load reference setter (LRS)
ii) Load reference limiter (LRL)
iii) Load controller
& + ! - " #" - " * " . " / / " -
It is an electronic module with a motorized potentiometer setting arrangement. lt receives
raise or lower command from UCB PB. When the unit is running in CMC, output of LRS follows
the load demand signal from ACS
&& + ! - " #" - " * " ( &) &/ " -
It accepts signal from LRS. lt determines the rate of load change. The load changing rate is set
from UCB PB in turbine operators desk. Allowable load rate change signal from TSE also
influences the LRL. In fact, the minimum of load changing rate set by the operator and that
allowed by TSE determines the actual rate of change. There is one absolute load limit setter in
EHC cabinet. Whatever be the load set by the operator or that allowed by TSE the load cannot
exceed the setting of the absolute load limit setter. Load ref. limiter (LRL) is basically an
integrator with adjustable time ofintegration. In case ofthe following LRL stops integration:
a) TSE influence ON & TSE fault appeared
b) Pressure control active in limit pr. mode & load ref > pr lim by some adjustable setting
(20 MW or so),
c) During auto startup of turbine if "Block speed & load ref integration" signal comes from
FGC. After load reference limiter, two signals are added to the load reference
a) A pressure influence signal Pr p
b) A frequency influence signal Pr f
The magnitude of frequency deviation from rated frequency is a measure of the ratio of load
generated to the load demand. In case of load deficit load frequency will drop. In load control
loop there is an electronic circuit which compares the grid frequency with the rated one and
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4/22/12 Turbine Governing System
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Turbine Governing System
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Upload Date: 05/29/2011
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