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A Study on PAPR Reduction in OFDM Wireless Systems

Chusit Pradabpet Yoshikazu Miyanaga

Faculty of Science and Technology, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Rajabhat University

Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya, 13000, Thailand, Tel: +66-819-944384, Fax: +66-352-45888 E-mail: pchoos@aru.ac.th ; chusit@icn.ist.hokudai.ac.jp

Division of Media & Network Technologies, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-0814, Japan E-mail: miya@ist.hokudai.ac.jp

Abstract
This thesis proposes a new peak to average power ratio(PAPR) reduction technique. This technique employs the hybrid of partial transmit sequence(PTS) and cascade adaptive peak power reduction (CAPPR) methods with coded side information (SI) technique. A proposed reduction method realizes both the advantages of PTS and CAPPR at the same time. In order to obtain the optimum condition on PTS for PAPR reduction, a quite large calculation cost is demanded and thus it is impossible to obtain the optimum PTS in a short time. In the proposed method, by using the pseudo-optimum condition based on a genetic algorithm (GA) coded SI technique, the total calculation cost becomes drastically reduced. In simulation results, the proposed method shows the improvement on PAPR and also reveals the high performance on bit error rate (BER) of an OFDM system.

Keyword : OFDM, PAPR, PTS, CAPPR, Nonlinear HPA 1. Introduction


Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has well known advantages such as robustness against frequency selective fading and narrowband interference, high efficiency on bandwidth, and efficient implementation [1]. Recently, OFDM has been widely used in digital audio broadcasting, digital video broadcasting-terrestrial, mobile multimedia access communication, IEEE802.11a/g/n, IEEE802.16 and IEEE 802.20 [1]-[2]. A major drawback of OFDM is a large PAPR which causes a nonlinear distortion. Owing to a large PAPR, the BER performance of an OFDM system becomes degraded. In this thesis, we propose a new PAPR reduction technique. This technique employs the hybrid of PTS and CAPPR methods with GA coded SI technique. In the proposed method, an input data block is partitioned into the disjoint sub-blocks. Additionally, a codeword which constructs the vector set of phase rotations is prepared by using GA. It is called a coded SI table. The sub-carriers in each sub-block are weighted by phase rotations after the phase rotations are properly selected from a coded SI table. The modified input data are then fed to CAPPR process. Using these two methods at the same time, the high efficiency of PAPR reduction can be obtained and high BER property can simultaneously be realized.

2. The Proposed Method


A. Hybrid of PTS-CAPPR Methods A new PAPR reduction technique employs the hybrid of PTS and CAPPR methods. Figure 1 shows the block diagram of the hybrid of PTS-CAPPR[3] method. The input data with the minimum PAPR are selected after CAPPR is applied to OFDM signals. Since the signals after CAPPR are used for PTS, the minimum PAPR is guaranteed. Note that the proposed method needs SI bits for data recovery in a receiver.

Fig. 1 Block diagram of the hybrid of PTS-CAPPR methods. B. Coded SI Technique Design by GA In hybrid of PTS-CAPPR approach, we have to select the optimum vector from the candidate vectors of phase rotations. The optimum vector can minimize PAPR. If number of sub-block increases, PAPR is getting small. However, the calculation cost of its selection is considerably large. Additionally, the size of SI is drastically increased. It means that the data throughput decreases. We propose a coded SI technique design by GA for the hybrid of PTSCAPPR methods. The total calculation cost and number bit of side information for recovering original data becomes drastically reduced. In Table 1, some comparisons between conventional PTS and the proposed methods using GA coded SI technique are shown. Table 1: The comparison of conventional PTS and the proposed method No. of sub-blocks PTS
(M )

No. of candidate vectors PTS


(W M 1)

No. bit of SI PTS


(log 2 W M 1)

Propose
(M )

Propose
(2 K )

Propose
(K )

4 16 32 64

4 16 32 64

43 415 4 4
31 63 8 8

64 28=256 2 =256 2 =256

6 30 62 126

6 8 8 8

3. Conclusions
This thesis has proposed a new PAPR reduction technique by the hybrid of PTS-CAPPR methods. First, the input data are fed into a new PTS method. In this process, a coded SI technique designed by GA is introduced. The minimum PAPR in PTS is calculated and its corresponding phases are selected after CAPPR is applied. The parameters of the simulation are determined by the standard WLAN IEEE 802.11a. The simulation result shows that the proposed method has better PAPR and BER performance than original OFDM signal and conventional PTS methods. Additionally, the proposed method can usually realize the pseudo-optimum PAPR reduction with low calculation cost and the number bits of SI for send to receiver is less than conventional PTS.

References
[1] R. V. Nee & R. Prasad, OFDM wireless multimedia communications, Artech House, 2000. [2] S. H. Han & J. H. Lee, An overview of peak-to-average power ratio reduction techniques for multicarrier transmission, IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, Vo. 12, No. 2, pp.56-65, Apr. 2005. [3] C. Pradabpet, S. Yoshizawa, Y. Miyanaga & K. Dejhan, New PAPR Reduction in OFDM system using hybrid of PTS-APPR methods with coded side information technique, IEICE Trans. Fundamentals, Vol. E91-A, No. 10, pp. 2973-2979, Oct. 2008.